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Full text of "Proceedings of the standing committee on rail-roads and telegraph lines ; together with the minutes of evidence"



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INE 



VIDENCE, 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE STANDING COMMITTEE 



ON 



RAILROADS AND TELEGRAPH LINES; 



TOGETHER WITH 



THE MINUTES OF EVIDENCE, 



ORDERED BY THE COMMITTEE TO BE PRINTED, Uth JULY, 1831. 




TORONTO : 
LOVELL AND GIBSON, FRONT STREET. 



F507:, 



EVIDENCE TAKEN BY THE COMMITTEE. 

SELATIVE TO THE — 

Proposed Main Trunk Line of Railway. 

ri.es. 
John Young, Esq., V. P. St. Lawrence and Atlantic R. Rd. Co 23 

J. M. Forbes, Esq 28 

Erastus Corning, Esq., of Albany, N. Y 28-55 

T. C Keefer, Esq. Civ. Eng 30 

H- C. Seymour, Esq., State Engineer, State of New York 40 

Hon. Jas. Ferrier, of Montreal 42 , 

Benj. Brewster, Esq., of Montreal 44 

R. W. Harris, Esq., Prest. G. W. R. Rd. Co , 46 

R. G. Benedict, Esq., Civ. Eng g 50-133 

Mr. Jas. Goold, Railroad Car Maker, of Albany, N. Y 57 

Hon. H. H. Killaly, Assist. Com. of Public Works . 58-J30 

John A. Roebling, Esq., Civ. Eng 67 

Relative Merits of Northern and Southern Routes for that portion of the Line 
between Montreal and Kingston. 

Hugh Allan, Esq., of Montreal ............... ■.. 71 

M. McDonnell, Esq., Warden of Lanark and Renfrew 73 

C. J. Forbes, Esq., of Carillon ; 76 

J. M. Ferres, Esq,, of Montreal 78 

Hon. Hamnet Pinhey, Warden of Carleton 79 

Duncan Sinclair, Esq., Prov. Land Surveyor 80 

F. M. Hill, Esq., Mayor of Kingston 83 

J. J. Girouard, Esq., of Montreal 84 

Hon. R. U. Harwood, of Vaudreuil 91 

C. P. Treadwell, Esq., Sheriff of Prescott and Russell 94 

Chas. Sparrow, Esq., Mayor of Bytown 112 

Chauncey Johnson, Esq., Warden of Prescott and Russell 116 

J. McKinnon, Esq., of New Edinburgh 119* 

Robert Bell, Esq., M. P. P 121 



ir?H: 



u. 

Ben]. Holmes, Esq., M. P. P ib. 

T. H. Johnson, Esq , M. P. P 124 

Edward Malloch, Esq., M. P. P. ... 125 

Ontario, Simcoe, and Huron Railroad. 

Geo. Barrow, Esq., Secretary and Director 11 

John Cameron, Esq., Cashier of Commercial Bank ib. 

Hon. H. J. Boulton r President of the Company 12 

H. C. Seymour, Esq., Chief Engineer of do ... ...... 40' 

St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railway. 

John Young, Esq., Vice President - ~ \T 

Great Western Railroad. 

R. W. Harris, Esq., President 21,46- 

R. G. Benedict, Esq., Chief Engineer 23, 50 

Erastus Corning, Esq., of Albany, Director * .. 55< 

H. C, Seymour, Esq., State Engineer to State of New York 61 

St. Lawrence and Lake Champlain Railroad Extension, and Bridging 
River Richelieu. 

John Young, Esq., of Montreal 13$ 

Benj. Brewster, Esq., of Montreal...... ... ..... 137 

Hon. James Ferrier, of Montreal 138 

Win. A. Merry, Esq., Sec. of the Company ... v 139 

Mr. N. B. Proctor, Capt. of Str. "Ethan Allen" 14* 

Chas. Seymour Esq., Sec, of Montreal and Vermont Junction R, Rd. Co. 146 



Hi. 



APPENDIX. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

— :o: — 

No. 1. — By-Law of Municipal Council of Simcoe, of 25th Jan., 1851, 
providing for a subscription of £50,000 Stock in the Ontario. 
Simcoe, and Huron Railroad Union Company. 
No. 2 — Schedule of the several Companies incorporated for the construction 
of Railways in Upper Canada, from the date of the first Act of 
incorporation to the close of the Session of 1850; shewing the 
extent of the privileges granted to each corporation, with the 
proceedings taken thereupon, chronologically arranged. 
No. 3. — Schedule of do. do. in Lower Canada, with a Statement of the gene- 
ral Railroad Acts affecting the whole Province. 
No. 4.— Report of Hon. H H. Killaly, Civ. Eng , relative to the St. Lawrence 

and Atlantic Railroad. 
No. 5. — Report of the Directors of the Great Western Railroad Company, 

for 1851. 
No. 6. — Bill for consolidating in one Act certain provisions usually inserted 
in Acts authorising the making of Railways ( Reported by the 
Committee.) 
No. 7. — Documents referred to in the Evidence of C. P. Treadwell, Esq.: 
A. — A chapter on the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa, — extracted 
from a paper by Wm. F. Coffin, Esq., Joint Sheriff of the 
District of Montreal, entitled, "Three Chapters on a 
Triple Project." 
B. — Letters from C. P. Treadwell, Esq., published in the Mont- 
real Herald of 30th Nov., 1850, with Report of a Survey 
of part of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Grand Junction 
Railway, by Mr. Robert Hamilton, Prov. Land Surveyor. 
C. — Letter published in the Montreal Herald of the 25th Jan'y, 
1851, (signed " Earnest,") pointing out the claims of the 
Northern Line from Montreal to Caledonia Springs. 
D. — Letter from Mr. Duncan Sinclair, Prov. Land Surveyor, on 

the same subject. 
E. — Extract from the Montreal Gazette of the 12th May, 
1851, — containing a letter signed "Ottawa," relative to 
Mr. Gzowski's Report on the comparative merits of the 
Ottawa and St. Lawrence routes, — Report of Mr. Fleming 
on the northerly route, — Letter from Mr. Treadwell, 



IV. 

communicating the same to C. A. Low, Esq. — Statistics 
prepared by Mr. Treadwell of population, valuation of 
property, products, &c, along the proposed line, — and Re- 
marks (from the Bytown Packet) shewing the extent and 
value of the Ottawa Country. 
F. — Extract from the Montreal Gazette of 9th June, 1851, con- 
taining a second communication signed " Ottawa," on the 
subject of Mr. Gzowski's Report, — and a letter from C. 
P. Treadwell, Esq., on the subject of Branch Roads, and 
the gauge to be adopted for the Railroad. 
G. — Copy of the notice inserted in the Canada Gazette and other 
papers, of the application to Parliament in favor of the 
northerly or Ottawa line, with the names of the applicants. 
No. 8. — Returns from various Railroad Companies, — shewing the amount of 
stock subscribed since the passing of the Act authorizing the 
Provincial Guarantee to Railroads, — the names of the stockhold- 
ers, number of instalments paid in, and amount paid thereon. 
A. — Return from Great Western Railroad Company. 
B. — Return from St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad Company. 

Supplementary Return from do. 
C. — Return from Quebec and Richmond Railway Company. 
D. — Return from the Brantford and Buffalo Joint Stock Railroad 
Company. 

E. — Return from the Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad 

Company. 
F. — Return from Ontario, Simcoe, and Eluron Railroad Union 

Company. 
G. — Letter from Secretary of the Montreal and Vermont Junction 

Railroad Company. 



ORDERS OF REFERENCE 



Legislative Assembly, 

Tuesday, 20th May, 1851. 

<l Resolved, That a Select Standing Committee of this House on 
Railroads and Telegraph Lines be appointed for the present Ses- 
sion, which Committee shall be empowered to examine and 
enquire into all such matters and things as may be referred to 
them by the Hou.se, and to report from time to time their observ- 
ations thereon ; with power to send for Persons, Papers and 
Records." 

Monday, 26th May, 1851. 

Ordered, That the said Committee be composed of the fol- 
lowing Members : 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Gen. Macdonald, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Sir Allan N. MacNab, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Sherwood, of Brockville, 

Mr. Smith, of Durham, 

Mr. Tacbe. 

Wednesday, 4th June, 1851. 

Ordered, That that part of the speech of His Excellency the 
Governor General, at the opening of the present Session, which 
relates to Railways be referred to said Committee. 



Thursday, hth June, 1851. 

Ordered, That the Return to an Address from this House to 
His Excellency the Governor General, of yesterday, praying' 
for copies of all correspondence that has taken place between 
the Commissioner of the Board of Works and the Railway 
Companies of this Province. 

Monday, 9th June, 1851. 

Ordered, That the Message of His Excellency, the Governor 
General, delivered to the House this day, relative to the projected 
Railroad between Halifax and Quebec or Montreal, be referred 
to the said Committee. 

Ordered, That Mr. Scott of Bytown, and Mr. Scott of Two 
Mountains, be added to said Committee. 

Thursday, 12th June, 1851. 

Ordered, That the Petition of P. Filiatrault and others, of the 
Parish of Ste, Therese, be referred to the said Committee. 

Monday, 16th June, 1851. 

Ordered, That the Bill to incorporate the Montreal and Kingston 
Railway Company be referred to the said Committee. 

Wednesday, ISth June, 1851. 

Ordered, That the bill to empower the St. Lawrence and Lake 
Champlain Railroad Company, to make a Branch Road to the 
Province line east of the River Richelieu, and to construct a 
Bridge over the said River, be referred to the said Committee. 

Tuesday, 24th June, 1851. 

Ordered, That the following Petitions be referred to the said 
Committee: — Of the Municipality of the Township of Drum- 
mond; — Of the Municipality of the Town of Perth; — Of the 
Municipal Council of the united Townships of Bathurst and 
South Shcrbrooke ; Of J. W. Anderson and others, Municipal 
Councillors of the united Townships of Lanark and Darling ;— 
Of the Municipality of the Township of Burgess. 



Wednesday, 25//i June, 1851. 

Ordered, That the following Bills be referred to the said 
Committee : 

Bill to incorporate the Kingston and Toronto Junction Rail- 
road Company. 

Bill to consolidate such of the provisions of the several Acts 
relative to the Great Western Railroad Company as are now in 
force. 

Bill to revive and continue the Act of Incorporation of the 
Toronto and Lake Huron Railroad Company. 

Friday, 27th June, 1851. 

Ordered, That the Petition of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron 
Railroad Union Company be referred to the said Committee, 

Tuesday, 1st July, 1851. 

Ordered, That the following Petitions be referred to the said 
Committee : — Of Jason C. Pierce and others, of the Counties of 
Rouville and Chambly ; — Of E. B. Franchere and others, of the 
Counties of Rouville and Chambly. 

Wednesday, 2nd July, 1851. 

Ordered, That the following Bills be referred to the said 
Committee : 

Bill to amend the Charter of the Woodstock and Lake Erie 
Railway Company. 

Bill to Incorporate the Lake Superior and Pacific Railroad 
Company. 

Bill to Incorporate the Montreal, Ottawa, andKingston Grand 
Trunk Railroad Company. 

Bill to amend an Act intituled, " An Act for incorporating the 
" Toronto and Goderich Railway Company," and to continue the 
same as amended under the name of " The Toronto and Guelph 
u Western Extension Railway Company." 

Ordered, That the Petition of the Mayor, Aldermen and Coun- 
cilmen of the City of Toronto be referred to the said Committee. 



Thursday, 3rd July, 1851. 

Ordered, That the following Petitions be referred to the said 
Committee : — Of J. G. Bowes, Esq., and others, of the City of To- 
ronto ; — Of William P. Howland and others, of the Townships- of 
York and Etobicoke. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMMITTEE. 



Wednesday, <Z8th May, 1851, 



MEMBERS PRESENT: 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr, Dickson, 

Mr, Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 

Sir Allan N. MacNab, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Sherwood, of Brockville, 

Mr. Smith, of Durham, 

Mr. Tache. 

Read the Order of Reference. 



Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, m the chair. 



On motion of the Hon. Mr. Hincks, seconded by Mr. Ross, 
Ordered, That the Clerk be instructed to prepare a Schedule,, 
exhibiting the names of the several Companies incorporated for 
the construction of Railroads in the Province ; the amount of 
capital ; length of the road contemplated ; time when the charter 
expires by non user ; and any other particulars which may be 
found in the several charters, bearing on the general question of 
Railways. 

Ordered, That the Clerk do cause the Librarian to procure 
from Boston forthwith, a copy of a work published by Messrs. 



Little & Brown, entitled " Railroad Laws and Charters of the 
States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, and Connecticut." 

Adjourned till Friday next, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Friday, 30th May, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT I 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ; 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 
Mr. Cauchon, 
Mr. Dumas, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Mr. Morrison, 
Mr. Ross, 
Mr. Sherwood, 
Mr. Smith, 
Mr. Taciie. 

The Committee deliberated. 

Adjourned till Wednesday, the 4th of June. 



Wednesday, 4th June, 1851. 
members present : 
Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ; 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonaldj 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Tache. 



Mr. Sherwood, seconded by Mr. Ross, moved that it be, — 
Resolved, That the best interests of the Province will be con- 
sulted by the construction of a Grand Trunk Line of Railway, 



9 

from Quebec to Windsor on the River Detroit, and connecting 
with any line to be constructed from Halifax to Quebec. 
Upon which the Committee divided. 

Yeas : Nay : 

Messrs. Badgley, Mr. Cauchon — 1. 

Dickson, 
Dumas, 
Hincks, 

Macdonald, (Sol. Gen.) 
Macdonald, of Kingston, 
Ross, 

Sherwood, 
Tache— 9. 
So it was carried in the affirmative, and Resolved accordingly. 
The Hon. Mr. Hincks, seconded by the Hon. Mr. Mac- 
donald, moved; — That it is expedient to amend the Railway 
Guarantee Act, so as to confine the Provincial guarantee to 
such Main Trunk Line, saving all existing rights. 

Upon which the Committee divided, and the names being 
taken, they were the same as in the last division. 
Adjourned till Eleven o'clock To-morrow. 



Thursday, 5th June, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT I 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman; 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 
Mr. Cauchon, 
Mr. Dickson, 
Mr. Dumas, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Mr. Ross, 
Mr. Sherwood, 
Mr. Smith. 

The Committee deliberated. 

Adjourned till To-morrow, at half-past Eleven o'clock. 



10 

Friday, 6th June, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT I 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ; 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Smith. 

The Committee deliberated. 

Adjourned till Wednesday, the 1 lth instant, at Eleven o'clock. 



Wednesday, I lth June, 1851. 

members present: 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ; 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Smith, 

Mr. Tache. 

On motion of the Hon. Mr. Hincks, seconded by Mr. Cauchon, 
Ordered, That the Secretary and Engineer of " The Ontario, 
Simcoe, and Huron Railroad Union Company/' be ordered to 
attend the Committee on to-morrow, and to bring with him all 
Surveys obtained by the Company, as well as any Contracts into 
which they may have entered. 

On motion of the Hon. Mr. Hincks, seconded by Mr. Cauchon, 
Ordered, That John Cameron, Esquire, Cashier of the Com- 
mercial Bank, M. D., at Toronto, be requested to attend the 



1! 

Committee to-morrow, and to produce any Contracts in his pos- 
session for the construction of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron 
Railroad Union. 

Adjourned till To-morrow, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Thursday, 12th June, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT '. 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman; 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauceion, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Smith. 
George Barrow, Esquire, examined : 

Ques. 1. What situation do you hold in the Ontario, Simcoe 
and Huron Railroad Union Company ? — I am Secretary as well 
as a Director ; and in obedience to the summons from the 
Committee, which I have received, I attend on behalf of 
the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railroad Union Company, 
as Secretary. I am required by the summons to produce 
certain papers ; to these I have not access, in consequence 
of their having been placed for safety in other hands, and 
it will require an order of the Board to obtain posses- 
sion of them. Since I received the summons we have not 
had a quorum of Directors, from which only such order could 
emanate. I have therefore to request, that the Committee will 
extend the time mentioned in the summons, in order to enable 
me to obtain the necessary documents, when I shall be prepared 
to answer any questions the Committee may put to me. 

John Carmron, Esquire, Cashier of the Commercial Bank, 
M. D., in this City, examined : 

Ques. 2. Have you the care or custody of any agreement or 
writings entered into between the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Rail- 



12 

road Union Company, and any Engineer employed to make their 

survey, or with any person as Contractor or Contractors for the con- 
struction of the road or any part thereof, or any other papers to the 
effect above stated ? — I had at one time in my custody a sealed pa- 
per delivered to me by Mr. Berczy, who was, I believe, then Presi- 
dent of the Company, and stated by him to be the agreement for a 
contract entered into between the Directors of the Company and 
the Contractors. I subsequently gave this paper to Mr. H. J. 
Boulton, (I think about three weeks ago) who is now President of 
the Company. He demanded the paper in that capacity ; upon 
my refusing to deliver it to him without a written authority from 
Mr. Berczy, he produced one, and I accordingly gave him the 
paper. I beg further to state that I have no other papers in my 
possession belonging to the Company. 

On motion of Mr. Smith, 

Ordered, That the Clerk be directed to summon the Hon. H. J. 
Boulton to attend the Committee with all Contracts made or en- 
tered into between "The Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railroad 
Union Company," and any further evidence or writings he 
may be able to produce, shewing the operations or proceedings 
of that Company, together with the Stock and other Books of 
the Company. 

Adjourned till To-morrow, at Eleven o'clock. 



Friday, 13th June, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT : 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ; 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Mr. Morrison, 
Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 
Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 
Mr. Smith. 
The Hon. Henry John Boulton, a .Member of the House, ex- 
amined : 



13 

Ques. S. Are you President of the Board of Directors of the 
"Ontario, Simcoe, and Huron Railroad Union Company?" — I am 
— an I id obedience to the order of the Committee of yesterday, 
I produce the Contracts and Stock Hooks of the Company. 

Ques, 4. Has any contract heen entered into for the construc- 
tion of the Road — -arid if so, will you produce the same ? — There 
has heen a contract entered into, which I have produced. (The 
contract was then read by Mr. Boulton.) 

Ques. 5. It appears that the Company have entered into 
a contract with Messrs. Story & Co. for constructing a 
Railroad at $25,000 per mile; and that the said Contractors 
are employed in making the surveys at present, prior to 
the location of the line; are the Committee to understand 
that the contract was entered into before the completion of the 
surveys, and the location of the line? — The contract was entered 
inio before the completion of the surveys contemplated under it, 
but the Company were in possession of an elaborate report of a 
survey made some } r ears ago over the same tract of country, by 
Mr Higham. which I beg now to place in the possession of the 
nittee. (Witness handed in a printed copy of a Report of a 
Survey by R. Higham, Civ. Eng., of the Toronto & Lake Huron 
Railroad; dated 1st Feb., 1837, — which isfyled with the Records 
of the Committee.) 

Ques. 6. Are you enabled to state why it was that the terms 
offered by Messrs. C. Story & Co. were accepted, before it was 
tained which of the several contemplated routes was the 
advantageous, and what would be the probable cost of such 
f — I have answered this in my reply to the foregoing ques- 
tion. 

Ques. 7. Are Messrs. C. Story & Co. at liberty, under their 
tract, to select any line which they may choose? — No. The 
•ction of the route is under the direction of the Company. 

Ques. & [a the survey you refer to, a minute survey of the line 
i onto, touching at Lake Simcoe, and diverging to Lake 



14 

Huron, as required by the Charter. Was that line the one intended 
to be run, and are the other routes surveyed or being surveyed, 
for the purpose of discovering a cheaper route, as mentioned in 
the proposal of the Contractors ? — Yes. 

Ques. 9. Have you any written document to shew that the 
selection of the route rests with the Company ? — I repeat, the 
selection of the route rests with the Company. 

Ques. 10. Do you know how long it will require to make the 
survey of the road ? — I understand all the routes of the survey 
will be completed within ten or twelve days. 

Ques. 1 1 . The contracts having been based on the Report of 
Mr. Higham, Civil Engineer, and that gentleman's estimate hav- 
ing been from $10,372 to $14,971 63 cents per mile, — can you 
explain why the Company, without fresh surveys of their own, 
entered into a contract at $25,000 per mile ? — The only informa- 
tion we possess as to the actual cost of road, equipment, purchase 
of land, and all incidental expenses incident to such-work — Engi- 
neering, and paying Engineers furnished by ourselves, as well as 
by them, were derived from Mr Higham's Report, and our opinion 
of the price of such roads, taken from Official Reports in the 
United States. 

Ques. 12. State, as nearly as you can, the amount received in 
money by the Company, and the amount paid out by the Com- 
pany ? — The stock subscribed by individuals is upwards of 
£13,000, and vve have received 2 \ per cent, upon that amount ; 
— we have also received donations to somewhere about £100. 
The Manager, in and about the incidental expenses of the Com- 
pany, has expended a very considerable sum, besides his time, 
for which the Company have given him their bonds to the 
amount of £l 1,000. 

Ques. 13. What amount has the County of Simcoe subscribed 
—and what amount has the City of Toronto agreed to give the 
Company as a donation? — The County of Simcoe have subscribed 
£50,000, under a by-law; and the City of Toronto have given a 
bonus of £25,000. 



15 

Ques. 14. Has the County of Simcoe issued debentures under 
this by-law? — I believe they have. The debentures have been 
prepared, signed and executed, and, I believe, are ready to be deli- 
vered to the Company whenever they may require them, accord- 
ing to the terms of the contract and of their by-law. 

Ques. 15. Has the payment of instalments on stock, the sub- 
scription of the County of Simcoe, and the donation of the City 
of Toronto, been subscribed and made, upon the faith of the Go- 
vernment guarantee under the Act of last Session? — Most un- 
doubtedly; and I should consider it a great breach of faith if there 
were any interference in that guarantee after foreigners have 
been acting under it in good faith, and have expended a large 
sum of money in preliminary expenses, with a view to the com- 
pletion of their contract. 

Ques. 16. Has the City of Toronto, or the County of Simcoe, 
paid any assessment upon this stock ; and how much ?• — Neither 
the City of Toronto, nor the County of Simcoe, have paid any 
thing upon their subscription ; neither was it intended that they 
should do so until the work was actually in progress, and then 
in such proportions as the by-law of the County of Simcoe (here- 
with produced,) empowered — and the resolutions of the City of 
Toronto indicate. [For By-law, see Appendix No. ] .1 

Ques. 17. Have you any objection to leave the contract or 
contracts of the Company with Messrs. Story & Co., and the 
Reports and Estimates of Mr. Higham, with the Committee, or 
copies of the same ? 

[On this Question being put, an objection was made, and the 
Committee divided thereon : 

Shall the Question be put ? 

Yeas : Nay : 

Messrs. Dumas, Mr. Morrison,— -1 

Hincks, 
Ross, 

Scott (Bytown,) 
Scott (Two Mountains,) 
Smith, 
Tache, — 7. 



16 

The objection being overruled, the Question was put accord- 

Ans. I should have no objection to leave with the Committee 
copies of the contract with Messrs. Story & Co., if I could be 
assured that they would not be published ; but the Contractors 
have an interest in them as well as the Company, and without 
their consent I could not sanction their being made public. 

Ques. 18 At what rate had Wood & Co. agreed to construct 
the road? — At the same rate. 

Ques. 19. Ts the contract agreed on between the Company and 
Contractors final, and are the Contractors to profit by any sav- 
ing that it will be possible to make out of the $25,000 per mile; 
and to what amount are the Contractors Shareholders in the 
stock; and what is the amount of the whole stock? — The 
contract is final, so far as its general terms go, but it is evident 
upon reading it, that when the work is about to be executed, 
proper specifications must be prepared of all the particulars, as 
is done in other similar cases. The Contractors will be entitled 
to the full amount of $25,000 per mile, whatever may be the 
route adopted by the Board, after the surveys have been com- 
pleted ; and the Contractors have taken $600,000 of the stock 
in part payment, the whole amount being £500,000 or $2,000,000 
for the whole route. 

Adjourned till Eleven o'clock on Monday next. 



Monday, IQth June, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT '. 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ; 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains 

Mr. Tachk. 



17 

On motion of the Hon. Mr. Badglej, seconded by Hon. Mr. 

Ordered, That John Young, Esquire, of the City of Montreal 
Vice President of the Saint Lawience and Atlantic Railroad 
Company, be ordered to attend the Committee on to-morrow, (at 
the hourof Eleven of the clock A. M.) for examination respecting 
said Railroad ; and to bring with him all surveys and. documents 
in connection with the road, which he may have in his possession. 

Adjourned till to-morrow, at eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Tuesday, 17 th June, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT: 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ; 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr, Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Smith, 

Mr. Tach&. 

The Clerk laid before the Committee, Schedules shewing the 
various Railroad Charters in Upper and Lower Canada, prepared 
by him agreeably to ordqr of Committee of 28th of May . [For 
Schedules see Appendix Nos. 2 # 3.] 

John Young, Esquire, called in, and examined: 

Ques. 20. Are you Vice-President of the Saint Lawrence and 
Atlantic Railroad Company ?— Yes. 

Ques. 21. Has any contract been entered into by the Company 
for the construction of their road; and if so, will you produce 
the same? — There has been a contract entered into; a copy of 
which I beg to hand in to the Committee. (Witness handed in 
copy of a contract between Black, Wood <fe Co. and the St. 



19 

Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad Company, dated 30th Novem* 
ber, 1849 ; which is fyled with the papers of the Committee.) 

Ques. 22. Have yott since made any change in the conditions 
of payment to the contractors; and if so, will you state the 
nature of such change ? — Our contract with Black, Wood & Co, 
was ior £G,550 per mile. The Railroad Company kept the 
power in their own hands, of the engineering department, and 
Black, Wood & Co., in their contract, at so much per mile, w'ere 
obliged to deliver such a road, and of such grades, as the Com- 
pany's Engineer might dictate. The work from St. Hyacinthe to 
the Province line, was divided into three sections, and was obliged 
to be finished at certain periods ; but in consequence of the failure 
of Black, Wood &, Co. to finish the section from St. Hyacinthe 
to Melbourne, in the time stipulated, that portion of the work 
was taken out of their hands, and is now being carried on by the 
Company, at the expense of the contractors. By the contract, 
one-fourth of the payment was in stock of the Company, at par, 
and by a new arrangement the Company redeemed their stock 
at fifty per cent, discount, which reduces the cost of the road 
about £1000 per mile. 

Ques. 23. Will you state the amount of stock subscribed by 
the Company, and the amount paid in 2 — The actual amount of 
stock paid in is upwards of £230,000 ; the amount subscribed 
was nearly double that sum. 

Ques. 24. Can you state the amount of stock forfeited ? — There 
was about £100,000 forfeited, of which about £17,000 was paid 
in, and carried to the credit of the Company. 

Ques. 25. You have stated that the amount of stock paid up 
is- about £230,000 from private Stockholders ; what other avail- 
able means have the Company obtained for the construction of 
the road ? — Independent of private subscription, the City of Mont- 
real subscribed for £125,000 of stock. The British American 
Land Company loaned to the Railroad Company £25,000, and 
the Seminary of St. Sulpice loaned an additional £25,000 ; which 
two latter sums, amounting to £50,000, were secured as a 



19 

second charge on the road, the Provincial guarantee (when ob- 
tained) being the first charge. 

Ques. 26. What is the actual amount expended on the Port- 
land Road up to this time?— The total expenditure on the road, 
as taken by me from the books on the 1st June instant, was 
£451,359 14s. 6d. 

Ques. 27. What is the amount of the present liabilities of 
the Company? — Beyond an indorsation for £12,500 for iron 
delivered by contractors, the Company have no outstanding, 
notes, and the contractors are regularly paid the amount of their 
monthly estimates, copies of which are herewith submitted. We 
are bound to the Commercial Bank by a bond for upwards ot 
£45,000, obtained to carry on the work beyond half the distance 
to the Province Line, which amount, and any further sum 
necessary, will be paid out of the proceeds of the first sale of 
the bonds of the Government, to which the Company will 
become entitled when their engines and cars are ready to pass 
over one half of the road. 

Ques. 28. What portion of the road has been completed, 
and how much of it is in actual use ? — The road is now regu- 
larly run to St. Hyacinthe, a distance of thirty miles. The cars 
passed last fall over a further distance of twelve miles, but 
owing to the settling of the road in the spring, it has not been 
passed over since ; the road from Longueuil to St. Hyacinthe Is 
not yet fully ballasted, but the line will be entirely completed to 
St. Hyacinthe by 1st October; and the road is expected to be 
opened to Melbourne by the 1st of August, a distance of 
seventy-two miles. 

Ques. 29. What has the line from Longueuil to St. Hya- 
cinthe cost per mile. — Have you a copy of the contract with 
y 0U — if not, can you state the particulars of the same — if so, 
state them, including the weight of iron used, grade, gauge, 
&c.? — The road from Longueuil to St. Hyacinthe was not con- 
tracted for at a rate per mile, but only that portion from St. 
Hyacinthe to the Province Line. The roal from Longueuil to 



20 

St. Hyacinthe was constructed for three-fourths cash and one- 
fourth stock ; after being located, lenders were publicly adver- 
tised, and after a severe competition, Black, Wood & Co., 
obtained a contract for the whole line to St. Hyacinthe, except the 
bridges. In the books of the Company, only one account for 
the cost of the road (under the head of construction accounts) has 
been kept, and as the early cost of surveys of the whole line, 
and other expenses, were included in the cost of the first part of 
the road, I cannot say what the exact cost of the road per 
mile will be from Longueuil to St. Hyacinthe : the charges for 
land damages on this part of the line far exceed those on any 
other part ; and in addition to this, a large wharf had to be 
constructed at Longueuil ; but including a large station house 
there, and engine shops, water stations, &c, the whole cost 
of the line from Longueuil to St. Hyacinthe, is as near as 
possible, £215,000; this includes the bridge over the River 
Richelieu, which is upwards of nine hundred feet long, and cost 
about £24,000. The weight of iron is sixty-four pounds to the 
yard, and the gauge is five feet six inches, which is the gauge to 
the Province line, and from the Province line to Portland : a road 
of that gauge is now being rapidly extended to Bangor ; there is 
no part of the road of which the grade, when finished, will 
exceed forty-five feet to the mile. 

Ques. 30. What is your opinion as to the present contract 
price for building the road — is it considered a low rate ? — I 
consider this road a cheap one, under the contract. 

(Witness handed in copy of a Report of the Hon. H. H. 

Killaly, Civil Engineer, respecting the St. Lawrence and Atlantic 
Railroad. [For Report see Appendix No. 4.] 

The Committee then adjourned, to meet at the office of the 
Great Western Railroad Company, in the City of Hamilton, on 
Thursday, the 19th instant, at One o'clock, P. M. 



21 

Office of Great Western Railroad Co. 
Directors' Room, 
Hamilton, Thursday, Idlk June, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT '. 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman; 
Mr. Cauchon, 
Mr. Dickson, 
Mr. Dumas, 
lion. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 
Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 
Mr. Smith, 
Mr. Tache. 
Robert W. Harris, Esquire, called in, and examined : 

Ques. 31. Are you President of the Great Western Railroad 
Company? — I am. 

Ques. 32. What is the amount of the Capital Stock of the 
Company, and how much of the same has been subscribed ? — The 
Capital Stock of the Company is £1,500,000, divided into 00,000 
shares, of £25 currency each ; D,723 shares have been subscribed 
for, which amounts to £243,075, viz : 

Private Stock, - - - 2,723 Shares. 

Municipal " 7,000 

And the Municipality of Middlesex have agreed to take 1000 
shares. 

Ques. 33. What amount of stock have the contractors ngreed 
to take ? — in some cases they have agreed to take 25 per cent., 
and in others 33J-. 

Ques. 34. What amount of stock have you reserved for the 
contractors ? — Eight thousand shares. 

Ques. 35. What amount of stock has been reserved for the 



22 

English market ? — Ten thousand shares have been placed with 
the agency in London. 

Ques. 36. What amount of stock has been reserved for the 
American market ? — By agreement, ten thousand shares have been 
taken by Messrs. Forbes of Boston, and Corning of Albany, for 
the American market. 

Ques. 37. Has any contract been entered into by the Company 
for the construction of their road, and if so, will you produce the 
same ? — Contracts have been entered into, which I now exhibit. 

Ques. 38. What portion of the line is under construction ? — The 
whole line is under contract, and that part of the road from 
Hamilton to London is now' being constructed. 

Ques. 39. What amount of stock has been paid in, distinguish- 
ing the Municipal from private subsci iptions ? — On 7,000 shares 
taken by Municipalities, £43,725 has been paid in in bonds. On 
2,723 private shares, there has been paid in £22,852 lis. 8d. 
There has also been paid £12,157 19s. 8d. upon shares which 
are now forfeited, and placed to the credit of the Company. I beg 
leave to hand in a Report of the Company, (See Appendix No. 5.) 
The Company have disposed of £25,200 of these bonds, which 
have netted in cash £21,653 10s. The balance on hand on the 
2nd January was about £5,000 in cash, and the remainder in 
bonds. The arrangement made by the Company with the Banks, 
was a deposit of bonds to an amount beyond the cash placed to 
the credit of the Company on account of the bonds. J have 
reason to believe that the stock will all be taken up in England 
and the United States : we have the assurance of practical 
men to that effect. The Engineer was Mr. Stewart, formerly 
Chief Engineer of the State of New York, and now Chief Engi- 
neer of the United States Navy and Dock Yard,— assisted by 
Mr. Benedict. 

Ques. 40. Do you think the contractors will take 8,000 shares 
of the stock? — I do. We tried to induce the contractors of one 
division to allow us to pay money or stock, at our option, which 
they refused to do. 



23 

It G. Benedict, Esquire, Chief Engineer of the Great Western 
Railroad, called in and examined : 

Ques. 41. What is the average price per mile of the road 
completed, including every thing? — Nearly $22,000, or £5,400 
per mile. The superstructure of the bridge over the Grand 
River cost $13,500, the masonry $21,500, — making the whole cost 
&35,000. The grade line of the bridge is 50 feet above the 
surface of the water! 

The Committee then adjourned, to meet again at the Commit- 
tee Room, Legislative Assembly, Toronto, on Monday, the 23d 
inst, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Committee Room, Legislative Assembly, 

Monday, 23rd June, 1851. 

MEMRERS PRESENT : 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman; 
Mr. Cauchon, 
Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald. 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains. 
Adjourned, for want of a quorum, until to-morrow, at Eleven 
o'clock. 



Tuesday, 24th June, 1851. 
members present : 
Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman; 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 
Mr. Dickson, 
Mr. Dumas, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 
Mr. Smith. 

John Young, Esquire, Vice President of the St. Lawrence and 
Atlantic Railroad Company, again called in, and examined : 



24 

Ques. 42. What is the estimated difference of expense in 
construction between the wide, the medium, and the narrow 
gauge ? — Before commencing the Portland road, the question of 
cost between the narrow and broad gauge engaged the 
attention of the Directors, and they found that neither in the 
roadway, engines, or cars, did the cost of a road of five feet 
six inches, exceed that of four feet eight and a half inches. 

Qu?s. 43. Would you state to the Committee your opinion on 
the subject of a main Trunk Line of Railway through the 
Province ; the proper gauge to be adopted ; the probable cost of 
the same ; what portion of the line should be first commenced ; 
and any other observation that may occur to you ? — The geo- 
graphical position of Canada renders a main Trunk Line of Rail- 
way from the Western to the Eastern portion of the Province, 
absolutely necessary. The trade of Canada with the United 
States, especially of the Eastern Canadian Ocean Ports with the 
West, is rapidly increasing ; and travelling between these points 
is at present through the territory of the United States, when 
shorter and better grades for roads can be found in Canada. The 
distance from Detroit to Boston, via Montreal is shorter than by 
any road yet built through the United States, while the grades 
are superior to any possible parallel line in that country. While, 
therefore, a grand Trunk Line through Canada will secure a large 
portion of the travel between the Eastern and Western portions 
of the United States, a rapid and easy means of communication 
will be secured to the people of Canada, from one point to an- 
other, and by the extension of the line through New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia, mails or passengers from England can be 
placed in Toronto from Halifax, in less time than in New York. 
To secure the greatest advantages from the construction of this 
main Trunk Line, I am very strongly of opinion that there should 
be an uniform gauge, and that gauge should be 5 feet inches. 
On the advantages of this gauge, I would refer the Committee to 
a Joint Report of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad Com- 
pany (of Canada), and the Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad 
Company (of the United States), to the Governor General, in 
1848, before any road- way was finished. The views expressed 



25 

in the Report were sustained, and the gauge of 5 feet 6 inches 
established. The length of the road from the St. Lawrence to 
the Atlantic, will be about 250 miles, and with branches towards 
Bangor, the whole length of road from the St. Lawrence now in 
process of construction is about 430, of which 197 miles will be 
fit for running on the 1st of August next. It is evident therefore 
that this gauge, established by the consent of the Canadian 
Government, will necessitate I he use of the same for the roads 
which will soon be extended from Maine towards New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia on the Atlantic frontier. And it is also the 
gauge recommended by Major Robinson, for the Quebec and 
Halifax Railway. The most valuable portion of the Canada 
Trunk Line is that from Sandwich to Hamilton, as this portion 
will be the common line from the Eastward through Canada, as : 
well as from the State of New York, via Queenston. A large 
portion of the stock of this road will be held by American citi- 
zens, who are eligible bylaw to be Directors of the road, and it is 
not improbable that American interest may desire to controul this 
link, which shortens the distance from New York to Detroit 126 
miles. To accomplish this more effectually, an effort will probably 
be made to have the gauge the same as that on the road from Alba- 
ny, say 4 feet 8 J inches, the effect of which would be to make the 
road from Albany to Sandwich the main line, and the line 
towards Toronto, Kingston, Montreal and Quebec merely a 
branch, subjecting those who were desirous of going through 
Canada to a shifting of cars, luggage &c, while no such change 
would be necessary on the main line. Believing that the route 
through Canada will be found the best for travellers to the East, 
if there is an uniform gauge from Sandwich, and that a break in 
the gauge at Hamilton would be advantageous to American, and 
disadvantageous to Canadian interest, and believing also that 
engines, cars, &c, can be constructed on a gauge of 5 feet 6 
inches, to insure a greater economy in transport of freight and 
passengers, than a gauge of 4 feet 8j inches, I am altogether 
in favour of a uniform gauge, from one end of the Province to the 
other, of 5 feet 6 inches. The cost of land will vary according 
to its situation, but from my experience in Railroads, I see no 
reason why the whole road should cost more than £6,000 cash 



26 

per mile, including lands, equipment, station houses, &c. The 
present plan of finishing one half of a line of road before 
obtaining the Government Guarantee, is objectionable, and in- 
creases its expense, and a plan might be adopted of commencing 
the road at various points, with equal Security to the Govern- 
ment. 

Qtt.es. 44. If the main Trunk Line strikes Toronto, would it 
in your opinion be the most advantageous route to proceed from 
thence direct to Hamilton, or to proceed to a point intersecting 
the Great Western Railroad by a straight line, or as nearly 
straight as possible ? — I have seen the profile of the Great 
Western Road from Hamilton to Sandwich, and find the grades 
exceedingly easy, except the first 10 miles, which shews a steady 
grade of 45 feet to the mile. In going from Toronto to the West 
it will evidently be the object of the engineer to avoid as much 
of this ascent as possible, but no good opinion on the matter can 
be given until the levels are taken from Toronto, when it will be 
seen where is the best point of intersection with the Great 
Western line. 

Ques. 45. What is your opinion as to the best mode of pro- 
ceeding with reference to the Trunk Line through the Province. 
Would you recommend the whole line to be under one, or under 
separate charters ; and how many would you consider advisable , 
if more than one ? — I do not think that there should be more than 
three Corporations between Montreal and Sandwich. It would 
have been better that there should only have been two, but to 
have had only two would have created local jealousies, which 
should be avoided. If, however, the largest, portion of the funds 
are obtained from Government securities. I think the Province 
should have complete contioul over the management of the whole 
line, and I further believe that the assumption by the Province of 
the management of the whole line, would ensure greater economy 
in operating the road, and aObrd equal public convenience. 

Adjourned till to-morrow, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



27 



Wednesday, 25th June, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT I 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ; 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

.Mr. Tach&. 
The Committee deliberated. 
Adjourned until to-morrow, at Eleven o'clock. A, M. 



Thursday, 2Qth June, 1851. 
members present : 
Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman; 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 
Mr. Cauchon, 
Mr. Dickson, 
Mr. Dumas, 
Mr. ^'cott, of Rytown, 
Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 
Mr. Sherwood, 
Mr. Smith. 
Mr. Scott (By town) moved that Messieurs Forbes, Corning, 
Stewart, R. W. Harris and R. G. Benedict be summoned to appear 
befcre the Committee on Monday, the 7th of July next. 
On which the Committee divided,— 

Yeas : ^ a V s • 

Messrs. Dickson, Messrs. Cauchon, 

Scott (Bvtown,) Dumas, 

Sherwood, Scott (Two Mountains,)-3. 

Smith — 4. 
And it was ordered accordingly. 
Adjourned to the call of the Chair. 



23 

Friday, 27lh June, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT I 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman; 

Hon. Mr. Badgley. 
Mr. Dickson, 
Mr. Dimas, 
Mr. Morrison, 
Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 
Mr. ScoiT, of Two Mountains, 
Mr. Sherwood, 
Mr. Smith, 
Mr. Tache. 

R. W. Harris, Esq., President of the Great Western Railroad 
Company, appeared, and handed in the following letter from 
Messrs. Corning and Forbes, in relation to the summons of the 
Committee : 

Hamilton, Z6th June, 1851. 
R. W. Harris, Esq., 

Dear Sir, — Will you present our compliments to Sir Allan N. 
Mac Nab, and our regrets at being unable to visit Toronto at 
this tim3. 

We understand from you that a Committee of Parliament are 
examining witnesses upon the respective advantages of the broad 
and narrow gauges, and you ask our opinion upon the subject. 

We neither of us have any claims to a knowledge of engineer- 
ing, but as business men we must confidently say that we should 
consider it a most unfortunate thing to have the broad gauge 
forced upon your Great Western Railroad. 

We believe that your railroad is destined to be the great tho- 
roughfare for passengers and for valuable merchandise between 
the northern parts of the United States on the Atlantic, and the 
valley of the Mississippi ; and we fully expect to see loaded cars, 
under the Custom House seal, passing through Canada on their 
way to the West ; but other routes are daily coming into use 
whose advantages compare now so favourably with yours (I may 
say ours) that you cannot afford to throw away any of your 
vantage ground. 



29 

You have straight lines and low grades against their shorter 
distances, but to command a preference you absolutely require 
the same gauge with the roads east and west of you on this great 
line, and this has already been decided by all their roads as far 
as Cairo, at the mouth of the Ohio, to our certain knowledge, and 
we believe it has also been fixed at the same gauge by the Com- 
pany now building the road from Cairo to Mobile. 

You know better than we can, how far it would embarrass 
your contracts to be obliged to change front at this late day, but 
of course the increased expenditure would be considerable, while 
the advantages are at best doubtful. 

It is notorious that the best engineers in Europe are decided 
upon this question, while in this country, where the roads and 
their machinery cannot be made so solid and permanent as in 
England, the weight of opinion among engineers is altogether in 
favour of the narrow gauge. 

There are some other reasons which apply exclusively to your 
case : 

It is certain that the New York Railroad Companies, who are 
authorised by law to subscribe to your stock, and who at best 
will require much urging on our part to induce them to do so, 
will positively refuse their aid if you cut them off from the 
western connections they are seeking, by adopting a different 
gauge, and without their help it would be a mere waste of time 
for us to attempt to get any efficient co-operation from the 
States. 

With an enterprise of such intrinsic merit as yours, we should 
hope this would only cause a temporary delay ; but who can say 
how long the present railroad mania may last, or how soon a 
reaction may occur which will prevent all unfinished enterprises 
being completed ? 

We may be too sanguine in the hopes which we now enter- 
tain of securing the comparatively trifling help which you need 
to secure the immediate completion of your magnificent work. 
But if the calamit} r which is now threatening you cannot be 



30 

averted, we should despair of seeing any thing done on our side 
at present. 

Wishing you all success, 

We are, very truly, 

Your friends and servants, 

J. M. FORBES, 
ERASTUS CORNING. 

Ordered, That the Chairman do move in the House, that a 
message be sent to the Honourable the Legislative Council to 
ask leave for the Hon. James Ferrier, (one of their members) to 
attend before the Committee on Monday next. 

Adjourned until Eleven o'clock, A. M., on Monday next. 



Monday, 30th Jun% 1851. 

MEMBERS PRE3EST I 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ; 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Tache. 

T. C. Keefer, Esq., Civil Engineer, called in, and examined : 

Qaes. 46. What is your opinion as an Engineer, of the best 
gauge to be adopted in Canada for a Trunk Line ; and will you 
be good enough to state your reasons for the opinion you enter- 
tain? — I consider the most useful and profitable business of our 
railways will be in the transport of articles destined for a market 
in Eastern New York, and in New England. The gauge of 56^ 
inches would be the best for Canada. 

Adjourned until tomorrow, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 






SI 



(The following letter was subsequently received from Mr, Ree- 
fer, in continuation of his evidence of this day.) 

Montreal, July 10, 185L 

Sir— In my reply to the question of the Standing Committee 
on Railroads, &c, with respect to " the best gauge to be adopted 
in Canada for the Trunk Line/' I gave the preference to one of 
56|- inches, as identical with the gauge of contiguous Railways 
in New York and New England. This preference was expressed 
wholly irrespective of the relative merits of conflicting gauges, — 
because it has been established beyond cavil, that the advantages 
claimed by one gauge over another, even when admitted to their 
fullest extent, do not and cannot compensate for the evils of a 
4i break of gauge." Those who differ with me as to the proper 
Canadian gauge, will probably differ as to the extent of this break 
of gauge. This is a commercial question, and it appears to me 
that the Committee would obtain valuable information by con- 
sulting commercial men as to the probable future course of trade 
upon our Railways ; as this is the real point upon which the 
Canada gauge question should be decided. In expressing my 
conviction that the bulk of our Railway business will be in con- 
nection with the narrow 7 gauges in New York and New England, 
I wish it to be understood that I did not view the gauge as an 
Engineering, but as a Commercial question. 

The second question proposed by the Committee, as to the 
relative economy of the " broad' ; and " narrow" gauge, and 
requesting my reasons for any preference of the one over the 
other, is strictly an engineering one, covering the whole ground 
of the dispute, — and must be answered at length. Jn doing so, I 
think it best to give the Committee a concise account of the 
origin of the gauge question — the opinions of the most eminent 
authorities thereon — with such reflections as have presented 
themselves to me arising out of the difference of the Railway 
system in this country and in England, where the dispute began. 

In England — the cradle of the Railway system — the early 
formed roads had a gauge from 3 feet G inches to four feet. This 
was increased at the collieries to 4 feet G inches, and in the course 
of time was enlarged to 4 feet 8j inches. This was the gauge 
when in 1829 the locomotive was invented; and it must be ad- 



32 

mitted that since that time the locomotive has been made for the 
gauge, and not the gauge for the locomotive. 

Mr. Brunei, in commencing the Great Western Railway, (Eng- 
land,) adopted a gauge of seven feet, for the following reasons : — 

1st. By increasing the width of the gauge, a more powerful 
engine could be constructed, and driving wheels of larger diame- 
ter could be used — and by these means greater speed could be 
attained. 

In reply to this, the celebrated Robert Stephenson maintained 
that the power of the locomotive could be increased by length- 
ening instead of widening it, and that this course would increase 
the steadiness of the machine. He says, "the 4 feet 8 \ inch 
a gauge gives ample space to get the utmost power necessary for 
" working ordinary trains. There is now as great weight put 
'■'upon 6 wheels as ought to be put upon six wheels; — and that 
" will hereafter be the limit of the power, and not the width of 
" the gauge. No difficulty in making a narrow gauge engine 
" take 40 tons at 60 miles the hour, or more Engines may be 
"built upon the wide gauge heavier and more powerful, but then 
"you must make a road to support them. Neither commercially 
"nor mechanically has the broad gauge an}* advantage over the 
"narrow, but rather the contrary." 

The second reason advanced by Mr. Brunei for an increase of 
gauge, was, " the mechanical advantage of increasing the diame- 
"ter of the wheels, without raising the bodies of the carriages." 

To this it was objected, tha* of the total resistance, 22 per 
cent, only was due to friction, and 78 to atmospheric resistance ; 
and that while the friction might be reduced by larger wheels, the 
atmospheric resistance would be increased. Mr. Brunei on this 
point, says: "lam not at present prepared to recommend any 
"particular size of wheels, or even any increase of the present 
"dimensions; — my great object is to render every part capable of 
"improvement." 

The next advantage claimed for the broad gauge was, facili- 
ties for using more powerful engines, — which has been answered 
by the performance of narrow gauge engines both in England 
and America. A narrow gauge engine on the Reading road has 
drawn 1268 tons 84 miles in 8 hours and 3 minutes. But it is 



33 

more practically answered by the fact that the whole power of 
any engine is but rarely called into requisition, as public con- 
venience would not permit them to wait for a full load ; and 
furthermore, experience has shown that other causes than the 
power of the engine limit the weight of the train upon ordinary 
occasions, and therefore it would be imprudent to provide wholly 
for (he extraordinary ones. 

The last advantage claimed for the broad gauge is, "increased 
stability to the carriages, and increased steadiness of motion." 

This is a point which depends upon the condition of the road, 
and experience can only decide whether sufficient steadiness of 
motion can be obtained upon a good narrow gauge road at high 
velocities. The English experiments do not apply to this country, 
as our carriages are much longer, wider and higher, and propor- 
tionally steadier. Considering the inferior character of American 
roads as compared with English, I think the high speed maintained 
on the former is due chiefly to the long carriages. English car- 
riages could not be run upon most American roads at express 
speed of 36 miles an hour. 

The steadiness of a carriage depends upon " the length of the 
rectangle formed by the wheels," and I think the long carriages 
used on the American narrow gauge roads are steadier than the 
short broad gauge English carriages, when both are run upon 
roads of equal condition. 

In reply to the advantages claimed for the broad gauge, certain 
objections were urged against it. 

1st. Greater cost of the road, engines, and carriages. 

The question of cost of road assumed a different shape in 
England from what it would in America, because of the greater 
value of land in the former country ; — the adoption of parapet 
walls to bridges and viaducts, and the comparative frequency of 
tunnels. 

In America the difference in cost would depend chief! y on the 
profile of the ground. When embankments and cuttings are 
considerable, the increase of gaus:e involves increase of cost, — in 
these items, and in the ballast. The additional cost of land and 
sleepers would be trivial, and our system of bridging would 
cause but little difference between the 4 feet 8 inch and 5 



34 

feet 6 inch gauges. In carriages, engines, tenders, workshops 
and stations, there would be an increase of first cost — everything 
being on a larger scale. 

2nd. Greater friction on curves. The amount of friction on 
curves must be in direct proportion to the gauge. The sharper 
the curves, the narrower the gauge should be ; and thus in the 
coal mines we find that the sharp curves of 10 or 12 feet radius 
in the drifts are worked on a gauge of 18 or 20 inches. 

Lastly, it is urged against the broad gauge that it has a greater 
weight in the wheels — presents greater frontage to the resistance 
of the atmosphere — and, from the increased length, there is more 
risk of breaking the axles — none of which objections appear to 
have any great force. 

A Royal Commission appointed in J 845, after hearing the 
evidence upon both sides, and investigating the question with 
great minuteness, sums up as follows : 

" 1st. That as regards the safety, accommodation and conve- 
" nience of the passengers, no decided preference is due to either 
"gauge: — -but that on the broad gauge the motion is generally 
" more easy at high velocities, (the comparison here was between 
•the gauge of 4 feet, 8^ inches, and 7 feet.) 

" 2nd. That in respect of speed, we consider the advantages are 
"with the broad gauge; but we think the public safety would be 
"endangered in employing the greater capabilities of the broad 
"gauge much beyond their present use — except in roads more 
" consolidated, and more substantially and perfectly formed than 
" those of the existing lines. 

" 3rd. That in the commercial case of the transport of goods, we 
"believe the narrow gauge to possess the greater convenience, and 
" to be the more suited to the general traffic of the country. 

"4th. That the broad gauge involves the greater outlay — and 
"that we have not been able to discover, either in the maintenance 
" of way — in the cost of locomotive power — or in the other 
" annual expenses, any adequate reduction to compensate for the 
" additional first cost. 

" Therefore, esteeming the importance of the highest speed or 
" express trains for the accommodation of a comparatively small 
" number of persons, — however desirable that may be to them — 



35 

"is of far less moment than affording increased convenience to the 
"general commercial traffic of the country — we are inclined to 
** consider the narrow gauge as that which should be preferred for 
" general convenience." 

"it should be remarked that at the time this Report was made, 
there were 1901 miles of narrow gauge roads constructed, and 
only 274 miles of broad gauge. 

The Commissioners further say : — 

"We are peculiarly struck by the circumstance that almost all 
"the Continental Railways have been formed upon the 4 feet 8j 
"inch gauge — the greater number having been undertaken after a 
"long experience of both the broad and narrow gauges in this 
" country ; — nor must the fact be lost sight of, that some of these 
" railways have been constructed as well as planned by English 
" Engineers ; and among that number we find Mr. Brunei him- 
" self, the original projector of the broad gauge. Mr. Brunei was 
" also the Engineer of the Merthyr Tydvil and Cardiff Line, 
" which is on the 4 feet 8 J- inch gauge ; and we think that the 
" motives which led to his adoption of the narrow gauge in that 
"instance would equally apply to many English lines''. . ."were 
" it not for the great evils'' of " a break of gauge — varying gra- 
" dients — curves — and traffic might justify some difference in the 
"breadth of gauge. This appears to be the view which Mr. 
" Brunei originally took of the subject ; — for the Great Western 
" Proper is a line of unusual good gradients — on which a large 
"passenger traffic was anticipated — and as it touched but slightly 
" on any mineral district, it embraced all the conveniences and 
" advantages of the broad gauge system, and was completely free 
"from the influence of those defects on which we have com- 
" mented : — but such a breadth of gauge, however suitable and 
" applicable it may have originally been considered to its par- 
" ticular district, — appears wholly inapplicable — or at least very 
" ill suited to the requirements of many of our northern and 
" midland lines." 

This, it should still be remembered, was an opinion between the 
respective gauges of 4 ft. 8§ inches and 7 feet. The Commission- 
ers say, — " We are desirous, however, of guarding ourselves from 
" being supposed to express an opinion that the dimensions of 



36 

"four feet 8| inches is, in all respects, the most suited for the 
* general objects of the country. Some of the Engineers who 
" have been examined by us, have given it as their opinion that 
"five feet would be the best dimension for a railway gauge; 
" others have suggested 5 ft. 3 inches, 5 ft. G inches, and even 6 
" feet ; but none have recommended so great a breadth as 7 feet, 
" except those interested in the broad gauge lines. Again, some 
" Engineers of eminence contend that a gauge of 4 ft. 8^ inches 
" gives ample space for the machinery of the engine and all the 
" railway requirements, — and would recommend no change to be 
" made in the gauge." 

On the carriage of goods, the ''Report of the Gauge Com- 
" missioners " says — " Messrs. Home and Chaplin and Mr. 
"Hayward, who are largely interested, and have had great 
"experience in the carrying trade, have expressed a strong 

* opinion that the smaller waggon is far the more convenient and 
" economical ; the same opinion is still more strongly expressed 
" by those witnesses who have had experience of our mineral 
"districts. These persons state that the smaller waggon can be 
" more easily handled, and can be taken along sharper curves than 
" would be suited to a broader waggon ; that such sharp curves 
" are very common in mineral works and districts ; and that the 
" broken nature of the ground would render curves of greater 
*' radius inconvenient and expensive. 

The gauge in New York and New England, and the Western 
States North of the Ohio, is 4 feet 8 J inches ; in some parts of 
the Middle States it is 4 ft. 10 inches ; and in the Southern states 
it is generally 5 feet. In Maine there are the gauges of 4 ft. 8 J 
and 5 ft. 6 inches upon parallel and competing roads. The New 
York and Erie road is 6 feet, — the widest gauge in America. 
The Emperor of Russia's great road (420 miles in length from 
St. Petersburgh to Moscow) was planned by an American engi- 
neer, and has a gauge of five feet. This engineer died lately, and 
was succeeded by Major Browne, the chief engineer of the New 
York and Erie road. In a letter to me, written a few days before 
his departure for Russia, this gentleman expresses the following 
opinion : 

" If a gauge were to be established, de novo, for the whole 

* country, I would put it at about 5 feet, to 5 feet 3 inches." 



37 

In a work which has been recently published in England by a 
practical engine builder, in speaking of the gauge as settled, he 
expresses the opinion that " the integral number of five feet " 
would be the best gauge 

Having presented the Committee with the action and opinions 
of the best authorities on the Gauge Question, I will venture to 
say that in my judgment the construction of Locomotives has not 
yet reached that degree of perfection which enables us to decide 
what is, absolutely, the best gauge. One thing appears to have 
been elicited, viz., that a different gauge is required to give the 
utmost effect to passenger and freight trains ; and could these be 
separated, no doubt this policy would be adopted. If the object 
be to attain the greatest possible speed, without reference to cost 
of power, road-bed, or maintenance of way, it seems that a wider 
gauge than 4 ft. Sh inches mast admit of a more powerful boiler, 
a higher centre of gravity, and driving wheels of a larger 
diameter, which last will be the measure of the speed. Narrow 
gauge engines can run a mile in a minute on a level road, — perhaps 
more ; and in this country we are not yet able to pay for faster 
riding, or to build the substantial road required for such a pace. 

High speed is costly in every sense; the road must be more 
expensive in the first place; the repairs of both track and rolling 
stock will be more expensive ; and not only does the resistance 
increase rapidly with the speed, but the steam is rammed into 
the cylinders so hurriedly that much power is absolutely wasted. 
This latter evil is diminished by increasing the gauge — (as the 
larger driving wheel gives a longer stroke to the piston) — but 
then the weight on wheels and rail is increased, and it has not 
yet been established how far the former may be enlarged. Mr. 
Brunei quickly abandoned 10 ft. driving wheels, and came down 
to 6^ and 7 feet, which are equalled on many narrow gauge roads. 
The larger the wheels, the more apt are they to " spring," and 
the heavier must their peripheries be, presenting greater dead 
weight and centrifugal force. 

On the other hand, for goods traffic it is probable that a gauge 
less than 4 ft. 8| inches might be most economical ; at all events 
it is wide enough ; and, as there is a probability that the capaci- 
ties of this gauge for passenger traffic will be annually improved. 



38 

a few years more may bring the conviction that for all purposes 
•the narrow gauge is sufficient. It is evident that so soon as 
power, speed, safety, and accommodation are secured, the argu- 
ment will then naturally be in favour of a narrow gauge, as more 
convenient and economical than a broad one. 

The reason given for the adoption of the narrow gauge in the 
United States was, that the locomotives and carriages for the 
first American roads must be had in England, and it would be 
safer and more economical to adhere to the old patterns. Per- 
haps a similar reason led to the general adoption of the narrow 
gauge upon the continent of Europe. Now the great preponder- 
ance of the narrow gauge in both Europe and America, the 
numerous heavy establishments connected therewith, and the 
numerical superiority possessed by it, in engineers and machin- 
ists lead to the belief that greater improvements may be antici- 
pated in connection with this gauge than with any other — which 
improvements will be available more speedily and economically 
to the narrow gauge roads. 

Lastly, looking to the elevated and hilly character of Northern 
Canada, and the probability of many branches extending from 
the Trunk Line, it would seem that the same reasons which in- 
duced the Gauge Commissioners to prefer the narrow gauge for 
merchandise and mineral traffic, would apply with equal force 
to the roads north of the St. Lawrence. 

Popular opinion leans to a broad gauge, because all ex- 
tended notions meet with favour in a growing country, and for 
the same reason that it favours wide Canals ; but the comparison 
does not hold good \ because the same load will be taken, and it 
is merely a question between long narrow trains, or shorter and 
wider ones. To those who prefer reasoning from analogy ro 
investigation, instances may suggest themselves of " too much of 
a good thing ;" streets have been laid out too wide, and roads too 
broad for a light traffic and efficient drainage. Ici England, ex- 
perience seems annually pointing to a lower figure for the mini- 
mum gauge, which stands at present at about five feet ; while 
Stephenson has from the outset maintained the entire sufficiency 
of the narrow gauge. When the prejudice against the American 



39 

long car is removed, the capabilities of that gauge will be more 
highly esteemed in England. 

Whatever may be the evils of a break of gauge to those dis- 
tricts unfortunate enough to possess it, there is no doubt that 
the Railway system owes much to the rivalry of the gauges. 
Mr. Brunei has been the means of bringing out better engines 
and carriages, higher speed, and better roads, than existed before 
this rivalry commenced. 

Although I incline to the opinion that time will vindicate the 
sufficiency of the narrow gauge for such roads, and such a mixed 
traffic as we must provide for, yet if Canada were upon an 
island, and we were called upon to select a gauge, with our pre- 
sent experience, I would, to make assurance doubly sure, choose 
one of five feet ; but neither the advantages nor disadvantages 
pertaining to this difference nor to a much greater one, can weigh 
in my opinion with the question of connections ; for were the 
prevailing gauges of New York and New England five feet six 
inches, or six feet, I would unhesitatingly adopt a similar gauge 
for Canada. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

THOS. C. KEEFER. 
Tiiaddeus Patrick, Esquire, 

Clk. Standing Com. R. R., &c. 
House of Assembly, 
Toronto* 



40 

Tuesday, 1st July, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT : 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Smith, 

Mr. Tache. 

Charles Seymour, Esq., State Engineer to the State of New 
York, called in and examined : 

Ques. 46. Are you employed by the Ontario, Simcoe and Hu- 
ron Railroad Union Company as their Chief Engineer I — I am. 

Ques. 47. What is your opinion, as an engineer, in regard to 
the broad or narrow gauge, and will you be so kind as to give 
the reason of your opinion in point of speed, safety and capacity 
of freight and expense, in construction and running? — I am in 
favour of the broad gauge, and one of six feet rather than a 
narrower one ; but for Canada, I would recommend the Com- 
pany with which I am connected, to adopt the five feet six inch 
gauge. You can attain greater speed with the broad gauge, in 
consequence of the engines having greater power; and, at the 
same speed, have greater safety than with a narrow gauge, and 
greater capacity for carrying freight, simply because you have 
engines of greater power. The cost of construction may be from 
two to three per cent, more than the gauge of four feet eight and 
a half inches, but the cost of running on the wide gauge would be 
less than on the narrow. The cars and engines need not cost 
more on the broad, and on account of there being less oscillation, 
the w r ear and tear is less, 

Ques. 48. Are you paid by the Company, or by the Contract- 
ors ? — I am paid by the Contractors, 



41 

Ques. 49. Will you lay your Surveys and Report before the 
Committee ? — I have not yet finished them, but shall have done 
so in the course of a fortnight, at which time they shall be laid 
before the Committee. 

Two more questions were submitted to Mr. Seymour, to be 
answered at his leisure. 

Adjourned until Thursda} r , at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Thursday, 3rd July, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT : 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman, 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. IIincks, 

Mr. Sol. Gen. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Tach£. 

Resolved, That it is expedient, in the opinion of this Commit- 
tee, that all the provisions of the Act intituled, " An Act to 
" amend and extend the provisions of an Act passed in the twelfth 
" year of Her Majesty's Reign, intituled ' An Act to authorize 
* ' the formation of Joint Stock Companies, for the construction 
" ' of roads, and other works, in Upper Canada,' " which relates to 
Railroads, be repealed, and that the Chairman do present a 
Report to the House to that effect, recommending the introduction 
of a Bill to repeal the above mentioned provisions. 

The question being put upon this Resolution, it was carried 
in the affirmative, nem, con. 



42 

Present. — Messieurs Dickson, Hincks, Sol. Gen. Macdonald, 
Morrison, Ross, Scott (Two Mountains), Sherwood, Smith, and 
Tache. 

Adjourned until to-morrow, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Fnday, 4th July, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT '. 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman. 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Gen. Macdonald, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Smith, 

Mr. Tache. 

The Hon. James Ferrier called in, and examined : 

Ques. 51. Will you state to the Committee your opinion on the 
subject of a Main Trunk line of Railway through the Province ; 
the proper gauge to be adopted ; the probable cost of the same ; 
what portions of the line should be first commenced ; and any 
other observations that may occur to you ? — I am of opinion that 
there ought to be a Main Trunk line of Railroad through the 
Province ; that the construction and working of this line ought to 
be undertaken by the Government, could the same offer be had 
from the British Government as is proposed for the construction 
of the Halifax line, to build the whoie line through to Windsor- 
The money obtained in England would save the now too limited 
capital of this country ; while the road would give such an 
impetus to trade as we cannot now form any conception of, The 



43 

Great Western, Lachine, and Portland Companies, would no 
doubt surrender their rights, the Government paying the money 
they have expended. My opinion is, that the gauge ought to be 
four feet eight and a half inches ; all experience proves the heavy 
loss, delay, and inconvenience of changing freight and passengers 
on cars on a railroad, which must take place if the gauge is not 
uniform. With a uniform gauge, cars from the Michigan Central 
Railroad could cross at Detroit, (on a properly constructed ferry 
boat,) pass down the Main Trunk line, and distribute to collateral 
lines leading off to the principal cities on the Atlantic sea-bord ; 
thus cars loaded at Chicago, crossing at Detroit, and other points 
on the St. Lawrence, (as they do now on the Susquehanna,) 
could deliver passengers and freight at Hamilton, Toronto, 
Kingston, Montreal, Quebec, and Halifax, and the low freight out 
by the St. Lawrence, would give an increased trade from Que- 
bec, Montreal, and our other towns, to the Western States. 
The change required to complete this entire line would be the 
changing of that portion of the Montreal and Portland Road now 
running to the 4 ft. 8j inch gauge ; this would be more than 
compensated by the great economy in working the 4 ft. 8 J inch 
gauge, compared with the wide gauge, and would also give a 
uniform line leading to Boston and New York. No one will 
dispute the advantage of a direct connexion with the roads lead- 
ing to these great Cities, when compared with a small place like 
Portland. Montreal, and the whole country West, .\re deprived 
of the advantage which they ought to have had by a uniform 
line to Boston and New York, and the sooner that the great error 
committed by the Montreal and Portland Railroad Company (in 
adopting the wide gauge) is corrected, the better for the trade of 
the country, as well as for the interests of that Company. I can 
give no positive opinion as to what the probable cost of a Trunk 
Line through the Province would be, never having seen a survey ; 
but, from the general character of the country, and the present 
price of iron, the road could be constructed at present at a very 
reasonable rate. 

Ques. 52. If the main Trunk Line strikes Toronto, which, in your 
opinion, would be the most advantageous route, from thence 



44 

direct to Hamilton, or to a point intersecting the Great Western 
Railroad by a straight line, or as near straight as possible ? — My 
opinion is that the Main Trunk Line should touch at all the prin- 
cipal cities, and that it should lay open the country as i'ar back 
as possible from the Lakes and St. Lawrence, avoiding any ex- 
pensive engineering difficulty. 

Ques. 53. What is your opinion as to ihe best mode of proceed- 
ing with reference to the Trunk Line through the Province. 
Would you recommend the whole line to be under ore, or separ- 
ate Contractors, and how many would you consider advisable if 
more than one ?— My opinion, as already expressed, is, that the 
Main Trunk Line should be constructed by our own Government ; 
but should it be undertaken by separate Companies, I think it 
would be well for them to unite, and offer the building of the 
road to such men as '&A#***y\ They have a most 

extensive organization for the construction of Railroads; they 
built a number of the leading lines in England, the Scottish 
Central, and a number of Roads on the Continent of Europe ; 
they could bring over the whole of their plant, with their officers 
and men, fully understanding their work ; this plan would secure 
more rapid and certain completion of the work, than could be 
accomplished by letting it out in small sections ; the work would 
be more substantially done, as every railroad is in England, and 
such men taking the contract w r ould give confidence in England, 
either for the Government or separate Companies to raise at least 
a portion of the money that would be required. 

Benjamin Brewster, Esquire, of Montreal, called in and exmined : 

Answer to Ques. 51. I do not believe that a Railroad from 
Halifax to Sandwich could possibly pay the current working ex- 
penses; I have no doubt, however, that on certain portions of 
such a line, the receipts would be remunerative, and others per- 
haps would afford a fair profit. I think the receipts on the line 
between Montreal and Toronto would probably cover expenses, 
but this is questionable. From Hamilton to Sandwich the line 
would probably be a good investment, because in addition to the 
the Provincial trade, a large foreign trade may be expected in 



45 

consequence ofits situation on the great line of travel between 
the Eastern and Western States; this prospect would be ren- 
dered still more promising if means were taken, by the construc- 
tion of a lateral line, to bring Buffalo into connection with the 
Canadian Railway. From that portion of the road between 
Montreal and Halifax, I should expect a very small revenue, far 
below the cost of working. I should suppose the road between 
Quebec and Hamilton would cost about £4000 (cash,) per mile 
without equipment; the cost of equipment must depend entirely 
upon the business to be transacte '. As to the parts of the line 
to be first commenced, I should say, that if the road were under- 
taken by Government, the larger the extent of road placed 
under contract at once the better, because this would secure the 
greatest saving of interest; it should be, in that case, under the 
controul of a Government Board. My opinion is, that the best 
gauge for such a road would be one of four feet eight and a half 
inches, and my reasons are these: Experience throughout Eng- 
land and the United States has shewn, that the weight which 
can be carried most economically on one carriage is about ten 
tons ; when that burden is exceeded, the expenses are increased 
disproportionately to the amount of work performed; now the 
space required for the stowage of ten tons, of the most bulky 
goods, is not more than can be conveniently attained in a carriage 
with wheels of the gauge I have mentioned ; that being the case 
it is clear that any increa-e of width must augment expense 
without adding any thing to the ability of the carriage; the axle- 
trees must be longer, and of course must contain more iron, and 
require more labour to fashion them ; but they must also be 
thicker, because it is a well known law in mechanics that all 
bars subject to strains, after the manner of levers, are weaker 
in proportion to their length, or in other words, must be made 
more substantial to resist the strain occasioned by similar 
weights. The difference of the weight on each axle is calcu- 
lated for practical purposes at one and a half cwt. each, which 
makes a difference, on the four axles of each carriage. To sustain 
this augmention of weight in the axles, the wheels must have 
a proportionate increase of strength, which, by the experience on 
roads actually at work, is found to be equal to about eight cwt. 



46 

each carriage. The wheels on narrow gauge roads, being usu- 
ally five cwt. eacn, and the broad gauge nearly six cwt. each, 
the increased weight therefore in the whole carriage would 
amount to ten or twelve cwt., and the motive power must of 
course be augmented to overcome this excess of resistance. The 
rails and their supports must also be made stronger to sustain 
the united increase of strain, arising from the heavier weight 
imposed upon them, and the larger power employed in its trac- 
tion ; this increase of strength again, taking the experience of 
working roads, has been found to require very much heavier 
rails. 

Answer to Questions 52 and 53. From Toronto to Hamilton I 
should select the shortest route which the necessity of engineer- 
ing admits. 

Adjourned till Monday, at eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Monday, 1th July, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT I 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman. 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains. 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Tache. 

R. W. Harris, Esquire, President of the Great Western Rail- 
road Company, again called in, and examined : 

Ques. 54. Would you state to the Committee your opinion on 
the subject of a main Trunk line of Railway through the Pro- 
vince ; the proper gauge to be adopted ; the relative advantages 
and disadvantages of various gauges ; and any other observation 
which may occur to you ? — Since the first introduction of Rail- 



47 

roads for public traffic power, I have availed myself of every 
opportunity to obtain reliable information as to the best and most 
economical methods of constructing and working these great ar- 
teries of commerce, which have accomplished so much for the 
benefit of the countries in which they have hitherto been intro- 
duced. The opportunities to which I refer have been afforded by 
very frequent excursions, during many years, over the principal 
lines in Great Britain and the United States, and the equally fre- 
quent intercourse with men deeply interested in the stocks, and 
in the management of the said lines, in both countries. I think 
the geographical position of Canada, taken in connection with 
the present settlement of the country, and the great importance 
of enabling the extensive producing and trading points or sec- 
tions in Western Canada, &c, to reach the sea-bord by the 
valley of the Saint Lawrence, cheaply and speedily, shows the 
necessity for the construction, at the earliest, possible period, 
of a main or Trunk Line Railroad through the Province, and the 
completion of this work would, in my opinion, confer the greatest 
possible benefits on a much larger number of the inhabitants of Uni- 
ted Canada than could be attained by any other public improvement. 
As regards the gauge for such road, I am strongly in favour of 
the narrow, or, I might say, the standard gauge of the Railway 
world, as most economical, not only in construction, but in being 
worked. It is admitted, I believe, by all, that a locomotive of 
any given power can carry, or drag, no greater weight of cars, 
merchandise, or passengers on a broad than it can on a narrow 
gauge, and it is well ascertained that every additional inch be- 
yond the well established four feet eight and a half inches in 
width, requires a corresponding additional weight in the engine, 
as well as in every car drawn ; it is therefore evident that in 
every train on the route, a large additional motive power would 
be requisite to perform the same amount of business on a broad 
gauge, compared to the narrow, besides the disadvantage of in- 
creased cost of all the running machinery of the line, and the 
greater danger of straining and injuring the said machinery on 
curves. 

Ques. 55. Have the Great Western Railroad Company adopt- 
ed any gauge ; if so, what gauge, and what were the reasons for 



48 

the adoption of the same? — The Great Western Company have, 
so far adopted the narrow gauge, that all their calculations, plans, 
and specifications of bridges, &c, are based on the four feet eight 
and a half inch track. The reasons for adopting this width were : 
First, Its established character ; second, the saving of money in 
the superstructure (tier and rails requiring extra strength for 
broader gauge) ; third, saving of expense in running machinery, 
for all time to come ; and fourth, to form an easy and econo- 
mical junction with the Railroads in Michigan and New York, 
from which the Company expect to receive very large additions 
to the traffic on their road, a considerable portion of which is ex- 
pected to follow a Trunk Line through the Province to Montreal. 
Ques. 56. What do you think would be the effect upon the 
Great Western Railroad, of the adoption by the Government, for 
the main Trunk Line, of the broad gauge of five feet six inches, 
or any other than the ordinary narrow gauge of four feet eight 
and a half inches? — I consider the adoption of a broader gauge 
than four feet eight and a half inches would prove injurious to the 
interests of the Great Western Company, as well as to the main 
Trunk Line as far as Montreal, because 1 feel that every induce- 
ment possible will require to be made, to secure the principal 
part of the travel from Chicago, &c, through Canada, in prefer- 
ence to the various channels now being opened on the south side 
of Lake Erie ; and I feel convinced that any gauge that will not 
admit of the baggage cars of the roads joining the Great Western 
on either side, being carried across it, will deprive Canada of the 
greater part of the said travel. 

Ques. 57. Do you think the same gauge should be adopted 
from Sandwich to Quebec ?— I think a uniform gauge from 
Windsor to Montreal very important, as securing to " through " 
American travel the expedition so much prized at the present 
time ; and if this gauge afforded an easy and economical junction 
at Detroit, I feel confident a very large and remunerative passen- 
ger trade would be established, highly beneficial, in every way, 
to the Province, part of which would diverge at Hamilton, part 
at Toronto, part at Kingston, &c, and still a large portion would 
go as far as Montreal, but no through (American) passenger 
trade of consequence would go beyond the latter point. This 



49 

trade can only be got, however, by amicable and mutually bene- 
ficial arrangements between the Railroad Companies in the United 
States, and the Companies that join them on the Canada side ; I 
do not, therefore, consider it of much consequence whether the 
same cau^e is continued on the south side of the Saint Lawrence 
between Montreal and Quebec, or not, and mare particularly as 
the importance of the City of Montreal would prevent any num- 
ber of passengers, either on business or pleasure, passing the said 
City, without stopping a longer time than could be allowed by a 
junction train. 

Ques. 58. Do you think that the adoption of the broad gauge 
uniformly on the main Trunk Line, would have the effect of di- 
recting the greater part of the Western trade through the Pro- 
vince to the seabord ? — As I have already stated in my preceding 
answers, I think the adoption of a broad gauge would not com- 
mand nearly so many passengers at Detroit or Niagara Falls, as 
the gauge that would prevent change of baggage, and consequent 
detention, and would not therefore benefit the main Trunk Line 
to Montreal so much as the 4 feet 8 J- inch track. I beg to re- 
mark, with respect to my answers, that I cannot lay claim to 
scientific knowledge or personal practical experience on the prin- 
cipal subjects under consideration. 

Adjourned until to-morrow, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Tuesday, Sth July, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT : 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman. 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Smith, 

Mr. TachS. 



50 

R. G. Benedict, Esquire, Civil Engineer, again called in and 
examined. 
Ques. 59. Would you state to the Committee your opinion on 
the subject of a main Trunk Line of Railway through the Pro- 
vince — the proper gauge to be adopted — the relative advantages 
and disadvantages of the various gauges, and any other observa- 
tions which may occur to you ? — There can be but one opinion 
on the subject of a main Trunk Line of Railway through the 
Province of Canada, the importance and value of which to the 
whole community is beginning to be properly appreciated as a 
means of safe and speedy transit for passengers and freight, at 
all seasons of the year. The construction of such a Trunk Line 
will place Canada in an entirely independent position as regards 
a market for her vast products, and will leave little to be wished 
for, in the way of intercommunication, that cannot be easily 
accomplished. As regards the gauge, I consider such an one as 
will draw the largest amount of business upon the line, and ad- 
mit of its being done in the most economical manner, as the 
proper gauge from Sandwich to Montreal. There is no doubt in 
my mind that the ordinary gauge of 4 feet 8j inches will accom- 
plish both, and therefore it is, in my opinion, the proper gauge to 
be used. There are many reasons for this opinion, the most 
important of which I will lay before the Committee, as the ques- 
tion seems to call for them under the head of " relative advan- 
tages and disadvantages." It is the experience of all practical 
Railroad men, both in England and America, that there has never 
been enough allowance made for depreciation of track. With all 
the experience of the present time, it is very difficult to decide 
the life of the iron rail ; sufficient, however, is known to enable 
us to see and know that the machinery now in use is entirely 
too heavy fbr the superstructure of our roads, and upon most of 
the railways in England they are adopting a lighter class of 
locomotives, finding it to their advantage in the cost of trans- 
portation, and more especially in the wear and tear of the iron 
rails and machinery. Rails will allow millions of tons to roll over 
them without being materially injured or worn away ; the great 
cause of their failure is the impact or force of the blow from the 
driving wheels of the locomotives, causing them to fail at the 



51 

ends of the bars ; the lighter the blow the less damage is done to 
the raiL It is not contended, neither is it the fact, that the same 
amount of freight in tons can be carried in the same weight of 
cars, upon the broad gauge, that can be upon the ordinary gauge a 
I had occasion last winter, in making some calculations relative 
to the cost of transporting produce, &c, upon the Great Western 
Railroad, to send to the Central line of Railroads from Albany to 
Buffalo, and to the New York and Erie Railroad, for the weight 
of the cars used by each, and the maximum loads put upon them ; 
and found that the large eight wheel freight cars of the Central 
Line, with the ordinary gauge, weighed eight tons, and that their 
load was eight tons. Upon the Erie Road, with the broad or 
six feet gauge, their freight cars weighed fourteen tons, and their 
load is ten tons. The ordinary or average number of cars in the 
freight trains after the closing of the Erie Canal between Buffa- 
lo and Albany, is twenty ; allowing each car to be loaded, the 
train would be made up of 160 tons weight of cars and 160 tons of 
freight on the ordinary gauge. The same train upon the broad gauge 
of the Erie Road would be made up of 224 tons weight of cars, 
or 16 cars and 160 tons of freight, showing a difference in favour of 
the ordinary gauge of 64 tons in each train, caused by the increased 
weight, strength, and size, necessary to make the cars safe 
on the broad gauge. The same argument holds good with 
passenger and all other trains ; but in order to shew the Com- 
mittee more clearly, I will reduce the tons to dollars and cents, 
the great criterion which must govern in the adoption of a gauge 
for the Trunk Line. Five of the Railroad Companies between 
Albany and Buffalo, reported to the State Engineer and Surveyor 
of New York the actual cost of hauling freight per ton per mile 
upon their lines ; the average of which is two and eighty-five 
hundreth cents. It is to be regretted that the Erie Railroad 
Company failed to make the same return in regard to their line. 
Assuming the 64 tons extra weight of cars to be so much freight 
hauled, it gives one dollar and eighty-two cents per train per 
mile against the broad gauge. The length of the Great Western 
Railroad is 227 miles. With one loaded freight train each way 
per day for 313 days, you have 142,102 miles travelled by freight 
trains, or 100,160 tons of freight per year, (but a trifle more than 



52 

passed over the Michigan Central Railroad in the same time 
for the year ending May 31st, 1851,) at an increased expense of 
£58,625 dollars for hauling useless weight of cars consequent upon 
adopting a broad gauge. It is very easy to continue this calcula- 
tion to Montreal, but a portion of the line will suffice for the 
whole extent, and will test the question. The increased weight 
of cars makes it necessary to have a heavier class of locomotives 
to do the same amount of business, which inevitably leads to addi- 
tional outlay for machinery, fuel, wear and tear of rails, road bed, 
and structures. It is impossible to increase the width of gauge 
without entailing these expenses for all time to come, upon the 
line adopting it, in a greater or less degree, varying with the 
width of the gauge, as the mechanical proportions of the parts 
must be earned out, and the increased cost for the purposes above 
stated is sure to follow. It is found that the enormous weight of 
the engines upon the Erie Railroad, is destroying rapidly all the 
bridges upon their line, and a large force is constantly kept up 
at great expense, whose sole duty it is to inspect and repair 
bridges after the passage of trains of cars, to keep them in a pass- 
able condition ; yet notwithstanding all this extraordinary pre- 
caution, some of their bridges have gone down with trains upon 
them, sacrificing lives and property to a great extent. There 
are other objections that enter practically into the details of 
working a broad gauge road. The increased liability of the axles 
to break in consequence of their additional length — the diffi- 
culty of maintaining a high rate of speed around curves, with 
safety, &c, &c; I trust, however, that enough has been shewn 
to satify any unprejudiced person. 

Ques. 60. Have the Great Western Railroad Company adopted 
any gauge ; if so, what gauge, and what were the reasons for the 
adoption of the same ? — The Great Western Railroad Company 
have adopted the ordinary gauge, in so far that their plans of 
structures, &c, have been made with regard to it, — the reasons 
for which were that it was considered the most economical gauge 
to run, and most effective in every respect ; another reason was r 
that the roads in Michigan and New York, from which they 
expect to derive a large freight and passenger business, and with 



53 

which they wish to make the best possible connexion, were of 
the ordinary gauge ; by making a break in the gauge of New York 
and Michigan, in the centre of a line of Railway 1000 miles in 
length, obstacles would be thrown in the way of travel, both East 
and West, and large numbers of passengers would be driven off 
to the routes on the South shore of Lake Erie, that would other- 
wise naturally find their way through Canada, and down the 
Trunk Line to Montreal and Quebec. 

Ques. 61. What do you think would be the effect, upon the 
Great Western Railroad, of the adoption by the Government of 
the broad gauge of 5 feet 6 inches, or any other than the ordinary 
narrow gauge of 4 ft. 8j inches wide ? — I consider the effect 
upon the Great Western Railroad, of the adoption of a broad 
gauge or any other than the ordinary gauge, will be injurious, for 
the reasons stated above. Every inducement should be held out 
to draw the travel from the Mississippi and West, through Canada 
to Montreal. 

Ques. 62. Do you think the same gauge should be adopted on 
the main Trunk line from Sandwich to Quebec ? — 1 consider it 
very important that the same gauge should be adopted from 
Sandwich to Montreal. A very trifling detention or increased 
rate of charge, will often change the current of travel and freight. 
Baggage should be loaded for Montreal at Windsor, and the 
same baggage-car should run through, thus relieving passengers 
from all care or risk. The same with freight ; cars loaded with 
flour, wheat, or live stock, should run through to Montreal, from 
Detroit or Windsor, without change, in the same manner that 
they now do from Albany to Buffalo. The extra cost of tran- 
shipment, and the liability to damage, would in many instances 
determine the direction of freight at a break in the gauge. As 
that portion of the line East of Montreal has been commenced 
with a broad gauge, and a large amount expended, I do not con- 
sider it so material that the ordinary gauge should go beyond 
that point, yet I have no doubt those Companies would find it to 
their interest to relay their track and change to the ordinary 
gauge. Montreal must always be a place of transhipment, 
therefore, except in an economical point of view, as to the cost 



54 

of the working of the line hereafter, I do not think it material 
whether the gauge breaks there or not. 

Ques. 63. Do you think that the adoption of the broad gauge 
uniformly on the main Trunk Line would have the effect of 
diverting the greater part of the Western trade through the 
Province to the seabord ; and in your opinion, would the chance 
of through travel, in consequrnce of the broad gauge being 
adopted, compensate for the loss of stock and junction with the 
American line of road? — The answers to the preceding questions 
will give the Committee my views in relation to the prospect of 
diverting trade and travel, by adopting a broad gauge. I think 
it will have the contrary effect. 

Adjourned till to-morrow, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Wednesday, 9th July, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT \ 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman? 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dk kson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Tache. 

Ordered, That the Hon. Mr. Badgley be empowered to collate 
all the applications for Railroad Charters now before the Com- 
mittee, and to report a General Railway Bill on Saturday next. 

Adjourned till Saturday, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



55 

Saturday, 12th July, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT: 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman; 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 
Mr. Dumas, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Smith, 

Mr. Tache. 

The Hon. Mr. Badgley informed the Committee that he was 
not fully prepared to report the draft of a Bill agreeably to the 
instruction of the Committee of Wednesday last, but would be 
ready to do so on Monday next. 

Adjourned till Monday next, at Eleven o'clock, A. M. 



Monday, 14th July, 1851. 

members present: 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman ;, 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr Hincks, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Tache. 

Erastus Corning, Esquire, (of Albany), Director in the Great 
Western Railroad Company, examined : 
Arte, to Ques. 59. In my opinion a main Trunk line of railroad 
should be projected as a principle to act upon in starting and 



56 

carrying forward the Railroad system through the Province of 
Canada. The gauge to be adopted should depend upon the cus- 
tomary gauge of roads of the country and States adjacent to the 
Province, which are 4 feet 8 ± inches. The relative advantages 
and disadvantages of various gauges rest solely upon the sta- 
bility of a road bed to sustain the weight of engines and cars, 
and their action when in motion upon the track. Any increase 
of width of gauge over that ordinarily in use (4 feet 8| inches) 
will increase the cost of construction and operation of almost 
every branch of the Railroad service connected therewith. The 
engines and cars must necessarily be increased to a size that 
the ordinary business of the country will not warrant the loading 
of, as often as it is necessary to run trains, thereby multiplying 
expenses and precluding systems of true economy. Even on the 
narrow gauges, so called (4 feet 8 J inches), the weight of 
engines and cars carried to each passenger is one thousand 
pounds, or about six times the ordinary weight of the passenger. 
Not one advantage to a wide gauge can be stated without a 
sacrifice incident to such increase. Connected as the roads 
through the Province must be with the roads through Michigan, 
Central and Northern New York, and New England, where the 
gauge is 4 feet 8J inches, this gauge should be adopted for the 
Main Trunk through the Province. • 

Ans. to Ques. 60. The Great Western Railroad Company 
have not definitively adopted a width of gauge, and if left to the 
Directors residing in the States, the 4 feet 8| inch gauge will be 
adopted. 

A?is. to Ques. 61 and 62. The gauge east of Hamilton should 
be the same as that to be adopted by the Great Western Railroad 
Company. 

Ans. to Ques. 63. An uniform gauge would favour a continuous 
business through the Province without reference to any particu- 
lar width, which should depend upon the general principles 
heretofore alluded to, and in my opinion the adoption of the 
wide gauge would materially interfere with the chances for sub- 
scription from the States. 



57 

Mr. James Goold, Railroad Car Maker, of Albany, N. York, 
examined : 

Ques. 64. Will you state the difference between the cost of 
constructing passenger and freight cars, for the wide and the 
narrow gauge ?— The passenger cars in general use on the 4 ft. 
8J in. gaugJ, and all recently made, are 9 ft. in width outside, 
and 8 it. 2 in. in the clear, inside, allowing an aisle or passage 
way between the seats, of 19 inches, each seat being 3 ft. 1 J in. in 
length inside the frame, and having at the outer end, under each 
window, a recess for the elbow to rest on of 3j in., giving ample 
room for two persons to sit comfortably on each seat. The Erie 
Road only has a 6 foot gauge, and requires the passenger cars to 
be 10 ft. 6 in. wide,— 9 ft. 8 in. in the clear, having an aisle or 
passage way of 21 inches, each seat being 3 ft. 8 in. in the clear, 
giving more room than necessary for two, and not enough for 
three persons ; in which particular, it is believed, the intention oi 
the original projectors of this extra width has signally failed, as it 
is found impracticable to induce more than two persons to occupy 
any one seat. For the usual length of a first class passenger car, 
the difference in the expense of construction between the wide 
and narrow gauge is from 200 to 250 dollars. Not having made 
for freight cars of the wide gauge, I cannot say positively, but 
think the difference about 100 dollars. 

Ques. 65. Will you state the difference of weight between the 
passenger and freight cars of the broad and of the narrow gauge ? 
—Ten per cent., or from 1,000 to 1,200 lbs. difference in weight, 
for passenger cars, and probably a little less for freight cars. 

Ques. 66. Will you state, for the information of the Committee, 
your general views on the difference of expense in the working 
or running of a road on the broad and narrow gauge ? — An in- 
telligent reply to this question can only be given by a practical 
engineer, or an experienced and intelligent superintendent, em- 
bracing, as it does, the economy of the working and running of a 
road, comprehending also the structure of the road itself, the 
weight of rail necessary to sustain locomotives of thirty-seven 
to forty tons, with the additional weight of cars, &c, the different 



53 

workings of a narrow and wide gauge, and many considerations 
with which the builders of cars can hardly be expected to be 
familiar. 

The Hon. Mr. Badghy, reported, pursuant to the instruction 
of the Committee on Wednesday last, the draft of a Bill for con- 
solidating into one Act certain provisions usually inserted in 
Acts authorizing the making of Railways. 

The said Bill was then read by the Committee. [For Draft 
of Bill see Appendix 6.] 

Ordered, That the said Bill, together with the Proceedings of 
the Committee and Minutes of Evidence, be printed in pamphlet 
form. 

The Clerk handed in to the Committee a letter from Hon. H. 
H. Killaly, in reply to query submitted to him on the subject 
of the Gauge. 

Department of Public "Works, 
\1lh July, 1851. 

Sir, — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 1.5 th inst., in which by direction of the " Standing Committee on 
Railroads and Telegraph Lines," you put the following question to me : 

" What is your opinion, as an Engineer, of the best gauge to be 
"adopted in Canada, for a Trunk Line of Railway through the Prov- 
" ince ; and will you be kind enough to accompany your answer to this 
"question, by a statement of your reasons for such opinion." 

I have to apologize to the Committee not only for my not having 
replied to your letter before this, but also for my now answering it 
very concisely. My doing so is rendered necessary from the few mo- 
ments of leisure just now at my disposal, in consequence of my late 
protracted absence from this office, and the necessity I am under of 
leaving again in the morning. 

The question as to the respective superiority of the "narrow" or of 
the " broad" gauge, has for many years engrossed so large a share of 
public attention, so many works have been written on both sides, and 






59 

so much angry feeling on the subject has been exhibited, that for some 
fime back it has been known by the soubriquet of " The War of 
the Gauges," and I am strongly inclined to believe that almost as much 
diversity of opinion at this moment exists as did at the outset. 

Hy the "narrow gauge" may generally be understool the 4 foot 
84 inch gauge ; but the term "broad gauge" as used in England is 
not exactly applicable on this Continent. In the former it is under- 
stood to mean a guage of 7 feet in width, on the latter a guage vary- 
ing from 4 feet 9 inches to 6 feet in breadth. 

For my part, in deciding on a gauge for a main Trunk Line through 
the Province, I would (cceferis paribus) prefer one of 5 feet 6 inches. 
By it, for passenger traffic, I believe increased speed with safety, 
greater comfort and convenience is obtained, and for the transport of 
freight, a better class of car can be adopted, the centre of gravity low- 
ered, the motion of the cars lessened, wear and tear to the machinery, 
and the waste of the rails reduced, and the danger of accidents light- 
ened. With respect to the Locomotives, the increase of their power 
and the better arrangements of their working details, the breadth of 
gauge stated above presents many advantages. The driving wheels 
can be enlarged, the velocity of the pistons and the friction lessened, 
and the working of the engine more free and easy. 

The weight of the cars per passenger, and per ton, need not be 
greater than on the narrow gauge. The more tonnage of net freight 
the engine can draw, the less in proportion will be the cost of running. 

Had I time, I might enumerate very many more advantages, which 
past experience, (as I conceive,) warrants us to attribute to the gauge 
I speak of as " the wide guage." I am, however, ready to admit, that 
among the advocates of the narrow gauge, rank some of the most emi- 
nent engineers, and others, of deservedly high authority, in the ma- 
nagement of railroads ; nor do I deny, that strong arguments are also 
adduced in favour of it ; in fact, although as I have stated, I consider a 
gauge of 5 feet 6 inches preferable to that of 4 feet 8^ inches, yet the 
advantages which I conceive it affords, are not so decidedly great, in 
my opinion, as to warrant our deciding merely on the comparative and 
abstract merits of the gauge, leaving out of consideration other circum- 
stances by which the width of gauge to be adopted, may, with good 
reason be governed. I refer here principally, to the contemplated 
connections with other existing lines, and in this view of the matter, 



60 

some supposed conflicting interests may add to the difficulty in ar- 
riving at a conclusion as to the gauge. 

On the eastern portion of the intended great Provincial Trunk Line, 
a considerable length of road is already nearly completed, on which 
the gauge adopted is 5 feet 6 inches ; while I am aware, that the 
guage desired by those interested in the western portion of this Main 
Trunk is but 4 feet 8J inches, their preference for which, I attribute 
chiefly, to the fact of that being the gauge of most of the lines in the 
State of New York, with which they propose to connect. 

No doubt an uninterrupted line, without "break of gunge" is in al- 
most every case, greatly to be desired ; but in that under consideration, 
(arguing solely in reference to break of gauge,) I do not see that the 
interests of the road and of those concerned in the Eastern division of 
it, would be compromised by a change of grade taking place at the 
city of Montreal. On the other hand, the interests of the Western 
division of the line would not, in my judgment, suffer from the grade 
on it not corresponding with that of the New York roads, with which 
they wish to connect, as, even supposing the guage on all to be uni- 
form, I am convinced a change of cars will always take place at the 
Frontier. Great confusion and expense occurs where the rolling 
property of one Company passes into the road of another, and the 
greater the length of the roads, the greater is this felt to be the case. 
A change of flour takes place at Albany at a cost of about Is. per 
100 barrels. 

The above ideas are very hastily thrown together. I regret much, 
that the two days since my return to my office (during which I re- 
ceived the request of the Committee,) have been so wholly occupied 
with matters of reference for the Legislature, &c, as to have made it 
impossible for me to enter more at length into the subject, and from 
having to leave again in the morning, I will not be able to resume it 
in time for the purpose of the Committee. 

Finally, with respect to the comparative merits of the various 
gauges, (as I have already stated,) so much has been considered, and 
is in point, for years and to the present day, from the ablest and most 
experienced authorities, (to all of which access is easy,) I have no 
hesitation in saying, that I firmly believe the opinions which may be 
given to the Commmittee on the subject, will be found to be altogether 
collated from these authorities, and that no original information on it 



61 

-will be laid before them; and it is to be regretted, that long as the 
question has been before the public, fully as much contrariety of opi- 
nion seems to exist now as there did in the beginning, a practical infer- 
ence from which would appear to be, that from experience, the supe- 
riority of the merits of one grade over the other do not turn out to be 
so striking as to set the question at rest. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

H. H. KILLALY. 

T. Patrick, Esq., 
Clerk of Committee on Railroads, &c. 

Adjourned to the Call of the Chair. 



Tuesday, 22nd July, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT : 

Sir ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB, Chairman : 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

H. C. Seymour, Esquire, State Engineer to the State of New 
York, again examined : 

Ques. 67. What, in your opinion, would be the effect on the 
interests of the Great Western Railway Company, if a different 
gauge should be adopted in Canada, from that of the Michigan 
Central Railroad, and of the Roads in the State of New York? 
— The Great Western, as well as all other roads in Canada, 
should adopt the best gauge for commercial purposes, without 
reference to the gauge of any other road. The only argument 
advanced in favour of uniformity is based upon the supposed 



62 

advantage of exchanging cars. On many lines this is a posi- 
tive evil, and a break of gauge would be judicious if no other 
object was attained by it than the prevention of such exchange. 
During a careful investigation of the gauge question, 1 sought 
for the results of the experience and judgment of the oldest and 
ablest Railroad managers in this country and Europe,and found 
that the plan of exchanging cars was attended with great in- 
convenience, and extra expense, and I am confident that in 
regard to economy and convenience, it will be found better for 
each Company to assume the cost of transhipment than to ex- 
change cars. By transhipment they can save in dead weight, 
by loading cars nearer to their capacity, and thus carry a great- 
er useful load at each movement. They can repair their own 
cars at their own shops. They will avoid the necessity of re- 
pairing the cars of any other Company. The number of cars 
required will be materially reduced, and consequently large 
sums will be saved in cost of outfit and repairs. In the daily 
operations of the road, the employment of the motive power, 
the arrangement of repair shops and forces employed in them, 
the more constant use of cars, and the better system of inspec- 
tion and repairs insured by confining the use of cars to the 
roads of the owners, will all produce regularity, economy, and 
despatch. Transhipment does not necessarily cause delay. 
A proper arrangement would bring a train of freight cars com- 
ing up to a main line to the junction, one or two hours in ad- 
vance of the regular starting time of the cars of the main line. 
That time would be necessary for the inspection of the cars 
and the transhipment from such as should be out of repair. 
One hour is sufficient, with proper conveniences, to tranship 
the freight of any train. Transhipment from car to car can be 
effected with less expense, in less time and with more security 
to the freight than from any other vehicle or from any craft to 
the cars. Transhipments at Buffalo, Albany, and at other 
points, are made to a vast extent, and the fact of transhipment 
does not in any degree diminish the business of any route. I 
therefore think that the Railroad lines reaching from Boston 
and Netv York to the west through Ohio, do not suffer be- 
cause of the break at their junction with the Ohio gauge at 



63 

Buffalo aud Dunkirk. So far no cars from the New England 
roads pass the Hudson River, and it is doubtful whether they 
ever will to any great extent, though no impediment exists, 
and it will be admitted by all that there must be some limit to 
the movement of cars, however far equal gauges may extend ; 
and in my opinion, their movement should be limited to the 
road of the Company that owns them. The exception to this 
rule, if any, will embrace only such roads running in connec- 
tion with others, which together make up a continuous line of 
transit between important points of traffic, as from Buffalo to 
Albany, where the system of interchanging cars is practised. 
Yet that line, in my opinion, could be managed with more 
economy by one Company, and chiefly because in that case the 
machinery would all be kept under the controul of the owners. 
I have been told by the managers, and believe that on the line 
from Albany to Boston, each of the Corporations, to wit : the 
Western, and Boston and Worcester Railroad Companies, 
would save money by transhipping freight rather than exchang- 
ing cars with each other, and the numerous lines connecting 
with them. It is therefore apparent to me that the effect upon 
the interests of the Great Western Railway Company, if a dif- 
ferent gauge should be adopted in Canada from that of the 
Michigan Central Railroad and of the roads in New York, 
would be in all respects advantageous. The engines of every 
Company are now strictly confined to lines owned or stocked 
by them. Passenger cars require a careful inspection after 
two or three hundred miles movement. The value of uniform- 
ity is therefore to be measured by the importance of carrying 
freight to given points in the same car. As a question of eco- 
omy, transhipment at the junction of roads is shown to be de- 
sirable unless business is diverted by it. No danger of this 
is to be apprehended. All experience shows that the de- 
livery of goods in good order is all that owners require, except 
rates and time. These latter are the important elements con- 
trolling trade, and beyond these the carriers may safely adopt 
such modes and plans of transit as will leave them the best 
profits. Cattle and all kinds of live stock can be transhipped 
without difficulty, and in less time and at less cost than any 



64 

dead freight. On long routes it will no doubt be advisable to 
give live stock rests in fields or pens. This would be rendered 
convenient though not necessary by transhipment. Boxes con- 
taining any sort of freight can be cheaply and rapidly transfer- 
red from car to car, no matter what the difference of gauge may 
be. The Great Western Company should therefore adopt the 
best gauge without reference to uniformity with any line in 
Michigan, New York, or elsewhere. 

Ques. 68. The Detroit and Hamilton Road is 220 miles. 
Hamilton to Kingston, - - 220 " 
Kingston to Montreal, - - 200 " 
Montreal to Quebec, - - 180 " 

Quebec to Halifax, - - 600 £C 

1,420 

Would it in your opinion be advantageous to adopt an uniform 
gauge for the 1,420 miles, or would it be better to adopt a 
different gauge for each section of road ? and which, in your 
opinion, is the greatest distance that any one set of cars 
ought to be run, and be pleased to give the reasons of your 
opinion ? — As an exchange of cars would not be rendered 
necessary, but only possible by uniformity of gauge, the gauge 
should be selected without any reference to that question, and I 
see no objection to an universal adoption of a broad gauge of 
uniform width. The general good is promoted by uniformity 
only so far as it secures the best and most economical transit, 
arid we must assume that some stated width is the best. What 
that width is, has never yet been satisfactorily demonstrated : 
we can, however, arrive at a nearly satisfactory conclusion by 
careful examination and observation. The investigation by 
the Gauge Commission in England developed a great amount 
of information, and the opinions of the most eminent engineers 
and managers of roads in that country on this subject, all of 
which I have carefully examined. The fact that a wide gauge 
is better than the narrow one, was abundantly established ; all 
but two or three individuals agreed in this ; many thought that 
7 feet was the best, more were in favour of 6 feet, and 6 feet 2 



G5 

inches A very large number were in favour of 5J feet, and 
5 feet 8 inches, and some advocated 5 feet to 5 feet 3 inches. 
The weight of authority in England seemed to be in favour of 
5 feet G inches to 5 feet 8 inches. The New York and Erie 
Railroad is built with a gauge of 6 feet. An effort was made 
by some of the engineers of that Company to reduce the gauge 
to the 4 feet 8 J- inches after about fifty miles of the road had 
been constructed. A Commission, consisting of Major Brown, 
Horatio Allen, and myself, was instituted by the Company, to 
investigate and report upon the question. I made a minority 
report in favour of continuing the wide gauge, which was 
adopted, and experience upon that Road and the branch Roads 
since built, on all of which a wide gauge has been adopted, 
has fully sustained the grounds upon which the wide gauge 
was advocated, and vindicated the wisdom of their decision. 
So completely successful has been the experiment of the wide 
.gauge of the New York and Erie Railroad, that those who 
opposed it most firmly and pertinaceously, now concede its 
advantages. It cannot, I believe, be shown that any one in 
England or this country, who has had experience on the wide 
gauge, has been left in any doubt as to its superiority. I would 
prefer the 6 feet gauge for Canada, but am not insensible to 
the advantages of a b\ feet gauge over a narrower one, and 
feel compelled to admit that in the selection of the last men- 
tioned gauge, the Government of Canada are supported by 
numerous and most respectable authorities. Those authorities 
still exist with undiminished influence, and rather than incur 
the opposition of those who defer to them, and thus increase 
the hazard of a narrow gauge, I would advocate for the Road 
I am connected with a gauge of h\ feet. The advocates of a 
narrow gauge advance objections to a wide gauge, which I 
have not discussed, because such discussion does not seem 
to me strictly responsive to any of the interrogatories of your 
honourable Committee ; but all of which I venture to assert 
have been refuted by the results of actual experience. Should 
the Committee desire it, I will cheerfully enter, under its 
direction, upon a more full discussion of the whole subject. 
Besides the decreased wear and tear consequent upon the easire 



66 

motions of cars and engines on a wide gauge, the comfort of 
passengers produced by the wider seats permissible in cars 
running on a wide gauge, is an important consideration. The 
plan of cars adopted universally in America requires a greater 
width of gauge than 4 feet 8J inches, in order to give each 
passenger sufficient room. A gauge of 5$ feet will enable 
you to make cars one foot wider than on the narrow gauge. 
This additional width, especially on a long line, will, by the 
greater comfort afforded, attract passengers, and add to the 
profits of the Road. 

William A. Merry, Esq., was called in and examined rela- 
tive to the bridge over the Richelieu, proposed to be erect- 
ed by the Company of Proprietors of the Champlain and 
St. Lawrence Railroad. 

Adjourned to the call of the Chair. 



Tuesday, 29th July, 1851, 

MEMBERS PRESENT Z 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. CauchoNj 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Scott, of By town, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Smith, 

Mr. Tache. 

In the absence of the Chairman, Mr. Smith was called to 
the chair, pro tern. 

The Clerk laid before the Committee the following commu- 
nication, received by him, in relation to the main Trunk Line 
of Railway, and the gauge to be adopted for the same i 



67 
Trenton, New Jersey, July 2\st, 1851. 

Sir —Enclosed I send you some remarks on the Gauge 
question, as requested in your communication of the 15th 
inst., handed to me in the Railroad Room at Toronto. 
I am, respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN A. ROEBLING, 

Civil Engineer. 

Thad. Patrick, Esq., 

Clerk R. R. Committee, 
Toronto. 

The question, which is the best gauge for railways, has 
been so thoroughly examined and fully answered, that nothing 
new can be added. 

The following, however, may be properly considered as 
forming the basis of the whole ground covered by the gauge 
question : 

It being conceded by all parties that the narrowest gauge is 
the most economical, and in that respect, therefore, the best, 
both in regard to the first construction as well as to wear and 
tear of machinery and road, the whole subject is reduced to 
the following enquiries : 

1. What width of track will insure most safety when run- 
ning at high speed ? 

2. What width is required for a proper construction of loco- 
motives and cars ? 

3. What width is needed to render passenger cars comfort- 
able and commodious ? 

The answer to the first enquiry will be found on the side of 
the narrow gauge. The narrow gauge has been found as safe 
as the wide gauge when attempting the highest practicable 
speed, both in this country as well as Europe. Were the 
number of accidents occurring on different lines to be con- 
sidered as indicating degrees of safety, the question might be 



68 

decided in favour of the narrow gauge. Demonstration 
appears to lean in the same direction when curves are con- 
sidered. Trains generally run off on curves, and as these 
can never be altogether avoided, but only reduced at an outlay 
of capital, their effect, as influenced by the gauge, has to be 
principally considered. The wheels of locomotives as well as 
cars, being fixed stationary upon the axles, and occupying 
parallel planes, have a tendency to maintain a straight course 
under all circumstances. When forced, therefore, to move 
around a curve, the outer wheels, rolling over larger space than 
the inner ones, are forced to slide, to make up the difference. 
But this sliding cannot be effected without meeting a great 
resistance, which is equal to the adhesion between rail and 
wheel, resulting from superincumbent pressure. This re- 
sistance is aided by the natural tendency of all moving 
bodies to preserve a straight course, which is the tangent 
of the curve. When, therefore, these forces, tending towards 
a preservation of the straight line, are greater than the resist- 
ance of the flanches acting against the side of the outer rail, 
and perhaps aided by some small obstruction or inequality on 
the track, the consequence will be a run off. Now the strife 
between the inner and outer wheel increases with the 
width of track ; therefore, the narrower the track the greater 
the safety. The conical shape of the tire has been found to 
avail but little, and is nearly abandoned. 

On the other hand the steadiness of cars moving around 
curves is more insured by a wide gauge than by a narrow one. 
This difficulty is partially removed by raising the outer rail 
higher than the inner one, by which means the centrifugal 
force of a moving train is nearly balanced and rendered harm- 
less. Were it not that the wheels of cars are stationary, fixed 
upon the axles, this part of the enquiry would result in favour 
of the wide gauge, on account of its greater steadiness. 
Indeed the propriety of fixing wheels stationary upon axles is 
a very doubtful one, although it has become an universal 
practice. Demonstration, as well as experience, is against it 
wherever it has been fairly tested. The practice of forcing 
two wheels to move and turn simultaneously with an axle 



69 

under all circumstances is wrong, and only proves that 
engineers and machinists do not like to leave a beaten track. 
They should be fitted tight upon the axles, but allowed to turn 
independently whenever resistance is offered. Ordinarily on 
straight lines they should turn with the axle, but in curves they 
should turn independently. A great saving in the wear and tear 
of machinery, as well as greater safety, would be the result. 
Locomotive driving wheels must of course be excepted, but 
the truck or pilot wheels of an engine should by all means be 
constructed with loose wheels, so as to turn curves easy. It 
would be entirely irrelevant to enter upon the details of this 
subject, and to meet the thousand objections which of course 
are ready to be advanced from every quarter. 1 will only add 
here, that in this country this mode of construction is in suc- 
cessful operation on the Carbondale Railroad, and on the roads 
of the Pennsylvania Coal Company, where also some other 
important improvements may be found which greatly reduce 
working expenses. Taking the average of the pros and cons 
in regard to safety at high speed, the narrow gauge will have 
the advantage over the wide one with the wheels fixed ; the 
case, however, stands reversed if the wheels are loose. 

2. What width is required for a proper construction of en- 
gines and cars ? 

No serious inconvenience has ever been experienced in the 
construction of locomotives with outside cylinders and con- 
nections, for the want of room. Inside connections, however, 
require a greater width of track than 4 feet S| inches. But 
as the outside connection plan is the most preferable of the 
two, provided the track is not too wide, and consequently the 
distance between the wheels and crank pins not too great, it 
follows that the plan of constructing American engines favours 
the narrow track. The wider the gauge the greater the dis- 
tance between the two points where the power is applied, and 
as the crank pins stand at right angles, a torsion will be the 
consequence. It is better to meet this force by an increase of 
strength of axle, than to have the axles weakened by cranks. 

Where powerful engines are required on the narrow gauge, 
the outside connection plan, moreover, leaves enough room 



70 

inside for a third cylinder, which would be a great improvement 
in the construction of locomotives. Pistons applying their forces 
at an angle of 120 degrees upon the same shaft, insure a per- 
fectly regular rotary motion, the true plan for locomotive and 
marine engines. 

3. What width is needed to render passenger cars comfort- 
able and commodious ? 

It must be admitted that the usual gauge of 4 feet 8J inches 
does not offer sufficient room inside a passenger car for two 
persons upon one seat. It lacks about six inches ; and I should, 
therefore, prefer a gauge of 5 feet 2J inches, although every 
increase of weight in the rolling stock is a very great objec- 
tion, as it forms a constant source of expense, and, therefore, 
a serious drawback upon the prosperity of a road. I should 
favour a width of 5 feet to 5 feet 3 inches in preference to 4 feet 
8J inches, where the road is isolated and forms an indepen- 
dent line, not connecting with other gauges. 

As regards freight cars, the common gauge affords sufficient 
room for placing cattle and horses across the track in their 
stalls. Where much live stock is transported this should be 
considered. 

The question, What is the best Guage to be adopted for a 
Trunk Line through both Canadas, I am now prepared to 
answer as follows : 

If these lines are to form a great system in themselves, self- 
supporting and independent of others, I should adopt a guage 
of five feet three inches. If its connection with the Portland 
Road, which has a track of five feet six inches is of any great 
importance, I should adopt the latter. The position of the 
Great Western line, however, appears to me a different one. 
This can never be exclusively a Canadian line, it will be more 
an American one, as it will form one of the most important 
links in the great route from Boston to Chicago, the great pa- 
rallel rival of the New York and Erie. To attempt to make it a 
Provincial Line exclusively, would be destroying its future 
prospects, and reducing its support to the local travel and traf- 
fic, which, for a number of years will be insufficient to main- 



71 

tain a good line. Canada West is intermediate ground be- 
tween Michigan and the Great West on one side, and New 
York and the Eastern States on the other. A change of gauge 
at the frontiers would, therefore, be bad policy. A large por- 
tion of produce and live stock raised in Michigan will seek 
this route, and no change of cars should take place. Tran- 
shipment of freight and live stock is expensive, and causes 
delay, and should by all means be avoided on the run from 
Michigan to Albany. If a wider gauge is considered prefera- 
ble for the Lower Canada Line, the track of the Great Western 
should correspond with that of the Niagara, Lockport & 
Rochester line. 

JOHN A. ROEBLING, 

Civil Engineer. 



Hugh Allan, Esq., of Montreal, examined ; 

Ques. 69. — Are you of opinion that the Main Trunk Line 
from Kingston to Montreal would better suit the interests of 
the Province if it were carried to the North, passing through 
the Towns of Perth and Bytown, than along the border of the 
River St. Lawrence ? — I am of opinion that in any line that 
may be constructed between Kingston and Montreal, whether 
direct or circuitous, provision should be made for the opening 
up and accommodation of the Ottawa District, either by the 
line passing round by Bytown and Perth, or if made direct by 
side lines coming into it. 

Ques. 70. — Are you of opinion that the proposed Northern 
route would secure a greater amount of way business than any 
other route that could be laid down ? — I certainly think that 
in as far as way business alone is concerned, the Northern route 
would give the greatest amount of traffic : inasmuch as it would 
open up a large tract of country not possessed of such a perfect 
system of water communication as the road would have to 
contend with, if it ran alongside the St. Lawrence. 

Ques. 71. — Do you think the increased amount of business 
which the Northern line would command over any other line 



72 

that might be laid down would compensate the increased ex- 
penditure that might be involved in its construction ? — It is not 
easy to estimate either the expenditure or business of a Rail- 
road to be run through a new country, but I imagine the dif- 
ference in cost of construction between the Northern and South- 
ern line, or of the branches, would eventually be compensated 
by the increased traffic. 

Ques. 72. — What general benefit would the Province derive 
from opening up the Ottawa line in preference to the other line ? 
— The benefit to be derived from carrying a line through the 
Ottawa country would be to open up large and valuable tracts 
of land for settlement ; to afford speedy and easy access to 
markets for the produce raised by the settlers now there, as well 
as those who would be sure at an early period to take up the 
lands. 

Ques. 73. — Are you of opinion that the Ottawa line is to be 
preferred to the Southern line, in a Military point of view ? — I 
have not much acquaintance with Military matters, but I fancy 
that the same policy which caused the construction of the 
Rideau Canal, would be carried out by making the line in 
question. 

Ques. 74. — Please state any other reasons that suggest them- 
selves to your mind, why the Northern or Ottawa route should 
be adopted ? — As far as through business and the general pas- 
senger trade is concerned, I am of opinion that a direct line 
running parallel with the St. Lawrence, but a few miles back 
in the country, would be preferable ; but so deeply am I im- 
pressed with the necessity of opening up the Ottawa country, 
and of its great capabilities, that I think it essential it should 
be connected with the Main line in some shape. I therefore 
think that a Trunk line through the County of Glengarry, 
(direct,) with the necessary branches or side-lines to connect 
Bytown, Perth, &c, with it, would be most suited to the wants 
of the country. 



73 

M. McDonnell, Esq., Warden of the United Counties of Lanark 
and Renfrew, examined : 

Ans. to Ques. 69. I am decidedly of opinion that the Main 
Trunk Line from Kingston to Montreal will best suit the inter- 
ests of the Province if it be carried through the Towns of 
Bytown and Perth ; because it will open, for purposes of trade, 
manufactures and commerce, the rich tract of country lying 
between the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa, and will conduct 
the products of it and of the west direct to Montreal, neither 
of which would be secured by " a line along the border of the 
St. Lawrence," because the distance at which " a line along 
the border of the St. Lawrence" would be from the interior 
tract beyond the Rideau, would not induce the inhabitants of 
that tract to seek that line for the purpose of conveying their 
produce or manufactures to market, but would be a means 
rather of compelling them to seek the assistance of the capi- 
talists of the neighbouring States, (which, by the way, has 
already been offered,) to construct the shortest and most readily 
to be constructed line to communicate with the Ogdensburg 
line by Prescott, — which t*«, (i. e. the Ogdensburg line) 
would, if the trunk were to be made along the border of the 
St. Lawrence, likewise withdraw a large share of the produce 
of the West from the carrying trade of the Province, which 
cannot be done if the line be made through Perth and By- 
town. Moreover it would not suit the interests of the Province 
to establish a line which would compete with the public 
works already established, and lessen the revenue which other- 
wise must necessarily accrue from them. 

Ans. to Ques. 70. I am persuaded that the northern route 
will certainly secure a far greater amount of way business 
than any other that could be laid down, because it will have 
business from both sides of it, and passing, as it will, through 
a country whose rivers are not likely to be ever made service- 
able for a carrying trade, on account of the numerous chutes 
and rapids on them, there is no probability that an opposing 
line of water conveyance will ever be established to withdraw 
any portion of the trade, which, as I have said above, would 
not be the case along the St. Lawrence, where a long line of 



74 

unbroken water conveyance presents inducements to forward 
thereby, at least equal, if not superior to those which a Rail- 
road would present. Besides, it is a fact which ought not to 
be overlooked, that those obstructions to the navigation of our 
rivers, to which I refer, will, in the event of a Railroad 
being made which would give a way of transporting manu- 
factures to market, become the means of creating business for 
a Railroad, which does not exist, although the material which 
would furnish such a business exists throughout the tract in 
almost unequalled abundance. 

Arts, to Ques. 71. I do think, for the reasons before 
stated, that the increased expenditure (if any, which I question) 
would be more than compensated by the increased amount of 
business which the northern line would command over any 
other line that might be laid down. My own acquaintance 
with the tract north of the Rideau, and with that south of it, 
as well as with other tracts in every section of the Province, 
enables me to say confidently that the resources of the northern 
tract are unsurpassed. For agricultural purposes, the soil 
between the upper part of Bathurst and the vicinity of By town 
is equal to any of similar extent ; and westward from Bathurst 
is rich in minerals and timber, sufficient for a long series of 
years to supply a very large demand, and capable of being 
converted into articles of ornament and use, which are now ne- 
cessarily imported, because of the want of means of conveying 
such articles to a market which would induce enterprising 
persons to embark in the manufacturing of them. Farther, I 
am of opinion, that to construct the northern line will ulti- 
mately cause a saving to the Province ; because it is not to be 
supposed that the people north of the Rideau and of the table 
land from which diverge the valleys of the St. Lawrence and 
the Ottawa, will be satisfied to be without any means of con- 
veying their stuffs to market, while they will see the people 
south of the Rideau having a double means of conveying theirs 
to market by the St. Lawrence and a railroad along its borders. 
This view, therefore, suggests that the Main Trunk ought to 
be made so far north that it will obviate the necessity of con- 



75 

slructing a second Main Trunk for the benefit of the northern 
parts of the section which the question indicates. 

Ans. to Ques. 72. The general benefit which the Province 
would derive from opening up the Ottawa line in preference 
1o the other line may be inferred from what I have above sub- 
mitted. First, competition with works already made by the 
Province would be obviated. Secondly, a tract of country, 
rich in means for agricultural, manufacturing and commercial 
enterprises now not existing, would have a means of exchang- 
ing products and commodities with other portions of the 
Province for the common good. Thirdly, the trade which by 
the St. Lawrence would be diverted to Ogdensburg, will be 
secured to ^Montreal and our Provincial forwarders ; and 
Fourthly, the necessity of ever constructing a second Main 
Trunk will be certainly obviated, and so a large saving to the 
Province will be secured. 

Ans. to Ques. 73 and 74. In a military point of view, the 
preference must, in every man's "opinion," be given to the 
Ottawa Line. It will have advantages and a security which 
no other would have. From Bytown, through Perth, to the 
Napanee Village, the country (contrary to what is generally 
supposed), is prob ably a tract the best adapted for a Railroad 
to be found in the Province. I am well acquainted with the 
greater portion of it, and a survey which we have caused to 
be made from Perth to Kingston, has proved that what had 
been supposed to be hills, alternating with valleys and lakes, 
is table land, from which diverge the streams which severally 
flow north or south, to the Ottawa or the St. Lawrence, form- 
ing in their courses those valleys and chains of lakes which, 
west of the County of Lanark, give on the map an apppear- 
ance of being impassable, and which to a line of Railroad for 
military purposes, would always be its best protection,— the 
line being forty miles from the frontier, without obstruction 
excepting to the enemy, and, throughout the whole distance 
to which I have referred, as level as engineer, or statesman, 
or public economist can possibly desire, — material, too, of 
the best description for constructing a Railroad everywhere at 



76 

hand. Lastly, I consider that the northern route from Kings- 
ton to Montreal, through the Towns of Perth and Bytown, 
L'Orignal and Vaudreuil, St. Anne, &c., &c, will be the short- 
est, i. e., if it be carried from Perth, along Bathurst, Sher- 
brooke, Bedford and Portland, to Napanee. This considera- 
tion, if correct (which I believe it is,) added to the other 
considerations above mentioned, and those which they will 
necessarily suggest, gives, in my opinion, an importance to 
the northern route out of which arises a claim to preference 
which cannot be urged in favour of any other. 



C. J. Forbes, Esquire, of Carillon, examined : 

Arts, to Ques. 69. I am clearly of opinion that it would better 
subserve the interests of Canada to take the Railroad Trunk 
Line from Montreal to Kingston by the northern route by By- 
town, Perth and Richmond than along the border of the River 
St. Lawrence, for the following reasons, viz : That all chance 
of interruption is avoided, in the event of a conflict with the 
United States, which has already happened, and was again 
threatened in the years 1837 and 1838. By opening a magnifi- 
cent tract of country, than which none of a more valuable de- 
scription is to be found in Canada, (which has been frequently 
reported on, and particularly by the Honourable Messrs. McKay 
and Killaly) a dense population would speedily be created 
between the Ottawa and St. Lawrence, which being purely 
British, could safely be counted on for all military purposes. 
It would stultify the measures of the Canadian Government, 
which has created such an outlay to perfect a Line of Water 
Communication from Kingston to Montreal by the St. Law- 
rence, were a Railway Communication between the same 
places now to be undertaken, by the connivance of the same 
authority. It was premature to incur so enormous an expend- 
iture, it met with the ready support of the Upper Canada 
Members, against the expressed opinions of my Lord Syden- 
ham, who considered the Rideau Canal fully equal to the 
wants of the country. 



77 

Ans. to Ques. 70. For the reasons given above, I believe 
eventually, if not at present, a much greater amount of way 
business would be procured by the northern than by the south- 
ern route ; and Railroads ought more to contemplate future 
than present results. 

Ans. to Ques. 71. I do not think that any increased expend- 
iture, in taking the Railroad by the route proposed, ought to 
occupy a moment's consideration, for the reasons I have already 
given. 

Ans. to Ques. 72. The general benefit the Province would 
derive from opening up the Ottawa Line in preference to the 
other line, would be, — greater security ; opening a much more 
extensive tract of country, most favourable for agricultural 
purposes, consequently for settlement; favouring the transmis- 
sion of the produce of the finest districts of Canada East to the 
Montreal market, as the Island of Montreal, Terrebonne, Two 
Mountains, and those flourishing Townships of Grenville and 
Chatham, with their respective augmentations, and a most fer- 
tile tract of country by the Counties of Prescott, Glengarry, and 
the contiguous Counties on to Bytown and beyond it. Mr.. 
Coffin, in a series of well written letters, published in the 
Montreal Gazette, testifies to the importance of a northern in 
preference to a southern route ; and other letters published in 
the same periodical places the choice beyond a doubt. 

Ans. to Ques. 73 and 74. I entertain precisely the same 
views on the subject of interior communication for Military 
purposes that the British Government does, and which are 
founded upon two Special Reports of competent engineers, 
supported by the opinion of the greatest commander of the 
age, and which sanctioned the expenditure of nearly two mil- 
lions upon the Rideau and Grenville Canals. This will, no 
doubt, have great weight in the decision of your Committee. 
The traffic between Montreal and Bytown in passengers alone 
would, I think, nearly, if not quite, pay the interest of the out- 
lay. The proof is to be found in the business now doing by the 
Lachine and Bytown passage boats. Six or seven hundred 



78 

dollars per diem for these alone is a low calculation, and will 
form an excellent basis for the consideration of your Commit- 
tee. , This will be increased for the summer months, in pro- 
portion as facilities increase. Land and labour can probably 
be obtained at a cheaper rate on the northern line, and as far 
as my inquiry makes me conversant with the fact, limestone 
for building bridges and ballasting, as well as timber, can be 
obtained better and cheaper on the same line. The present 
population on the northern line, will, I am persuaded, be found 
denser than on the southern. The Americans have furnished 
a noble example to us in the construction of the Erie Canal, 
which has opened out, and made most productive, the west- 
ern section of the State of New York. Your Committee 
may perhaps presume that in advocating the northern, in 
preference to the southern line, I am advocating my own in- 
terests ; but I can assure the Committee that a Railroad will 
materially injure me, by rendering valueless my river front, 
upon which I have incurred an expenditure to a very large 
amount; nor should I have given even an opinion on the sub- 
ject, had I not been called upon by your Committee to do so. 
It does not occur to me to say any thing more upon the subject 
in my present answers to your queries ; but I shall be ready at 
all times to furnish any information that may be required of 
me. 



James Moir Ferres, Esquire, of Montreal, called in, and 
examined : 
Ans. to Ques. 69. I am not sufficiently acquainted with that 
part of the country to say whether the Trunk Line should pass 
through the Towns named, but to the general question of its 
going to the north, I have no hesitation in saying that the inter- 
ests of the country would be much better served by carrying it 
in that direction than by laying it down along the St. Law- 
rence. The country bordering on the St. Lawrence possesses 
now, by means of the river and the canals, the most complete 
facilities of intercourse in the world, and sufficient in capacity 
for all the commerce that will pass through them for very 



TO 

many years. The back country has no means of transport. 
If Ihe Trunk Line were made along the river, all the produce 
of the rear Townships must be hauled to the extreme frontier 
for conveyance to market. If made to the north, the 
Townships on either side would be saved immense expense 
in wheel transport, and the Railway would be more con- 
stantly supplied at all seasons, than if made on the front line. 
Nature herself seems to have pointed out the best line. The 
St. Lawrence on the south affords unrivalled water communi- 
cation. The Ottawa to the north will be made equally avail- 
able to the population that will be near to it, so soon as their 
numbers will justify the expense of improving it, and over- 
coming the present interruptions in its navigation. These 
rivers afford two main lines of natural communication of a 
perpetual character. What remains ? If you are to make a 
third line artificially that is to benefit the country, it ought to 
be made, as conveniently as the face of the country will per- 
mit, between the two. 

Ans. to Ques. 72. The benefit is obvious. It would tend to 
attract emigrants to fill up the country, not only on the line but 
far to a distance of twenty miles on each side of it. And I 
believe that it would materially influence th$ settlement of the 
lands beyond the Ottawa. As the farms became cleared 
within the immediate influence of the road, emigrants would 
move back. But if the road is made on the River St. Law- 
rence, I see nothing to induce the settlement of the Ottawa 
country more rapidly than as at present. The whole country 
south of the road, lying as it would be between the water com- 
munication on the one hand, and the iron communication on 
the other, would be filled with inhabitants in a short time. 

Ans. to Ques. 73. Of this there cannot be a doubt. 



Hon. Hctnwet Pinhey y Warden of the County of Carleton, 

examined : 

Ans. to Ques. 69. I am decidedly of opinion that it would. 

Ans. to Qaes. 70. I think that the proposed northern route 
would eventually command more traffic than any route more 
southerly. 



80 

Ans. to Ques. 71. If allowed to qualify my answer by view- 
ing the question to apply prospectively, I think that at some 
period not very remote, the increase of business would be a 
satisfactory remuneration for the increased expenditure. 

Ans. to Ques. 72. In its politics and commerce I think the 
Province, as a whole, greatly interested in advancing the pro- 
gress to fame and fortune of its several parts ; and the centra- 
lization and expansion of its intercourse, commercial and so- 
cial, by embracing the Ottawa section of the Province, would 
be an act creditable to every statesman advocating the proposed 
route. 

Ans. to Ques. 73. Among military men of high repute foi 
these thirty years past and upwards, no two opinions (as I 
believe) have ever been entertained on this point. 



Duncan Sinclair, Esq., Provincial Land Surveyor, of Point 
Fortune, examined : 

Ans. to Ques. 69 and 70. Both these queries I answer affirm- 
atively. My reasons in support of the second, are, that 
on the northern route the Railway will pass through four 
County Towns from St. Eustache to Perth, and many flourish- 
ing and thriving villages, possessing water privileges to an 
almost unlimited extent, whilst I am not aware that it could 
pass through any village of importance on the southern route 
from its crossing at St. Anns to Kingston, and there being no 
important water privileges on it. On the south it would only 
have a country on one side to give it business, and that a very 
narrow strip. On the northern route, there is as much to 
come to the road from its southern side as it would have on 
the St. Lawrence altogether; and it would have a greater 
extent of country and business from its northern side than 
what lies between the Ottawa and St. Lawrence, although it 
would all go to one road. It may be said that if the road be 
made along the St. Lawrence, that it will secure the greater 
part of the Ottawa business by means of Branch railways : 
that might be the case if the River Ottawa could be dried up ; 






81 

but so long as it can float rafts and steamers as at present, I 
feel convinced the people of the Ottawa Counties, on either 
side, will never leave it for the advantages that a railroad on 
the St. Lawrence route can afford ^them by means of branches. 

Ans. to Ques. 71. I should say No; because I do not think 
that the difference of cost will be so much in favour of the 
southern route as many persons suppose ; but admitting it to 
be all that the opponents of the Ottawa route say, still that 
would be but a trifle in comparison to the difference of income 
from the way business of the northern route. 

Ans. to Ques. 72. Whatever line serves the greatest number 
of the inhabitants of the Province, and the greatest amount of 
business, will best serve the interests of the Province. 

Ans. to Ques. 73. Not being a military man I cannot say 
much upon this subject but it must be evident that were we 
again to encounter such a foe as we had to fight on the Heights 
of Queenslon, Burlington Heights, near the residence of the 
gallant Knight of Dundurn, Crysler's Farm, or, — take a more 
recent instance, — the Wind-Mill-Point brigands : if the enemy 
in either of those cases had a railway within two or three 
miles of their landing, they would have tried to destroy it, or 
have taken possession of it for their own purposes. It is not 
hard to tell which would be best at such juncture, — a road 
on the frontier, or one twenty-five miles back, where the ene- 
my would be opposed at every step he would advance towards 
the railway. While an invading enemy would be travelling 
from Prescott to Bytown, or from Brockville to Perth, we 
might, by railway on the northern route, convey troops and 
supplies enough from Montreal to Kingston, or from the latter 
City to the former, to decide the fortunes of the war in our 
favour; let it be remembered that one battle, lost or Won, may 
do it. 

Ans. to Ques. 74. The Ottawa route should be adopted, 
because it passes nearer the waste lands of the Crown than 
the St. Lawrence route, which would, in my opinion, cause 
those lands to be immediately settled, thereby adding im- 



82 

menscly to the Provincial revenues, as well as to the income 
of the road ; and I think that it would also be the means of re- 
taining many of our enterprising farmers and mechanics from 
going to the u Far West," lured away by the great talk about 
railways, cheap lands, and many other advantages they hear 
of. It ought to be adopted because it would pass near the 
most extensive and richest bed of iron ore yet discovered in 
Canada, which is at Hull, and the second in McNab's 
Township, both of which I think will shortly be opened and 
worked if a railway went through Bytown and Perth, espe- 
cially as we have reason to think that English capitalists will 
be induced to turn their attention to Canada, from the favour- 
able impression it makes on them at the World's Fair. The 
northern route should be adopted for the Grand Trunk Railway 
on account of the many favourable points in its line for starting 
branch railways extending into the interior ; and it ought to 
be adopted for the Provincial Trunk Line, because its extension 
from Perth to Lake Huron might soon be expected, which, in 
connection w T ith the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad, would 
be the shortest and most direct from the seabord to the great 
lakes, which may be considered the Mediterranean Sea of 
North America, which would give us a lake port communicat- 
ing with the wheat growing country of the South, and the 
rich mining regions on the North shore of those inland seas ; 
and if the railway from Halifax to Quebec should be finished 
thence to Perth, it would be nearly one-third of the way to the 
Pacific Ocean, — an event I expect to live to see accomplished, 
—which, when made, must be near what is now proposed for 
the Ottawa route to Perth. With all these reasons in favour 
of the Ottawa route, and none to counterbalance them in 
favour of the St. Lawrence but two, that are, in my opinion,, 
not worthy of a moment's consideration, viz., that the south- 
ern line will cost a few thousand pounds less, and save 
about thirty or forty minutes' time in travelling. The Ottawa 
people demand the Trunk Railway on the northern route as 
an act of justice. They are already paying largely for the 
interest of money expended on the St. Lawrence, while they 
receive no direct benefit from it. 



83 

F. M. HiU} Esq., Mayor of the City of Kingston, examined : 

Ans. to Ques. 69. — I am. 

Arts, to Ques. 70. — At present it might not; but ultimately 
I believe the interior line would afford far the most " way" 
business. 

Ans. to Ques. 71. — I do. 

Ans. to Ques. 72. — I think the vast fertile and productive re- 
gions of which the Ottawa River and its tributaries form the 
natural outlets, will furnish a larger amount of business for a 
Railway than a*ny other portion of the interior of Canada. 

Ans. to Ques. 73. — I am, decidedly ; and the precedent afford- 
ed by the Imperial Government in the construction of the 
Rideau Canal, shews, beyond a doubt, their view of the 
subject. 

Ans. to Ques. 74. — In addition to my answer to the 72nd 
question, I would state that a frontier line of Railway between 
Kingston and Montreal is not so desirable as an interior line, 
for the following reasons, viz : 

That it does not open up any new country, but passes through 
the oldest part of the country. 

That it is a frontier communication through a frontier coun- 
try, and almost conterminous to a foreign country. 

That it is parallel to, and alongside the great water commu- 
nication of the Province, and in direct competition with the 
revenues of that communication. 

That it affords facilities for a diversion of the trade of Cana- 
da to the American frontier and sea-ports. 

That it cannot bring into operation one tithe of the water 
power for manufacturing purposes which can be developed 
from the Ottawa and its tributaries. 

That it will afford no aid in developing the mineral resources, 
of the Province. 

That it will be of far less importance to the trade of our 
great shipping ports, Montreal and Quebec. 



84 



That it will not form a line, from which so many other lines 
of Railway and other communications will radiate, as an inte- 
rior line. 



/. /. Girouard, Esq., of Montreal, examined r 

Ans. to Ques. 69. — My answer is altogether in the affirma- 
tive. I have always been convinced, and I am more and 
more so, that it would be infinitely more to the advantage of 
the Province that the proposed Rail-Road should pass north- 
ward, than that it should follow the course of the St. Lawrence, 

Ans. to Ques. 70. — According to the knowledge that I possess 
of the localities, the population, the resources, the produce and 
the trade of the country, I have no doubt that the Northern line 
would produce a perennial increase of communication, and 
a more profitable business than any other direction which might 
be taken, 

Ans. to Ques. 71. — This question takes it for granted that 
the northern line in question would require an increase of ex- 
penditure beyond what would be required by a road passing 
on the other side. In my humble opinion, the estimates which 
have been made of the probable comparative expense of the 
line, are excessively exaggerated. But even should there be 
an increased expenditure, (which I cannot admit,) I have no 
doubt that it would be compensated by the considerable profits 
which this northern line would yield beyond any other. 

Ans. io Ques. 12. — -I cannot enlarge on the general advan- 
tages which would accrue to the Province if the Rail-Road in 
question is made to pass northerly rather than in any other 
direction. 1 shall confine myself to those which present them- 
selves at once, and naturally, to my conception, and which 
seem to me indisputable, with reference at least to that part of 
the country of which I am best able to judge. 



85 

1. The opening of a Rail-Road North of the River Jesus, or 
the Mille lies, of the Lake of Two Mountains, and the Ottawa 
River would at once open an outlet to the agricultural and in- 
dustrial productions of all that northern part of the District of 
Montreal the inhabitants of which have suffered so long from 
the want of a market with which they might communicate, and 
where they might traffic with facility. 

2. This new line of communication would undoubtedly in- 
duce the settlement and clearing of numerous lands which are 
still unconceded in this section of the country, the settlement of 
which has been hitherto retarded only by the want of ready 
means of communication. 

3. By means of branch-roads from the proposed Rail-Road 
passing Northward, the riches contained in the section of coun- 
try south of the Lawrentine chain might be speedily and ad- 
vantageously opened out, especially the mines, minerals, 
woods, large pot and pearl asheries, and other means of pro- 
duction contained in the soil, which need only an outlet and a 
channel to flow out and enrich the commerce of the country. 

4. The proposed line would, moreover, have the effect of 
greatly increasing the growing population of this part of the 
District of Montreal, and of multiplying the business of all 
kinds, and the travel, which would be carried on entirely, ex- 
clusively, and at all times, by the proposed Rail-Road, and give 
considerable profits, which would repay the outlay for construct- 
ing it, in a few years ; while the other lines are far from offer- 
ing all these advantages, were it only because the navigation 
abstracts a share of the profits during a considerable part of the 
year : and, generally speaking, this line would more than any 
other give a new impulse to industry, agriculture and com- 
merce. 

Aiis. to Ques. 73. — In a Military point of view, I do not think 
there can be two opinions ; for certainly the northern line offers 
in a super-eminent degree all the advantages of safety, protec- 
tion and facility of defence of every kind, and none of the in- 
conveniences which distinguish the other lines proposed. 



86 

The Committee proceeded to the consideration of the Bill 
to amend the Act incorporating the Bytown and Prescott Rail- 
way Company, and the Bill was agreed to, with certain 
amendments. 

The Bill to amend and extend the Act incorporating the 
Montreal and Vermont Junction Railway Company, was con- 
sidered, and agreed to w T ith certain amendments. 

Ordered* That the Chairman pro tern, do report the above 
Bills to the House, as amended, at its next sitting. 

The Bill to amend an Act intituled " An Act for incorpora- 
ting the Toronto and Goderich Railway Company," and to 
continue the same as amended, under the name of the Toronto 
and Guelph Western Extension Railway Company, was read 
and considered. Further consideration postponed until Thurs- 
day next. 

Adjourned until 10 o'clock, on Thursday next. 



Thursday, 31 st July, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT : 

Mr. SMITH, in the Chair, pro tern. 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 

Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Tache. 

The Committee resumed the consideration of the Bill to 
amend an Act intituled, " An Act for incorporating the Toronto 
" and Goderich Railway Company," &c. 

/. W. Gwynne, Esq., appeared before the Committee in sup- 
port of the Bill. 



S7 

The Hon, Mr. }facdonald moved iliat it be — 

Resolved, That in the opinion of the Committee, an Act of 
Incorporation should be granted for the construction of a Rail- 
way from Toronto to Guelph, under the provisions of the gene- 
ral Railway Act, now before the House, but that the said 
Charter should not authorize the extension of the Railway to 
Goderich. 

Upon which the Committee divided : 

% 
Yeas : Nays : 

Messrs. Badgley, Messrs. Ross, 

Cauehon, Sol. Gen. Macdonald, — 2. 

Dumas, 

Hi neks, 

Morrison, 

Scott, (By town,) 

Scott, (Two Mountains,) 

Sherwood, 

Tache, — 9, 

So it was carried in the Affirmative, and Resolved accord- 
ingly. 

Mr. Morrison moved that the Charter do contain provisions 
allowing the Company to extend the line to Goderich from 
Guelph. 

Upon which the Committee divided : 

Yea : Nays : 

Mr. Morrison, — 1 . Messrs. Badgley, 

Cauehon, 
Dumas, 
H backs, 

Macdonald, (Kingston,) 

Sol. Gen. Macdonald, 

Ross, 

Scott, (By town,) 

Scott, (Two Mountains,) 

Sherwood, 

Tache,— 11. 

So it was decided in the Negative, 



88 

Mr. Ross moved that it be — 

Resolved, As the opinion of this Committee, that in recom- 
mending a Charter to be given to a Company to construct a 
Railroad from Toronto to Guelph, the Committee had a view 
of facilitating the communications of the inhabitants of Guelph 
or the adjacent country with Toronto, and not, the facilitating 
the construction of a line of Railroad from Guelph to Goderich 
as a competing line to the Great Western Railroad Company. 
Upon which the Committee divided : 

Yeas : Nays : 

Messrs. Dumas, Messrs. Badgley, 

Macdonald, (Kingston,) Cauchon, 

Sol. Gen. Macdonald, Hincks, 

Ross, Morrison, 

Sherwood, Scott, (By town) — 5. 

Scott, (Two Mountains,) 
Tache — 7. 

So it was carried in the Affirmative, and Resolved accord- 
ingly. 

Mr. Cauchon moved, That the question of the proper Gauge 
to be adopted for the proposed Main Trunk Line through the 
Province, be now taken up for consideration by the Committee. 

Upon which the Committee divided : 

Yeas : Nay : 

Messrs. Cauchon, Mr. Scott, (By town) — -1. 

Dumas, 

Morrison, 

Macdonald, (Kingston,) 

Sol. Gen. Macdonald, 

Ross, 

Scott, (Two Mountains,) 

Sherwood, 

Tache,— 9, 
So it was carried in the Affirmative, and the Committee 
accordingly proceeded to the consideration of the question* 



89 
The Hon. Mr. Macdonald moved, that it be — 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this Committee, a medium 
gauge of 5 feet, 6 inches, is the one best adapted for the pro- 
motion of Canadian interests, and should be recommended to 
the House of Assembly, as such. 

Upon which the Committee divided : 

Yeas : Nays : 

Messrs. Badgley, Messrs. Scott, (By town,) 

Cauchon, Sherwood, — 2. 

Dumas, 
Hincks, 

Macdonald, (Kingston,) 
Sol. Gen. Macdonald, 
Morrison, 

Scott, (Two Mountains,) 
Tache — 9. 

So it was carried in the Affirmative, and Resolved accord- 
ingly. 

The Hon. Mr. Macdonald moved that it be — 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this Committee, the said 
gauge of 5 feet, 6 inches, should be adopted as the proper gauge 
for the Main Trunk Line of Railway through the Province, 
Westward to Hamilton, and should also be recommended^by 
the Government to the Directors of the Great Western Railway 
Company for their adoption. 

Upon which the Committee divided, — and the names were 
taken down as in the last preceding division. 

So it was carried in the Affirmative, and Resolved accord- 
ingly. 

Ordered, That the chairman pro tern, do report the above 
Resolutions (in relation to the gauge) to the House, at its next 
sitting. 



90 

The Hon. Mr. Maedonald moved that ii be — 

Resolved — That, in the Charter for a Railway from Toronto 
to Guelph, a clause should be inserted, fixing the gauge for 
such Railway at 5 feet G inches. 

Upon which the Committee divided : 

Yeas : Nay : 

Messrs. Badgley, Mr. Scott, (Bytown) — 1. 

Cauchon, 
Dickson, 
Dumas, 
Hi neks, 
Morrison, 

Maedonald, (Kingston,) 
Sol. Gen. Maedonald, 
Tache,— 9. 

So it was carried in the Affirmative, and Resolved accord- 
ingly- 

The Bill to amend the Act for incorporating the Toronto and 
Goderich Railway Company, was then amended in accordance 
with the foregoing Resolutions, and with the provisions of the 
General Railway Clauses Consolidation Bill (now before the 
House), — and was agreed to, as amended. 

Ordered, That the chairman pro tern, do report the said Bill 
to the House, as amended, at its next sitting. 

Ordered, That the Bill to incorporate the Montreal and 
Kingston Railway Company, be taken into consideration to- 
morrow. 

Adjourned until to-morrow, at 10 o'clock, A. M. 



91 
Friday, 1st Angwt, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT I 

Mr. SMITH, in the ChaixL, pro tan. 

Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Scott, of By 1 own, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Tache. 

The Committee proceeded to take into consideration the Bill 
to incorporate the Montreal and Kingston Railway Company. 



The Hon. R. U. Hanvood, of Vaudreuil, called in, and 
examined : 
Ques. 75. Which do you consider the best line for a Main 
Trunk Railroad between Montreal and Kingston: the one 
known as the St. Lawrence route, or the more northerly 
one passing by L'Orignal ; and what gauge do you con- 
sider best suited to such road? — I consider that a road 
leading from Kingston direct to Montreal, passing through 
the County of Vaudreuil, and crossing the Ottawa at the old 
Steamboat Locks to Isle Perrot, and thence at St. Ann's to 
Montreal Island, would not only be very much shorter than the 
one petitioned for, having a more northerly direction, but cross 
the Ottawa at points that offer the greatest facility to the con- 
struction of bridges suitable for railroad engines, and where they 
would be free from any possible danger from floods or jams of 
ice ; as these points are parts of the Lake of Two Mountains 
that are crossed ; a lake, the rise and fall of which is not over 
six feet, and where the ice remains until it rots, as in a mill 
pond; a lake with several discharges, the largest of which is 
by the rear of the Island of Montreal, and which gives this per- 



92 



feet security at St. Ann's and Vaudreuil. The character of the 
country is so well adapted to railroads, that no physical obsta- 
cles will be found to exist to prevent almost an air line being 
taken from Kingston to the Bridge from Vaudreuil to Isle Per- 
rot. I speak mostly in reference to my knowledge of that part 
of the country from Prescott down ; from Prescott up I know 
less, but I feel confident that there need at any rate be but lit- 
tle deviation ; and I think an actual survey will sustain this 
opinion. It only requires a reference to the maps of the coun- 
try to feel assured that the distance must be much greater by 
the northern route, and from what knowledge I have of the 
country, I am sure it will be found much more undulating, and 
to grade it for a railroad much more expensive per mile, at 
any rate from Montreal, until you get into the valley of the 
Nation River, and there I believe it will be found that the soil 
is not near so firm or suitable for railroads as by the direct 
route ; and that in crossing the Ottawa at the points indicated 
for the northern route, the bridges must be necessarily far more 
exposed to being carried away by jams of ice, as the whole 
water is crossed by bridges, where it cannot turn off by other 
channels in case of choking,and would be much more expensive. 
Indeed the construction of bridges at the points indicated by the 
northern projectors, would, I consider, be not only very expen- 
sive but ever attended with great danger of being carried away; 
a contingency that on a road of this importance should be, if 
possible, avoided. I consider that the interest of the Province 
at large requires that not only the least expensive and safest 
route should be adopted, but the one that will give the greatest 
chance of our drawing the largest portion of that immense trade 
and travel with and to that boundless " Far West." There is 
to be one world's road " par excellence " across this Continent 
to carry the trade and travel from Europe and the Eastern 
States and Provinces to that Far West, which will stretch on 
west, west, west, until it reaches the Pacific. The very 
amount of population that now annually travel over this Conti- 
nent to the Pacific shores, notwithstanding the danger and toil, 
will force it on, when not only the trade and travel of the Paci- 
fic shores, but with three hundred millions of population in 



M 

China, to say nothing of the East Indies, must, and will largely 
be forced over these roads. The strife for preference is to be 
i»ei\\ con this Great Trunk Road through Canada, and the roads 
teading from the Atlantic shores through the Eastern Stales 
and State of New York to the same common point in Michi- 
gan, from whence all existing roads, and all projected ones, 
start for the," Far West." Nature has given us a country bet- 
ited to railroad from opposite Detroit down towards the 
Atlantic shores than what she has done going through the 
State of New York; but we have to contend with a people of 
great mind and energy, and not a chance should therefore be 
thrown away, when the Trunk Road will not only be prefera- 
ble, but being so, become highly remunerative both directly 
and indirectly, and give confidence to Canadian railroads, 
that will provide the means to construct all judicious branches. 
Further, this direct road will run through the largest and wealth 
test portion of the population, and be in the position the bel- 
ter to take up and continue on the commerce and travel of the 
St. Lawrence, when the rigor of our climate has sealed it. 
up. This direct Great Trunk Line will form a natural base 
line for branch lines to fall into, and so as to open out the largest 
breadth of fine land between the two great rivers. A branch 
line, and a very important one, would leave with advantage 
the Main Line at the valley of Riviere a Delisle, and 
proceed near Alexandria direct to Bytown, where it will be 
found that the finest possible levels exist, and leading by the 
shortest route from Montreal to Bytown, through the rich broad 
lands of the Ottawa. This branch line from Bytown to the 
Main Trunk Line, would not be fifty miles long, and which 
would bring Bytown within from ninety to ninety-five miles of 
Montreal, where they would not only be in communication 
with that city, and its sea going vessels, but with the roads to 
Quebec, Portland, Burlington, and by the St. Johns road, with 
a distance of forty-one miles, reach Rouse's Point on Lake 
Champlain, putting Bytown, (going through Montreal by rail- 
road,) at a distance of only one hundred and thirty-six miles 
from Rouse's Point, against the distance, by the projected 



M 

Railroad to Prescott, of first sixty miles to Prescott, two miles 
crossing river to Ogdensburgh, and one hundred and seventeen 
and a half miles from Ogdensburgh to Rouse's Point — together 
one hundred and seventy-nine and a half miles. Can any 
thing shew more clearly the propriety of a great direct Trunk 
Line being at once laid out, and constructed without reference 
to sectional interests. The importance of this Main Trunk Line 
is such, that to me it appears clear that public interest demands 
that the gauge should be one of a width that will give, with 
the least cost, the greatest power and capacity. The gauge 
five feet six inches, as adopted upon the Portland Railroad,, 
comes up- to that requirement, giving nearly all the advantages 
if not all, that the six feet gauge gives, used on the New York 
and Lake Erie Railroad, and chosen by that intelligent people 
at a later day, when more knowledge was had of the power 
and speed that could be atlainable on a railroad than what 
Boston had when her energy pushed her long lines of railroads 
of the narrow gauge. The wider gauge gives more width for 
engine, more room for fire and boilers, and consequently more 
steam, therefore power, can be generated, than is possible on a 
narrow gauge. It gives a far greater width of platform for 
passengers' cars, freight cars, &c, carrying the given weight 
that each axle will bear lower down, and therefore producing 
less oscillation, and therefore less friction and strain on the 
jamais, I should suppose. It will give the opportunity of con- 
structing cars with conveniences suited to the long distances 
that parties will one day travel over these roads, that the nar- 
row gauge precludes, and the cost of all will be but little 
more. 



Chas. P. Treadwell, Esq., Sheriff of United Counties of Pres- 
cott and Russell, called in and examined : 

Arts, to Ques. 75. I am of opinion that no exclusively 
through line on this continent will ever pay an interest on the 
capital expended in its construction, and that if from its peculiar 
position any line on this continent would bear that designation^ 
it would be a line along the St. Lawrence, having the splendid 



95 

canal on the one side, which, according to the best information 
I can get must take freight and passengers about seven months 
in the year, leaving only five months for freight and passengers 
by the Railroad, which is a trifling comparison in proportion to 
the through business of twelve months, including the summer 
season ; whereas a Railroad by the northern route would com- 
mand way business every day in the year, and nearly every 
hour in the day ; and as it is extremely probable that the way 
business would, soon after the completion of the road, pay for 
operating it, the through business would go toward paying 
the interest and the creating of a sinking fund, for the extin- 
guishing of the debt incurred in the construction of the work. 
In my opinion, however, a Railroad by the southern line would 
be merely an extension of the present Lachine Road, paying 
no better interest. It has been most unfortunate for Canada 
that more judgment has not been shewn in the construction of 
its railroads hitherto laid down, with two exceptions,— the 
Champlain and the Rawdon. These unfavourable circum- 
stances have done much to deter capitalists from investing 
their means in enterprises of this nature, by which the country 
would have been improved, trade, commerce, and agriculture 
advanced, and its internal resources developed. A system of 
constructing railroads from town to town and from village to 
village, has been adopted through the New England States, 
and the value of property increased five-fold by these opera- 
tions, and the trade and commerce of their principal cities 
doubled thereby. And while the good sense and judgment of 
persons settling down and creating towns, and a spirit of 
confidence in each other, and self-reliance in themselves have 
induced them to form a connection from one end of the country 
to the other, we, as a country, have stood by and been disputing 
among ourselves about straight lines, which, when made, nine 
times out of ten, do not return a fair interest ; and by this 
means a fearful discouragement is put upon subsequent enter- 
prises of the same nature. It is proved beyond a doubt that 
many of the lines that are laid down from town to town, and 
extended, by this means, through the country, besides accom- 
modating the enterprising inhabitants, who first built up their 



96 

towns and afterwards their railroads, the proceeds of their 
lines have enabled them to construct other and more direct 
Jines of communication between the great lakes, their principal 
towns, and the seabord ; whereas, had they stood upon the 
principle of constructing straight lines of road, by which little 
or no way travel could have been commanded, they would yet 
have been destitute of those advantages of speedy and cheap 
communication. In all these public works the opening up of 
the country should have great weight with the Legislature 
in granting charters, and in providing means from the public 
purse for their advancement. If the line is constructed imme- 
diately along the St. Lawrence it opens up no new country 
whatever, and it must always be some opposition to our 
splendid works now constructed. Even should it be placed 
ten or fifteen miles from the St. Lawrence, it must destroy, in 
a great measure, the Towns beautifully situated on the banks 
of the river, and divert a large share of the business from 
them ; whereas, by laying it forty or fifty miles in the interior, it 
opens at once a country that is now in a thriving state, and 
which has, even at this moment, a larger surplus of agricultural 
and other produce than can be found in the opposing section, 
without the advantage of the communication already referred 
to. When the decision was made public at the Bonsecours 
market, on the 4th March last, in favour of the southern line, I 
must confess myself wholly at a loss to know on what pre- 
mises they had based their conclusions, — when the Ottawa 
country, containing an area of eighty thousand square miles, 
and the produce of whose forests and fields load three fourths 
of the vessels that sail from Montreal and Quebec, was left out 
of the estimate for fear of making fourteen and a half miles of 
railroad and one extra toll-bridge, — when even this distance 
was obtained by making one common point of departure for both 
lines, instead of commencing with the northern line from the 
foot of the current below Montreal. 

I am of opinion that the Imperial Government will not treat 
as a light and trivial matter, the construction of a Railroad 
along a line of Country that might become an enemy's frontier 
— which will require an outlay of nearly a million of money, 



91 

together with their guarantee — when with a very slight if any 
increase of expenditure a safe internal line of communication 
can be obtained. It is contended by some (but I find on a 
careful examination that their opinions are incorrect) that 
sawed lumber cannot be carried with advantage over the Rail- 
roads — but I find that large quantities are sent from Dunkirk to 
New York, a distance of more than four hundred miles by rail 
— and that even masts are sent from St. Johnsburg, Vermont, 
to Boston, a distance of about two hundred miles, by the same 
conveyance. I have taken the liberty of extracting from one 
of Sheriff Coffin's well written letters in favour of the Ottawa, 
the following observations to prove the correctness of our 
position. He says : — " In contrasting the merits of the two 
lines of communication from Montreal to Prescott, by the St. 
Lawrence or by the Ottawa, it may be as well to take into 
consideration first the question of distance. The distance from 
Montreal to Prescott by the St. Lawrence is one hundred and 
thirty miles. The distance from Montreal to Prescott via the 
Ottawa, is not more. This assertion is made in the absence of 
all exact survey, but with every wish to approach exactitude, 
and will be better understood by refering to a good map, and 
by noting the course of the Ottawa in reference to that of the 
St. Lawrence. The 'bridging' and expenses contingent on 
the same may be calculated at about equal." ****** 
" With regard to the amount or extent of intermediate trans- 
portation, it may be as well to observe, that whereas, fifty-five 
miles of Railroad extending in the direction of Prescott by the 
St. Lawrence, would most probably terminate in an open field, 
some twenty miles or so below Cornwall, — and whereas, it is 
very clear that the road must be completed throughout to Pres- 
cott before it could compete or co-operate advantageously with 
River and Canal ; the same extent of Railroad by way of the 
Ottawa would terminate at Grenville, from whence Bytown 
may be now reached by uninterrupted Steam Navigation in 
the space of three or four hours." ******" And 
we rely equally on the French Canadian farmers, the wealthy 
and intelligent habitants, to whom a want of enterprise and con- 
fidence has been imputed with an equal lack of generosity and 



38 

justice ; of confidence he has naturally only too much, in his 
particular line he lacks neither enterprise nor energy, but the 
ways of the rail are, as yet, not his ways ; if we have preceded 
him in this matter, it is our good fortune, not his blame ; what 
experience has taught us, experience will impress upon him ; 
he may look timidly at first upon a costly project disagreeably 
suggestive of other and still more specious failures, but he will 
see as we saw, and he will be convinced as we were con- 
vinced, not one whit more slowly or more cautiously; and once 
convinced, he will embark in undertakings of this nature with 
as much alacrity and courage as any other constituent of the 
population of Canada." 

From a letter written nearly three years since, I beg to make 
the following extracts : 

" It will also, by connecting Lachine with the St. Eustache, 
bring an excellent farming country within forty minutes of 
the City, so that persons wishing to reside in the country, 
and enjoy the luxury as well as the economy of such a resi- 
dence, and at the same time attend to their interests in town, 
will be enabled to do so with comparatively little expense ; nei- 
ther must it be forgotten that the markets will be better supplied 
with all kinds of country produce, whilst the vast water power 
afforded by the two branches of the river which form the Islands 
of Montreal and Jesus, will induce Capitalists to engage in 
various kinds of manufactures, by which the country will pro- 
gress in commerce and increase in wealth. As the line pro- 
ceeds upwards, between the Grande and Petit Brule, it will 
pass over a level tract of land well adapted for cultivation." 
"The next great object to the Company will be the crossing of 
the Ottawa. This I am confident will be found practicable at 
any point from Struthers' Island (now Watson's) to the large 
Pier, at Hawkesbury Mills. The only question for the engi- 
geers to determine, being the place of easiest approach to, and 
departure from, the river. The above named mills belong to 
the estate of the late Honourable George Hamilton, and were 
carried on with great advantage under the management of 
Messrs. Hamilton & Low. They have been visited by several 



D9 

of our Governors, and other persons of distinction, and have 
been declared to be the most perfect and best regulated esta^ 
Wishrnent for the manufacture of deals in the British Provinces. 
They are now under the direction of Messrs. Hamilton and 
Thomson, and may be stated to manufacture annually near 
kalf a million of pine deals for the British market" " Now, if 
all the bright deals made by this establishment were taken 
from the mill by Railroad, and could be shipped from the 
wharf at Montreal, and sold there for only one pound additional 
per hundred pieces, being the difference between bright and 
iloated deals, this alone would secure to the Railroad Com- 
pany a yearly income of nearly five thousand pounds, and at 
the same time make deals worth as much at the mills as they 
are now at the shipping Port; and whenever the trade shall 
become unprofitable, either from scarcity or otherwise, the vast 
water privilege, and the great extent of the facilities for em- 
ploying it, may yet render this place the Manchester of Canada."^ 
" At L/Orignal the freight and passengers of the upper section of 
the Ottawa will be secured ; this, together with that of the 
country around, will, it is confidently expected, form a very 
large annual item; and when the communication shall be 
opened up from the Ottawa to the French River and to Lake 
Huron, this place will be on the direct route thence to the At- 
lantic, both at Portland and by the Gulf of the St. Lawrence." 
I also bring forward an extract from a correspondent of the Mon- 
treal Herald,under date of 2 1 st January , 1 85 1 , signed "Earnest." 
He says : " I am pleased to see our Canadian friends coming 
into the war of pen and ink on this subject ; but would be bet- 
ter pleased to see them offering to make the impression indeli- 
ble by proposing to load their arguments with a little more of 
. their hard cash. I have endeavored to consider seriously the 
real merits of the two proposed routes, and must say, I cannot 
agree with the views of ' A Canadian,' in yours of the 9th 
instant. He, it appears to me, is personally interested in the 
Southern route, and attempts to prop its fading popularity by 
a variety of ideas founded upon no reality. The mind of the 
public is awake on the subject ; c combination,' without argu- 
ments supported by facts, will no longer take effect. The 



100 

question then arises, what statements made in favor of the 
South are incorrect, and what facts can be established of suffi- 
cient weight to settle the question in favor of the North ? I have 
not given the matter sufficient attention, and cannol devote 
sufficient time to the subject to enable me to present to your 
readers very weighty considerations in favor of either ; such as 
they are I humbly submit them." " I beg to correct ' A 
Canadian' when he writes ' with only the Ottawa to cross at 
St. Anns.' The Ottawa must be crossed at Vaudreuil, as at 
St. Anns ; the bridge at St. Anns must be of such a character 
as to require a very heavy sum for its construction ; the pecu- 
liarities of the place, with its current and channel, are such as 
to warrant one in saying that more than one unsuccessful effort 
will be made to construct a bridge there that will stand, and 
not obstruct the navigation." He says further : " I do not in- 
vite those interested to headstrong combinations, that are sup- 
ported only by selfishness, with the view of carrying out pet; 
views ; but I do invite them to serious, honest above-board 
considerations, which I know to be the only ones that will be 
to their own, as well as to the public advantage. I feel as- 
sured, upon consideration, the people of Prescott, and from 
thence fifty to sixty.miles downwards, have no idea of assisting, 
and when they look into it, will not assist in sending the road 
by the south, where they must support a road for the conve- 
nience of the country below them, which can contribute but 
little towards its business ; while, on the other hand, in facili- 
tating the establishment of the road by the north, each proportion 
will be able to bear its own expense, thereby making the ex- 
pense of freight and travel on the whole lighter, and the profit 
more certain." I give you a further extract from a letter written 
by Mr. Duncan Sinclair to the inhabitants of the " County of 
Two Mountains," dated 30th January, 1851 : " Many persons 
may be ready to say that we are not in possession of sufficient 
data, to enable us to arrive at an approximate calculation of 
the amount of traffic from the country, or the returns to be ex- 
pected from it. Although this will be admitted as partly cor- 
rect, yet I think I shall succeed in showing it to be not only a 
safe but a profitable investment for either individuals or the 



101 

Municipality." " I have ascertained that upwards of twenty 
thousand cords of wood have been prepared for the market in 
the Township of Chatham, during one season. This wood 
costs about 7s. Gd. per cord in being taken to Montreal in boats 
or barges ; but the above quantity might be doubled for many 
years, were a ready sale to be found, such as a Railway would 
be the means of creating, as it is, though, the wood can be car- 
ried from Grenville to Chatham at 5s. the cord. The hilly 
region in Chatham, the rear of Argenteuil and St. Columban 
abound in excellent hard wood, to bring out which, and the 
transporting it to the city, would, I am persuaded, form a large 
and profitable business both to the back settler and the Rail- 
way Company, and furnish the citizens of Montreal with fire- 
wood cheaper than they get it now. I have consulted several 
persons who think the quantity set opposite to the following 
places lower than may be expected, viz : 

Chatham, 30,000 ' 

Argenteuil, 5,000, - K , ~ t ~ nAA 

St Seholaslique and > at 5s ' P er Cord > ^^^ 

St. Columban, 5,000 

For the travel and carting from the country, let us take the 
tolls as a basis for our calculations : 

s. d. 

St. Eustache Bridge, horse and cart 5 

Lachapelle's " u " 5 

Toll Gate 4 

Tolls inward or outward 1 2 

Or both ways 2 4 

The amount of Tolls collected at the St. Eustache Bridge 

during the Summer season £550 

Lachapelle's Bridge the same 500 

The Toll Gate 440 



Total for summer travel £1540 



102 

As the winter business is much the greater we 
will be quite safe in doubling the above sum, 

for the whole year say £3080 

If the railway will take a man and the load 
that his horse would carry at 4s Sd, which is 
quadruple, the inward toll or double both tolls 
— save him at least one day and more, frequent- 
ly two days — besides keeping his horse and 
save the wear and tear of the animal, I think 
that it will be an incalculable benefit to the 
traveller, and to the man that does his own 

carting, and yield to the R. R. Company 12,320 

County of Two Mountains 22,320 

It is confidently stated by parties whose opi- 
nions are entitled to respect, that the business 
the Hawkesbury Mill (yearly) will amount to 5,000 



£27,000 
For further particulars and statistics, I beg to refer you to 
the papers enumerated in the Schedule attached to my ev- 
idence. 

I beg to put in a pencil sketch, which will show the position 
of the County of Vaudreuil when it shall have its Railroad and 
Trams completed (which, by the by, I think will not be 
done.) No. 1 shews the Beauharnois Canal ; No. 2, the mag- 
nificent St. Lawrence ; No. 3, the intended through Railroad 
from Montreal to Kingston ; No. 4, the Tram Road proposed 
from the St. Ann's Bridge to Bytown ; No. 5, the splendid 
Ottawa and Lake of the Two Mountains. This would shew 
five communications for the accommodation of the County of 
Vaudreuil, while the Counties of Two Mountains and Tere- 
bonne, and the continent connected therewith, if I may be 
allowed the expression — are to be deprived of the Railroad. 
This is, however, an act of injustice, that I feel confident will 
never be perpetrated by our Legislature. When the proposi- 
tion was made for a Tram from St. Ann's up the Ottawa, I 
remarked that the Ottawa section of the country was entitled 
to as good a railroad as money and engineers could make, and 



103 

I think I shall be fully sustained in that opinion. Objections 
are made to the practicability of bridging the northern line, 
which, when carefully examined, will vanish in thin air. 
Mr. Lachapelle, an enterprising, self-taught French Canadian, 
proved its practicability to a demonstration more than twenty 
years ago, by constructing a bridge, which in point of 
strength, durability and convenience to the public, has scarcely 
been equalled by any that have been more recently built, and 
which, I believe, has proved no impediment to the river by 
rafts. No one will presume to say that there will be one par- 
ticle of difficulty in bridging the River at St. Eustache. 

Two Engineers of eminence, Messrs. Fleming and Gzowski, 
have decided that there can be no possible difficulty in 
bridging the Ottawa at Watson's Island, in the Long Sault. 
This sets the matter at rest, beyond a doubt. I hops that I may 
be pardoned in mentioning an opinion that has been given to 
me by gentlemen learned in the laws of the land, in reference 
to constructing bridges at St. Ann's and Vaudreuil. It has 
been stated that these points offer obstacles, that interfere with 
the constitutional rights of the public ; but as this is an 
abstruse question of much difficulty, I do not feel competent to 
offer any opinion on it. In reference to laying down a track for 
railroad from Montreal to Alexandria, and thence to By town, 
in preference to pursuing the route by the Long Sault, 
Hawkesbury Mills, L'Orignal and the Caledonia Springs, 
thence to By town and Kingston, I do not think that the gentleman 
making this suggestion was really serious — in such discussions 
a good deal of latitude must always be allowed wheie two 
parties are contending. As the honourable gentleman has been 
pleased to provide a connection between Bytown and Mon- 
treal, by way of Alexandria, at the expense of all other sec- 
tions of the Ottawa, I will in return provide a communication 
for Alexandria, via the Caledonia Springs, by extending a 
tram road from the Springs to Alexandria, the centre of the 
County represented by the Honorable the Solicitor General, 
and although I think the rise would be considerable, yet I 
think the grade would be regular, and therefore easily over- 



104 

come ; bat not having travelled the ronte personally, 1 can not 
speak with absolute certainty. 

There is now a letter of mine before the public on the sub- 
ject of the two trams mentioned in our notice — the first passing 
through Terrebonne, and extending northerly to the distance 
of forty miles from the Main Trunk ; and the other leaving the 
Main Trunk at the Caledonia Springs, and extending up the 
Valley of the Nation, through the Township of Mountain. I 
have no hesitation in giving it as my decided opinion, that 
these three trams, if constructed upon the same principle as 
the Rawdon road, would return a better interest on the capital 
invested in the construction, than that invested in the Main 
Line ; but I wish it to be distinctly understood that I consider 
the capital expended in the Main Line to be a favourable 
investment. 

By referring to Mr. Fleming's report, you will observe that he 
states, that from a good deal of curvature being necessary in the 
southern line, he does not consider that the northern line would 
be much longer than the southern one, and at the same time he re- 
marks, that with the facilities which that line affords, the railroad 
may be constructed for ten per cent, less than the opposite one, 
with the exception of the bridges ; and I would beg to state as 
my opinion, that when so constructed it would be travelled in 
less time. 

It was very properly observed by an Honourable Gentleman 
of the Committee, that the party in favour of the southern line 
employed an engineer to report in favour of their line, and 
that persons in favour of the northern line adopted the same 
course. I would beg to remark, that the report of the engineer 
of the southern line has, I believe, been severely criticised by 
writers in the " Bytown Packet," the " Ottawa Citizen," and 
the " Montreal Gazette," while Mr. Fleming's report on the 
northern line has had a circulation of more than twenty 
thousand copies of the newspapers, and I have yet to learn that 
it has ever been controverted. 

In conclusion I would remark, that the notice of Petition for 
the northern line was signed by more than two hundred and 
sixty of the first inhabitants in point of wealth, energy, respect- 



105 

ability and talent, resident between Quebec and Kingston. This 
circumstance alone should induce the Committee to take the 
subject into their most favourable consideration. Moreover, 
in addition to the previous arguments adduced, if the opening 
up of a speedy communication from a fortified to a garrison 
town in case of war, and affording to the city of Kingston an 
easy access to the country in its rear, rich ir. mineral and agri- 
cultural products, and of securing to Montreal an immense 
trade from the Ottawa as has already been shewn — if these 
arguments can have, any weight, the northern route should of 
course be adopted. In reference to the proper gauge, it is a 
subject of great importance, and not being an engineer, I do 
not feel myself competent to give an opinion. 

[Witness read to the Committee the following letters, as 
connected with the subject of his evidence.] 

Ottawa, 1 5th December, 1849. 
To the Editor of the 

" Life at the Springs." 

Sir, — In a letter addressed to the Bytown Gazette, and pub- 
lished in that Paper on the 9th of March, 1848, I attempted 
to draw the attention of the Canadian public to the subject of 
constructing a Railroad to the Mining Districts of Lake Supe- 
rior, and to point out the route. 

In that communication, I assumed the position that the Que- 
bec and Halifax Railroad scheme would be carried out. This 
at present seems doubtful ; nevertheless, I cannot for one mo- 
ment abandon the idea of its final success. Such has been the 
case with many other great works that have been projected ; 
they have had their times of opposition, and the projects have 
been for some time abandoned, but they have been resumed, 
and finally carried through, with great advantage to the pub 
lie and the shareholders. Such, I feel assured, will be the 
case in reference to the Quebec and Halifax Railroad, and that 
when commenced, it will be carried through without interrup- 
tion from Quebec to Lake Superior, by the valleys of the St. 
Lawrence and the Ottawa. Some parts of the work are pro- 
gressing as fast as could be expected, considering the situation 



106 

of the country, and the great commercial embarrassment that 
has been felt for the last few years. I am of opinion that the 
Boston and Ogdcnsburgh Railroad Company would construct 
a Railroad from the mines of Lake Superior to meet their own 
work, making Prescott the lower terminus. Then, if the St. 
Lawrence and Ottawa Grand Junction Railroad was comple- 
ted, according to the plan laid clown in my letter of January 
last, and published in your paper of that date, this country 
would advance in prosperity with unexampled strides. 

When a Railroad shall have b«'cn completed from the West- 
ern mines that have been discovered on the shores of Lake 
Superior, the idea at once presents itself to the mind, why not 
proceed on through the British territory to the shores of the 
Pacific, and by this means, secure to a great extent, the carry- 
ing trade from the Eastern to the Western world, — this being 
the most direct, and by some thousand miles, the shortest route. 
It is now more than four years since I spent an evening at 
an Inn on the Ottawa, in company with a gentleman of educa- 
tion from London, when I brought forward the subject of a 
Railroad from Halifax to the mouth of the Columbia River. 
We discussed the practicability of the scheme, and the im- 
mense advantages that would arise to the North American 
Colonies and to Great Britain by the accomplishment of this 
great work. The amount of money that would be expended 
while in progress, the immediate settlement of the country by 
the labourers employed in its construction, the amount paid to 
the farmers along the line, who would be required to furnish 
forage and coarse grain, that could not be transported from 
other sections of the country. These are a few of the rnany 
advantages that the carrying out of this great work would 
produce. The originating and carrying out of some great 
scheme of improvement in the North American Colonies 
would, in my opinion, in a great measure, allay political 
discontent, and the people of Britain would in a most une- 
quivocal manner, disclaim the opinion that has gone abroad 
from some quarter, that Great Britain is desirous of throwing 
off her North American Colonies. A few of the Colonists 
themselves will perceive the error into which they have fallen. 



107 

Confidence between the Colony and the Parent State would be 
restored, and it would raise the Colonies to consequence in the 
eyes of other nations. 

This Railroad, when completed, might have five termini on 
the Atlantic coast, viz : New York, Boston, Portland, Halifax 
and a Port farther North in the British possessions. This 
would cause to spring up at the most Western cape in Ireland, 
a great depot for many of the products of Great Britain, from 
whence they might be taken by freight steamers, and landed 
on this side of the Atlantic, when they would be put on board 
freight cars and transported to the shores of the Pacific, and 
throughout the intermediate country, towns, and cities that 
now are or may spring up in the immense country that inter- 
venes between the two Oceans. From twenty to thirty days 
only will be required for a tour from England, France, Spain 
or Holland, to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Califor- 
nia. This communication, when completed, will produce a 
change in the commerce of the world, of which we can form 
no adequate idea ; and although the subject may at first sight 
appear wholly impracticable, still, when it is duly considered 
and viewed by sections, it will not appear to be a subject pre- 
senting insurmountable difficulties. It offers a line of commu- 
nication more direct between the Eastern and Western world 
than any route through the United States, with either St. Lewis 
or Memphis for a terminus : with a British capital, and energy 
of character, and with liberal charters to allow American capi- 
ital to flow into the country, together with their knowledge and 
enterprise, there can- be no doubt of its success. The great 
point now to be determined, is its proper location. On this 
subject there is a great misapprehension. The idea of making 
a Railroad in a direct line from one point to another, because 
it is the shortest route, is erroneous. 

The first point is, where can the greatest amount of business 
be secured to the line ? The second is, where is the easiest 
grade, and the most level and firm land ? The route that com 
bines these advantages is the preferable one. 

The expense of grading hills should be avoided in the first 
construction of a Railroad, for a great ascent and descent will 



108 

ever after cause delay and detention of the trains. Time will 
soon be the only standard by which cheap transit from place 
to place will be determined. 

The American system will probably be the one adopted in 
carrying out this great work, for the want of sufficient capital. 
The difference of the system established in Great Britain and 
the United States is this, — the former estimates how much 
money can safely be invested in an enterprize to give a certain, 
yet moderate return of interest, and to complete the work in 
the most substantial manner possible ; the latter, with how 
small a sum the object in question may be effected, within 
the shortest possible time, and to construct such sections first 
as shall make an immediate return, and assist in carrying for- 
ward the other more remote sections of the work. 

I here merely throw out a few hints, and hope that an abler 
pen will take up the subject, and give it that consideration 
which its magnitude justly demands. 

(Signed) CHAS. P. TREADWELL. 

A true Copy from the 

" Life at the Springs" Paper, 
Dated 2d April 1849. 

C. H. Leonard. 



Clarence, April 24, 1851. 

My Dear Sir, — Your letter of the 18th instant has been long 
in reaching me, and I regret 1 do not possess the necessary do- 
cuments to give jou the statistical information required, and 
the Clerk of our Municipality, who has the Assessment Rolls, 
resides so far away, that it is not possible to ascertain the par- 
ticulars you want in time for your purpose, otherwise I should 
be most happy to comply with your request. 

The present population of Clarence is about 300. 

The valuation of property for 1849 on the old principle, was 
about £3000 (three thousand pounds). 

Three years ago the population of this County was about 1500. 



109 

Our developement has been gradual, but many agencies are 
now conspiring to give impulse to our progress, and the estab- 
lishment of Roads and Railroads would expedite the improve- 
ment of a new country like this at a rate little dreamed of. 

The cheapening of the Crown Lands is beginning to effect 
us favourably. Such advancement in Road-making as we have 
made has also had its benefit, but more thorough communica- 
tion by land with the other portions of the Province is necessa- 
ry fairly to open up this heretofore shut up country, and intro- 
duce into it settlers who will make corn fields of the wilder- 
ness, and cause trade in abundance along the line of travel. 

You will doubtless in your estimates of population and pro- 
perty distinguish between new and old settlements. The pre- 
sent condition of new settlements forms no criterion of what 
they wtt 1 be when opened up, while the growth of old settle- 
ments will be nothing in comparison. I think this ought to be 
prominently borne in mind, and in making a Railway the trade 
that the Road will create should be looked at, as well as the 
trade that already exists. 

The creation of trade in opening up a new country must be 
infinitely greater than in passing through an old country. 
Again, a Railroad built near the St. Lawrence will have to 
compete with the trade in the River. In passing here no com- 
petition can obtain. It was considered when the Rideau Canal 
was made,, that this work was necessary in case of a war. If 
this argument was of any force in reference to a Canal in the 
interior, and removed from an enemy's frontier, it is of equal 
force with regard to the Railroad. 

The Ottawa region is destined at no distant day to claim a 
much larger share of attention than it has as yet enjoyed, and 
it will be neither safe, wise, nor politic to give it the go-by. 
it supplies a large item of revenue to the country ; it contains 
unlimited tracts of land for timber and farming purposes. Its 
mines and its privileges for manufacturing operations give pro- 
mise of greatness to which we may look with pride and expec- 
tation, and say we have verily a good land, but we must go up 
and possess it, and to do this, we want roads. Roads is our 
first and last want. 

H 



no 

Those who give their means, their time, and their energies 
to this object, are patriots to their country — they are philanthro- 
pists in the true sense of the word. In attending to this object 
they begin with the first want of the country. They open a 
way to the interior farms, and give them value at once. The 
farmer has a way to mill and to market ; the school, the meeting, 
are all useless without a road. One road also makes another ; 
as money makes money, so one leading road makes many bye- 
roads. 

Build a trunk Railroad through the centre of the country, and 
a thousand roads will appear leading to it, and wealth and 
intelligence and happiness will follow in the track of all, and 
as morality and loyalty are fruits of contentment, and con- 
tentment must be promoted hereby, those who are instruments 
m effecting such improvements deserves well of their country. 

Yours truly, 

WM. EDWARDS. 



Vankleekhill, 28lh July, 1851. 
Dear Sir, — I received yours of the 21st inst., requesting a 
Profile Plan of my survey from McRibbon's Ferry to the Cale- 
donia Springs. As I had no finished plan of the same, and as 
Mr. Mcintosh thought it would be too late to make a new one, 
I have allowed him to send you the original rough draft, which 
is substantially correct. 

With reference to the heights of the Four Corners and Van- 
kleekhill above L'Orignal, it would take some time to ascertain 
them exactly ; I have, however, from one observation taken on 
the top of McKee's Hill, ascertained their approximate heights 
as follows, viz : 

Four Corners, height above L'Orignal 90 feet. 

Vankleekhill, do. do. do. 200 " 

These results are, I believe, not far from the truth. 
I am, Dear Sir, 

Yours truly, 

ROBERT HAMILTON, P. L. S. 
Chas. P. Tread well, Esq., 
Toronto. 



Ill 

[Witness handed in certain papers, referred to in his Evi- 
dence, — for which see Appendix (No. 7.) 
Schedule of Papers appended to the Evidence of Mr. Treadwell 

A. — A chapter on the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa, — 
extracted from a paper by Wm. F. Collin, Esq., 
Joint Sheriff of the District of Montreal, entitled 
" Three Chapters on a triple project" 

B. — Letter from C. P. Treadwell, Esq., published in 
the Montreal Herald of 30 Nov., 1850, with 
Report of a Survey of part of the St, Lawrence 
and Ottawa Grand Junction Railway, by Mr. 
Robert Hamilton, Prov. Land Surveyor, 

C. — Lelter published in the Montreal Herald of 25th 
Jany,, 1851, (signed" Earnest") pointing out 
the claims of the Northern Line from Montreal 
to Caledonia Springs. 

D. — Letter from Mr. Duncan Sinclair Prov. Land 
Surveyor, on the same subject 

E. — Extract from the Montreal Gazette of 12th May, 
1851, — containing a letter signed "Ottawa," 
relative to Mr. Gzowski's Report on the com- 
parative merits of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence 
routes, — Report of Mr. Fleming on the northerly 
route, — Letter from Mr. Treadwell, communi- 
cating the same toC. A. Low, Esq., — Statistics 
prepared by Mr. Treadwell, of population, 
valuation of property, products, &c. along the 
proposed line, — and Remarks (from the Bytown 
Packet) shewing the extent and value of the 
Ottawa Country. 

F, — Extract from the Montreal Gazette of 9th June, 
1851, containing a second communication sign- 
ed " Ottawa " on the subject of Mr. Gzowski's 
Report, — and a letter from C. P. TreadweU, 
Esq., on the subject of Branch Roads, and the 
gauge to be adopted for the Railroad. 

G. — Copy of the notice inserted in the Canada Gazette 
and other papers, of the application to Parlia- 
ment in favour of the northerly or Ottawa line, 
with the names of the applicants.] 



112 

Charles Sparrow, Esq., Mayor of By town, examined r 

Ans. to Ques. 69. I am of opinion that it would be very much 
to the interest of this Province that the route of the Trunk line 
of Railroad from Kingston to Montreal should pass through the 
Towns of Perth and Bytown. I think that the line passing 
through Perth and Bytown would secure a greater amount of 
way business than the southern route along the St. Lawrence, 

Ans. to Ques. 70. The southern route having neither the 
extent of country, nor population anything near equal to the 
other route, and being subject to the competition of the superior 
steam navigation on the St.. Lawrence river, could not possibly 
afford as great an amount of way business as the route passin; 
through Perth and Bytown. Taking the census returns of last 
year, the aggregate population of Leeds, Grenville, Dundas, 
Stormont, Glengarry and Vaudreuil — the Counties through 
which the southern route passes, we find to be 98,642, and the 
aggregate area of these Counties is about (3090) three thou- 
sand and ninety square miles. The population of the country 
on the other route, taking say half of Lennox and Addington > 
half of Leeds, and the Counties of Lanark and Renfrew, Carle- 
ton, Russell, Prescott and Vaudreuil, the Town of Bytown and 
the countr) in Lower Canada immediately adjoining, we find 
is not less than (170,000) one hundred and seventy thousand ; 
and if the route be chosen northward of Vaudreuil, through 
Two Mountains and Terrebonne, the population would then 
much exceed two hundred thousand, and in either case the 
area affording to it a way business, would exceed five thousand 
square miles. The country on the northern route is quite as 
good as on the southern route in an agricultural point of view, 
and it affords immensely greater facilities for manufacturing 
purposes, and is infinitely better supplied with various natural 
resources- for furnishing commercial traffic. The Counties 
upon the southern route, though so long settled that almost 
every acre of land in them fit for cultivation must be occupied, 
contain a population, only half as great as the Counties upon 
the northern route, though these are newer and only partially 
occupied and improved, — and therefore the difference as regards 
the capability of either to ensure a way business, will subse^ 



ns 



fluently be much greater in favour of the northern route than 
it is at present, and there is no probability of any such antago- 
nism of interests upon it as must exist between the St. 
Lawrence navigation and the Railroad upon the southern route. 

If the Railroad were carried along the St. Lawrence River, 
close to it, the Road could only receive a way traffic from one 
Bade, and would thus be limited from receiving by one half 
what it otherwise would, while if it be placed a few miles 
back from the River, its interests will be hostile to those of the 
Towns upon the River, and they will naturally draw a great 
port ion of the way business from it. Besides t he area embraced 
in the above calculation of the extent of country which would 
ensure a way business to the northern route, there is an 
immense country, exceeding fifteen thousand square miles in 
jirea, lying upon the Ottawa River and its tributaries west and 
north-west of Bytown, which would be necessarily connected 
with this line, and would furnish to it a very large business. 
The lumber trade of the Ottawa Country is chiefly carried on 
hy the population of this section. This trade yields about 
£20,000 yearly revenue to the Province, and the gross product, 
approaches to £1,000,000 per annum. But the agricultural 
and other resources of the country through which the northern 
■route passes, are immensely greater than those of the southern 
route, without referring to this trade at alL The country 
referred to upon the Ottawa and its tributaries now contains a 
large agricultural population. Even beyond the surveyed lands 
there are at this moment settlements containing thousands of 
inhabitants, and in view of the effects af the improvements 
now about to be carried out, particularly the Bytown and Pem- 
broke road, and the Bytown and Prescott Railroad, we may 
•safely estimate that in ten years or less, the business of a pop- 
ulation amounting 250,000 will be concentrated in Bytown, 
and at that point this business would be received by the pro- 
posed Trunk Railroad. It therefore appears to me quite clear, 
that the prospects for a way business are incomparably better 
for the northern route passing through Perth and Bytown, than 
.for the southern route by the St. Lawrence River, 



Ans. to Ques. 71. I believe the increased expenditure would 
be much more than compensated by the increased amount of 
business that the northern line would command over any other 
that would be laid down between Kingston and Montreal. 
The distance between those places by the southern route may 
be put at 181 miles, and by the northern at 196 miles. If 
the crossing of the Ottawa River be effected at Isle Perrot T 
the item ol bridging will be the same for either, and in 
that case, I believe the route passing through By town and Perth 
would be the cheapest one of the two. The report of M- 
Gzowski, Engineer, who examined the southern route, estimates 
the cost at £5025 per mile, and Mr. Fleming, who examined 
the northern route reports that it will cost ten per cent, the 
least. The report of Mr. Shanly, Chief Engineer of the Bytown 
and Prescott Railroad, upon his line, estimates the cost at less- 
than £4000 per mile, which being in a country similar to that 
on this northern route, through Perth and Bytown, shows that 
Mr. Fleming is not mistaken. It is therefore apparent that 
with only about eight per cent, in the distance against the 
northern route, it has the advantage in point of cheapness, and 
there can be no possible doubt but the business of the Road 
would be greater on the northern route by at least fifty per 
cent, than it would be upon the southern route by the St. Law- 
rence river. 

Ans. to Ques. 72. — The advantages which the Province- 
would derive from opening up the Ottawa Country are numer- 
ous. The waste Country lying upon the Ottawa and its tribu- 
taries, which is known to be fit for settlement, cannot be less- 
than sixteen millions of acres. Opening up the Ottawa Coun- 
try would make that land available, and without that being 
done, it will lie waste and worthless. All parts of Canada are 
deeply interested in the opening up and settlement of these 
waste lands, for without an extensive and populous back coun- 
try, there can be no commercial emporiums nor great business 
depots in the Country, nor without that can there be ability to 
carry out useful enterprise, or to induce national wealth, vigor 
or prosperity. The opening up of this Country would of course 



115 

greatly increase the population, and therefore increase the bus- 
iness of the cities, and towns, and increase the value of 
property in them and in the country generally. Opening up 
the Ottawa Country would also be highly advantageous 
to ihe Province generally, inasmuch as it would open up 
the interior of the Province so as to afford a means of com- 
munication directly between the settled Country on the 
Southern frontier, and the settled Country in the Northern sec- 
tion of the Province. The diversity of productions and pur- 
suits incident to these sections, are such that a direct commu- 
nication would be advantageous to both, 

Ans. to Ques. 73. — I believe that in a military point of view, 
the Northern route is beyond measure preferable to any other 
route whatever. The Northern route is removed from the 
frontier and passes through the part of the Province which 
is least exposed. It is obvious that in case of war an in- 
land communication, both for through passage and for com- 
municating from Town to Town, would be of very great 
value, while a line in an exposed position on the frontier would 
be for both purposes almost valueless. This is particularly 
the case with a Main Trunk Line, as it would be impossible to 
keep it protected in that position, and owing to interruption at 
any one point, through passage would be wholly prevented, 
and, in consequence, for the most important of its uses it would 
be rendered altogether inefficient. None of these inconve- 
niences are incident to the northern route, and in almost every 
other respect in a military point of view it is decidedly supe- 
rior to the southern route. 

Ans. to Q'tes. 74. — In addition to the above replies I would 
beg to add that it appears to me, from the geographical position 
of the country, that by far the largest amount of improvement 
in the country can be induced by carrying the proposed Rail- 
road from Kingston to Montreal by the route passing through 
Perth and By town. As that route passes through the interior 
of the country it is evident that the advantages of the Railroad 
to the population of the Province would, by taking the northern 



116 

route, be far more widely extended than they could be by any 
other, and these advantages which are incident to it, will, as 
the country improves, be always increasing. 



Chauncey Johnson, Esq., Warden of United Counties of Pies- 
eott and Russell, examined : 

Ans. to Ques. 69. I am decidedly of the opinion that the 
route for a Trunk Line of Railroad by the Ottawa would sub- 
serve the interests of the Province better than that by the St, 
Lawrence, 

Ans. to Ques. 70. I think that a line by Bytown or Perth 
would necessarily secure a far greater amount of way business 
than one near the St. Lawrence, £ot the following reasons : 

1st. The country along the frontier river being already well 
settled, may be supposed capable of affording more way busi- 
ness in the transportation of its productions ; but in many 
sections along the northern route, the country is as well settled 
and the soil as productive as near the St. Lawrence ; and 
where it is not, the transportation of at least sawed lumber,, 
and of the supplies for the lumber business in general, would 
be incalculably greater than that of the general business along 
the southern route. 

2nd. It is admitted that the land along the northern route is 
quite as well adapted for agricultural purposes as that near the 
St. Lawrence ; and when the proposed road would change the 
former into a strictly agricultural country, which would be in 
a few years, there is this important consideration in its favour ; 
the supplies for way business would be furnished from both 
sides of the line, whereas such supplies could come only from 
one side of a line along the St. Lawrence. 

3d. The southern route must compete with that great natural 
highway — the St. Lawrence ; and this, in my opinion, even in 
the existence of a Railroad, would continue to be the principal 
channel of conveyance, as well for the travellers as the produce 
of the frontier line, for several miles from the river, during nine 
.months in the year. 



117 

4th. Along the southern route, there are no great tributary 
lateral sources for supplying way business ; whereas that busi- 
ness by the northern route would come, not merely from 
both sides of the valley of the Ottawa as far as Bytown, but 
from that valley for some hundreds of miles above Bytown, 
already fast opening up, and also from the several other rivers 
and sections of country where lumber is now made. Some of 
these may furnish way business only for that Irade and its sup- 
plies for a few years, but only a few, however, when its gene- 
ral business may fairly be estimated at double that by the St. 
Lawrence ; and as the road is projected, not for the present 
merely, but for the future accommodation of the country 
especially, the Committee will undoubtedly take this into 
consideration in estimating the amount of way business and 
the general benefits to be derived from the road. 

5th. There is at present, perhaps, no material difference 
between the amount of population along the routes of the 
several lines, but the country along the St. Lawrence being 
already well settled, will increase but slowly ; whereas, that 
through which the northern line would pass, being still in part 
a wilderness, would soon be changed into a fruitful Held by 
this road ; and, considering its extent and fertility, would pro- 
bably more than double the population of the frontier line in 
less than twenty years. 

6th. There is also another consideration which must be ap- 
parent as operating against the southern route, — I mean the 
facilities afforded by the Ogdensburg Railroad for conveying 
produce &c, to and from the New England markets, where a 
good price has been obtained for our produce of late years. This 
would evidently diminish the way business and revenue of 
any Canadian Trunk Line coming to Montreal and lying near 
the St. Lawrence. 

Arts, to Ques. 71. The several considerations stated in the 
reply to the last question above are, I think, sufficient to lead 
to the belief, that the increased amount of business on the north- 
ern route, over any other between Montreal and Kingston, 
would more than compensate for the increased amount of ex- 
penditure in the construction of the road by that route, 



118 

Ans. to Ques. 12. Some of the general benefits which the 
Province would derive from opening up the Ottawa route over 
and above that of the southern route, have been noticed in the 
reply to the 70th question. But besides, as the St. Law- 
rence country is already settled, no new territory would be 
opened up by a road along its banks; whereas the immense 
unsettled tracts of land along the Ottawa and its various 
tributaries, for hundreds of miles, would soon be inhabited 
were this road to pass through it. It would afford an outlet for 
the productions of the country already partially settled for three 
hundred miles above Bytown. Another important considera- 
tion appears to be that, as the canals on the St. Lawrence are 
Provincial works, and the public revenues are prospectively to 
depend materially on the revenues of these canals, no road 
should be located so near them as to interfere with those 
sources of our wealth. This a southern line would necessarily 
do, while the northern line would be so far removed from them 
as not to affect them very materially. 

Ans. to Ques. 73. I am decidedly of the opinion that in a 
military point of view the Ottawa line is preferable to any 
other, especially should our position at any time unfortunately 
become hostile to that of the neighbouring republic, as the 
history of the late war with that country, as well as of our late 
disturbances, fully proves. 

Ans. to Ques. 74. No other considerations suggest themselves 
to my mind at present beyond one of a local and somewhat 
personal nature, which have, however, their foundation in 
natural justice, — that is, that those residing on the frontier line 
have already one of the noblest highways in the world to the 
ocean and the markets of the world, and upon which immense 
sums of money have been expended; while those in the north- 
ern section have no such communication, except so far as the 
Ottawa River serves that purpose, for a part of the way only, 
on which, however, there has been but little expenditure of 
public money, as compared with that of the more favoured 
districts in the south. 



119 

John Mackinnori) Esq., of New Edinburgh, examined r 

Arts, to Qurg. GO. In constructing a Grand Trunk Line of 
Railway, the true interests of the Province would be best 
Consulted by adopting the most direct route ; because expe- 
rience has proved, both in England and in the United States, 
thai whenever a departure from this rule has taken place, it 
lias invariably been found prejudicial to the great through 
traffic. I am therefore of opinion that it would not be to the 
best interest of the Province that the route should be lengthened 
by approaching the Ottawa through Bytown and Perth. 

Ans. to Ques. 70. No such Trunk Line can hope to accom- 
modate all the way-traffic of the country it will drain, without 
i he aid of auxiliaries — either in the form of Plank or Macadam 
roads, or Branch Railways. By laying the Line near the St. 
Lawrence, the road will have at least as good a chance of 
seeuring all the trade of the region north of it as if the Ottawa 
route, via Bytown and Perth, were adopted. In the former 
case, the business of what may be termed " the St. Lawrence 
Country " north of the Line could not reach that river without 
crossing the Rail — which would thus have an opportunity of 
arresting it. In the latter case, the greater portion of the St. 
Lawrence Country business would tend from the line of Rail- 
way to the " Front " — -whilst the immense country north of 
the Line would still need the aid of branch roads to enable its 
business to reach the Rail. Very little business will take a 
northerly direction — all, or nearly all, will go south — from 
which it may be argued, that, by selecting the northern route, 
the trade of all the country south of the line would be lost 
to it — whereas, by adopting the southern route, all the northern 
trade must eventually find its way to it. 

Ans. to Ques. 71. I answered this in my reply to the last 

question, because I consider the way business as likely to be 

on the northern than the southern route ; 1 am also of 

opinion that the expense of construction would be greater, mile 

for mile, on the northern route. 



120 

Ans. to Ques. 72. The benefits to the Province from opening 
up the Ottawa route, in preference to any other, would in my 
opinion be less than those to be derived from the southern 
route. As I said before, branch roads will in any case be in- 
dispensable to make the advantages of the Main Artery gene- 
rally felt. By adopting the southern route, these branches 
would traverse a greater section of country, be more profitable 
speculations in themselves, and bring a greater amount of 
business to the Main Line ; whereas, by laying the line far 
back, the branches will all stop short of what would otherwise 
be their southern termini. No branches, be it observed, would 
ever be constructed south of the Line, unless to tap and 
draw business to the river, or the American Railway south 
of it. 

Ans. to Ques. 73. In a Military point of view, I do not think 
the Ottawa route would give us advantages of such importance 
as to be of any weight in the scale against the commercial 
advantages certain to accrue from the other. The Seat of War 
would be on the Frontier ; and, in case of the improbable 
contingency of having to fall back upon the Ottawa Country 4 
the Railway could at once be made unavailable for hostile 
purposes, supposing it to be near the St. Lawrence, by the 
application of a few barrels of gunpowder ; whilst the Ottawa 
and Rideau Navigation would stnl leave us the means of 
Transportation for the Munitions of War. 

Ans, to Ques. 74. I consider the true objects of a great Trunk 
Line of any kind to be the inducements it holds out for the 
construction of lateral highways ; and therefore, that in the 
case before us, these highways, which would surely be con- 
structed, would better aid in opening up the country by 
traversing that portion lying between the Ottawa and what 
would be the locality of the southern route^ than by only 
reaching from the Ottawa to the northern Line. 



121 

Robert Bell, Esq., M. P. P., called in, and examined: 

Qucs. 76. Which do you consider the best line for a Main 
Trunk Railroad, — the one known aslhe St. Lawrence route, or 
the more northerly one passing by L'Orignal. And what 
gauge do you consider most suited to such road? — I am decid- 
edly of opinion thai the northern route for a main trunk Rail- 
road, has many advantages over the St. Lawrence or southern 
line. The northern line, running through a part of the valley 
of the Ottawa, would command the whole of the large and 
increasing trade of that region of country, which would be 
entirely lost to the road, should the St. Lawrence route be 
adopted. On both sides of the northern line, for nearly the 
whole distance between Montreal and Kingston, there would be 
a fine agricultural country with no other efficient outlet, while 
the other line would have the trade of but one side, and a con- 
siderable portion of even that would be carried on by water, or 
diverted into other channels south of the St. Lawrence. By 
the northern line the surplus produce of the country would find 
an outlet to the ocean at our own seaports, while by the other 
route a large proportion of it would probably reach the seabord 
in a foreign country. I am not sufficiently acquainted with the 
subject to give an opinion respecting the broad or narrow 
gauge. 



Benjamin Holmes, Esq., M. P. P., called in, and examined : 

Ans. to Ques. 76. I am decidedly of opinion that from King- 
ston to Montreal the Trunk Line Railroad should be carried 
through the interior of the country rather than along the front 
or river route, even though the distance be increased thereby 
20 or 25 miles, and the cost of construction added to in propor- 
tion, as it will tend to the opening up of a country now suffer- 
ing for the want of such communications, and supply an outlet 
for its productions and enhance the value of property in the inte- 
rior, which for the want thereof is now suffering serious draw- 
backs. I believe the cost of construction of good Railroads, 



122 

may safely be estimate d at between five and six thousand 
pounds per mile. I cannot offer an opinion based on praetieal 
knowledge, but consider the broad gauge the preferable for 
freighting purposes, as it is unquestionably the most pleasant 
ami steady for passengers, the carriages being not subject to 
near so much motion as is imparted to them by the narrow 
guage. I do not think the returns from the transportation of 
freight will, if the front line is adopted, be anything like equal 
to what it will be should the interior or northern line be 
determined upon. During the season of navigation it cannot be 
supposed that Hour or other products from the Lakes, will "be 
landed at Kingston or Prescott to go by rail, instead of con- 
tinuing on by water to its destination : the doing so w r ould add 
materially to the expense, besides being injurious, as all Iran- 
shipments are — while so soon as the navigation iselosed, there 
will be little if any freight to be forwarded from the Lakes ; 
consequently the front route could derive no advantage from 
that source of revenue over the northern route. Passengers, I 
conceive, would, during the summer months prefer descending 
by the river boats, rather than by rail, but even if they took the 
land route the difference of an hour's time between the two 
routes, would be considered of no great consequence ; while 
by going the northern route, in addition to the passengers from 
Kingston and West, you would have a larger passenger traffic 
connected w T ith the lumbering districts than by the front line, 
in my judgment more than double, and in addition, a very con- 
siderable amount of freight would be secured to the road — 
over and above what could be anticipated on the front line. I 
consider the intercourse between the City of Montreal and 
Bytown and the lumber regions, of a vast deal more import- 
ance in a commercial point of view than that between Montreal 
and Kingston — should say the value of the trade from the latter 
point east to Montreal, not equal to a fifth o£ the trade between 
Montreal and the Lumber Districts of which Bytown is the 
centre. I do not think a Railroad from Bytown to Prescott 
would, if constructed, be equally beneficial to the Province as 
an outlet for its products, as if the contemplated road was 
carried from Kingston vkt Bytown to Montreal ; certainly it 



123 

would be injurious to the latter city — inasmuch as sawn or 
dressed lumber and other freight would be thereby directed 
to the Ogdensburgh line, and all the benefits derived from a 
transit trade would go to a foreign instead of to Provincial 
Companies. I cannot answer what is the exact expense per 
mile, for transporting lumber per Railroad, but if the Trunk 
Line is carried from Kingston to Montreal through Bytowm, 
the competition between the Ogdensburgh and Montreal routes 
should the Preseott road be built — will ensure cheap freights 
by either, and enable the Bytown producers to send their pro- 
ducts to the New York and Eastern markets on cheaper terms 
than if the front line is adopted. I have given it as my opinion 
that downwards, passengers would prefer the steamboats dur- 
ing summer to the Railroad. Upwards I think, the reverse 
might be relied upon — the trip would be done quicker owing 
to the delays occasioned in the Canals, and besides, travellers 
would have the advantage of seeing much of a country now 
little known. I think if this Railroad is made, a considerable 
quantity of the timber now sent down the river in logs would 
be cut up into boards and lathing — and still further increased 
in value by being dressed and made up for the New York 
market in the shape of window sashes, door frames, pannels, 
&c, also for instance, into what are known as box shooks — 
that is, packing boxes of various dimensions for Dry Goods 
and Sugar — taken to pieces and put up in bundles largely for 
exportation to the West India Islands, of which vast quantities 
are annually sent to Cuba — and thus instead of our lumber 
trade leaving some eight or ten dollars for a stick or tree, the 
country would be benefited three times that sum by the labour 
expended upon the log — all of which now goes into the pocket3 
of foreigners, who on Lake Champlain and all along our fron- 
tier, so improve the timber imported and prepare it for the 
markets of the Atlantic Cities. Now timber improved in this 
manner, will, when the water communications are closed, 
afford the expense of, and consequently a demand for, transport- 
ation by rail, and a market could be reached all the year round, 
while without it, we should continue to have a summer trade 
only. I am aware that in the lumber districts all the flour, 



124 

oats and provisions raised find a ready market on the spot, 
but considerable quantities more than are produced there are 
sent to those regions, consequently the freight traffic in those 
articles would be considerable. I know that large numbers of 
sleighs are sent from Montreal during the winter season to 
Bytown, and that from 6s. 3d. to 7s. Gd. per barrel is ihe cost 
of transporting a barrel of provisions. I am not sufficiently 
well acquainted with the face of the country between Kingston 
and Bytown to give an opinion in regard to the exact route 
along which the line should run, but whether the line touches 
Bytown or takes a middle course through the interior, it is my 
opinion the country would derive advantages from the northern 
route being chosen which the front route cannot offer. I can- 
not say from precise knowledge, what number of bridges will 
be requisite in the northern route — but believe three will be 
required. Nearly all the square timber now carried up the 
Richelieu to Lake Champlain is there cut up as I have already 
described for the New York market, and gives employment to 
numerous mills with their attendant labourers. The trade is ra- 
pidly increasing : it has each year since its commencement more 
than quadrupled. Four years ago it was less, through the port of 
St. Johns, L. C, than a million of feet : the last season -it had 
increased to seventeen millions of feet, and nearly the whole 
of this advancing trade has its source in the lumber regions 
above and around Bytown, whose inhabitants loudly demand 
that they should have the benefit of the interior route of the 
contemplated line of Railroad, and in my judgment the best 
interests of the Province point to that route in preference to 
the front line. 



Thos. H. Johnson, Esq., M. P. P., called in, and examined: 

Ans. to Ques. 76. I consider the Northern route, via the 
Ottawa and Bytown, preferable to the more Southern route vi& 
the St. Lawrence, for a Main Trunk Line of Railway, because 
the route along the St. Lawrence would not only be put in 
competition with the Ogdensburgh line, and with the splendid 
navigation of the St. Lawrence during the summer season, but 



125 

it would tend to divert the trade from the interior of Canada 
to the American Line, thence finding its way to the Atlantic 
Cities of New York and Boston ; whilst the more northern 
line would not only command the same share of travel to and 
from Kingston, passing through the line westward, but it 
would confine the travel within our own territory, and make 
Montreal the grand terminus, and would open up and drain 
the trade from the extensive Ottawa country, which of itself 
would be sufficient, in all time to come, to more than pay the 
whole expense of the route from Kingston downwards; whilst 
the way business between Kingston and Montreal, via the 
Southern route, would be merely nominal. I am not suffi- 
ciently acquainted with the subject to form any opinion as to 
the width of gauge necessary to adopt. 



E. Malloch, Esq., M. P. P., called in and examined : 

Ans. to Ques. 76. I am of opinion that the line from Mon- 
treal to Kingston, should be carried through the Ottawa 
Country rather than along the front of the St. Lawrence. I 
consider that if the distance should even be longer, it will not 
only open out a comparatively new Country, but will, in time 
of War, be free from the interruption likely to be caused by 
Foreign aggression — and at the same time command the car- 
rying business, to a certain extent, of the lumbering trade of 
that noble country bordering on the Ottawa, and pass through 
an excellent agricultural and level country, touching, in all 
probability, at L'Orignal, Bytown, Richmond, Perth, and nu- 
i merous other small towns, draining these sections of the sur- 
I plus agricultural produce, which otherwise would be trans- 
: ported by the St. Lawrence or Ottawa River, but which would 
i never be sent by a front Railroad. I do not think that in the 
event of the front line being adopted, the freight of the 
! Far West would be transported by Railroad during the summer 
months ; and I also think that passengers during the summer 
months would prefer going down the River in steamboats, to 
travelling by Railroad. I consider the passenger travel by 



126 

the northern route, would be much greater than by the front 
one, in consequence of the connection with the lumber trade ; 
in fact, in my opinion the freight and passenger transit would 
more than double ; and I conceive that the continual travel 
and intercourse between By town, Perth, Richmond, Paken- 
ham, and the lumbering sections on the Ottawa, is of considera- 
bly more importance than that between Montreal and Kingston. 

I am not sufficiently acquainted with the cost of building 
Railroads to venture an opinion ; but, from my personal know- 
ledge of the line of country through which the Northern line 
will pass, I have every reason to believe that it could be con- 
structed at a very moderate price. 

A very extensive trade in sawn lumber, such as laths, 
shingles, and frame-work, has sprung up of late years in the 
vicinity of Bytown, and is increasing every year ; this would 
be transported by Railroad, in preference to the River route, as 
also a considerably quantity of timber now transported in logs, 
would be sawn up, and sent by Railroad, by way of Montreal. 

1 have not the slightest hesitation in saying, that the best 
interests of the country, generally, would be consulted by con- 
structing the contemplated Railroad on the northern line 
instead of the front line. 

Adjourned till Monday next, at eleven o'clock. 



Tuesday ,5th August, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT *. 

Mr. DUMAS, in the Chair, pro tern. 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Sol. Gen. Macdonald, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Tache. 



127 

The Committee proceeded to take into consideration the 
Bill to incorporate the Montreal and Kingston Railroad Com- 
paq, — and the Bill was agreed to, with amendments. 

The Bill to incorporate the Kingston and Toronto Junction 
Railroad Company, was taken into consideration, and agreed 
lo, with amendments. 

Ordered, That the Chairman do report the above Bills as 
amended, to the House, at its next sitting. 

Adjourned till eleven A. M., on Thursday next. 



Thursday, 7th August, 1851. 

MEMBERS PRESENT \ 

Mr. SMITH, in the Chair, pro tern. 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr, Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Solicitor Gen. Macdonald, 

Mr. Scott, of By town, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Tache. 

The Committee proceeded to take into consideration the 
Bill to incorporate the Lake Superior and Pacific Railroad 
Company. 

Allan McDonell, Esq., appeared before the Committee in 
support of the BilL 

Further consideration of Bill postponed. 

Ordered, That the several Railroad Companies in the Pro- 
vince who are proceeding upon their Acts of Incorporation, be 
severally called upon to furnish Returns of the amount of stock 






128 

subscribed since the passing of the Act authorising the Provin- 
cial Guarantee to Railroads, — the names of the Stockholders, 
number of instalments paid in, and amount paid thereon up to 
this date. 

Adjourned till eleven, A. M., on Monday next. 



Monday, Wth August, 1861. 

MEMBERS PRESENT '. 

Mr* SMITH, in the Chair, pro tern. 
Hon- Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Hincks, 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Sol. Genl. Macdonald, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains. 

The Committee deliberated. 

Adjourned till Eleven, A. M., to-morrow. 






Tuesday, 12th August, 1851. 
members present : 

Mr. SMITH, in the chair, pro tern. 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 

Mr. Cauchon, 

Mr. Dickson, 

Mr. Dumas, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 

Mr. Sol. Gen. Macdonald^ 

Mr. Morrison, 

Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Sherwood, 

Mr. Scott, of Bytown, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains,. 

Mr. Tache. 



129 

The Committee proceeded to the consideration of the Bill to 
incorporate the Montreal, Ottawa, and Kingston Grand Trunk 
Railroad Company. 

Mr. Sherwood moved that it is inexpedient to recommend a 
second Bill for a Railroad between Montreal and Kingston dur- 
ing the present Session. 

Upon which the Committee divided : 

Yeas : Nays r 

Messrs. Cauchon, Messrs. Badgley, 

Dumas, Dickson, 

Morrison, Macdonald, (Kingston,) 

Sol. Gen. Macdonald, Scott, (By town,) 

Ross, Scott, (Two Mountains,) 

Sherwood, Smith, — 6. 

Taehe,— 7. 
So it was carried in the affirmative, and Resolved accord 

Adjourned till Eleven, A. M., on Thursday next. 



Thursday, Hth August, 185L 

MEMBERS PRESENT : 

Mr. SMITH, in the chair, pro tern. 
Hon. Mr. Badgley, 
Mr. Cauchon, 
Mr. Dumas, 
Mr. Dickson, 
Hon. Mr. Macdonald, 
Mr. Morrison, 
Mr. Ross, 

Mr. Scott, of Two Mountains, 
Mr. Sherwood, 
Mr. Tache. 
The Committee took into consideration the Bill to consolidate 
such of the Provisions of the several Acts relative to the Great 
Western Railroad Company as are now in force,— and amended 



130 

the same by the adaptation of its provisions to those of the 
Railway clauses consolidation Act. 

Ordered^ That the Chairman do report the said Bill to the 
House, as amended, at its next sitting. 

The Committee proceeded to the consideration of the Bill to 
amend the Charter of the Woodstock and Lake Erie Railway 
Company. 

Resolved^ That it is inexpedient to recommend this Bill to 
the House. 

Ordered^ That the Chairman do present a report to the 
House at its next sitting, explaining the reasons for the above 
decision. 

The Chairman/>ro tern, laid before the Committee the follow- 
ing communication received by him from the Hon. H. H. 
Killaly, Assistant Commissioner of the Department of Public 
Works, as supplementary to his former letter. 

Department of Public Works. 
14th August) 1851. 

To the Chairman of the 

Committee on Railroads. 

Sir, — In further reference to the subject of gauges, upon 
which the Committee were pleased to put some questions to 
me, I have the honour herewith to transmit for their informa- 
tion, a letter I have received from Mr. Seymour, Engineer of 
the State of New York, and in which that gentleman gives me 
a copy of a letter addressed to him, on the 6th inst., by Mr. 
Rogers, of the celebrated house of Rogers, Ketchum, & Gros- 
venor, the eminent locomotive builders, of New Jersey. 

I would also take the liberty to state, that I have had a cer- 
tified copy of the weights of the largest body or house cars 
on the New York and Erie Railroad, the agent of the East- 
ern Division of the Road, (A. S. Whiton, Esquire ? ) having 
taken the trouble to weigh twenty of them separately ; the 
result of which is, that their weights are found to vary from 



131 

14,300 pounds to 12,S00 pounds each ; and on calculating the 
average of all the weights, the average proves to be nearer Gf 
tons than seven tons, — assuming the ton at 2,000 pounds ne(t. 

I am, Sir, 

Respectfully yours, 

H. H. K1LLALY. 



Albany, August 8/A, 1851. 
Hon. H. H. Killaly. 

Dear Sir, — I enclose herewith a copy of letter just received 
from Thomas Rogers, engine builder, in Patterson, N. J. Mr. 
Rogers is the managing partner of the firm of Rogers, Ket- 
chum, & Grosvenor, who build, I suppose, more engines than 
any other establishment in America. I should think that the 
opinion of one so experienced as Mr. Rogers would have 
great weight with your Government. He is a very large stock- 
holder in narrow gauge lines, and has built engines for all 
sorts of gauges. When I wrote to him, I did not suppose he 
would speak as decidedly in favour of a wide track as he does. 

Yours respectfully, 

H. C. SEYMOUR. 



(Copy of Letter ab.ws alluded to.) 

Patterson, N. J., August 6th, 1851. 
Mr. H. C. Seymour. 

Dear Sir, — Your favour of the 4th inst. is received, and 
contents noticed respecting different gauges, &c. 

I was at one time, some years since, of opinion that a nar- 
rower gauge than five and a half feet (5J feet) was preferable. 
At that time engines were built much smaller, and ran at a 
much less speed than they do at the present time. On account 
of the increased size of engines for freight, and the increased 
speed and size of passenger engines, we find great difficulty 



132 

in pulling in a boiler sufficiently large to generate steam to 
supply the cylinders of a sufficient size to run the speed that is 
required, and take the load required. 

There is another serious objection to a four feet eight and a 
half inch (4 feet 8^ inches) gauge, that is, to arrange the 
different parts of the engine properly, without raising the boiler 
much higher from the track than is desirable. I have found, 
in many cases, when we have built large engines for a narrow 
gauge, we have been compelled to make the boiler and flues 
very long, and on account of the great length of the flues, the 
expansion and contraction of the flues has been so great that 
it has been impossible to keep them tight, which is a very 
serious objection. 

I have built engines for roads from four feet eight and a half 
inch (4 feet 8 J inches) gauge, to seven feet (7 feet) gauge, 
and I am satisfied that a six feet (6 feet) track is preferable to 
a four feet eight and a half inch or a five feet track. I con- 
sider a five feet and a half gauge preferable to a six feet gauge. 

A five and a half feet gauge is sufficiently wide to put in a 
boiler of proper dimensions, and also to arrange all the differ- 
ent parts of an engine as heavy as is desirable to put on a 
road. 

We have engines in our shop at the present time, which we 
are building for six feet (6 feet), four feet eight and a half 
inch (4 feet 8| inches), and five feet four inch (5 feet 4 inches) 
gauge, and I think the five four inch guage is preferable to 
either of the other gauges ; and I think two inches more, mak- 
ing it five and a half feet, would be no objection. 

I am decidedly in favour of a wider guage than four feet eight 
and a half inches. 

There is another serious objection to a narrow gauge, that 
is, being compelled to raise the engine so high from the track, 
that in going around a curve, it causes the engine to roll much 
more than it would if it was a wider gauge, in consequence of 
which it throws much more weight on the outer rail, which 
increases the friction and wear and tear of the engine and road 
much more than the wide gauge, which causes a great loss of 
power at the time when the greatest power is required to take 



133 

the engine and train around the curves ; in consequence of 
which I think you would be able to take a much heavier train 
over a road of five and a half feet gauge, than you would over 
one of four feet eight and a half inch gauge. 

1 also think that it would cost much less to keep the track, 
with the wide gauge, in repair, than it would the narrow one, 
on account of the weight of the engine and cars being more 
equally divided on the rails. 

Yours truly, 

THOMAS ROGERS. 

Adjourned till Eleven, A. M., to-morrow. 



[The following letter, in relation to the letter of Mr. Killaly 
above, was received from Mr. Benedict on the 18th August.] 

North American Hotel, 

Toronto, 18th August, 1851. 

To 

Thaddeus Patrick, Esq. 

Clerk Com. R. R. and Telegraphs. 
Dear Sir, — In reading the proceedings of the Committee on 
Railroads that you were kind enough to furnish me this morn- 
ign, I noticed that Mr. Whiton, agent of the Eastern Division of 
the New York and Erie Railroad, had furnished the weight of 
twenty of the largest body or house cars used upon that road, 
to the Hon. H. H. Killaly, and that their weights are found to 
vary from 14,3001bs. to 12,8001bs. each. Mr. Killaly, upon 
calculating the average weight, states that they prove to be 
nearer 6 j tons than 7 tons. I apprehend that Mr. Killaly has 
been misled in his calculations, from the circumstance of the 
weight having probably been given in tons and pounds, and 
that the weight should be given 14 tons, 300 pounds and 12 
tons, 800 pounds, instead of 14,300 pounds and 12,800 pounds. 
I enclose herewith a copy of letter from George B. Redfield, 
Freight Master of the Rochester and Syracuse Railroad, in 
answer to enquiries made as to weight of cars and loads upon 
the narrow gauge from Albany to Buffalo. The information 



134 

that I had in relation to the weight, &c. of cars on the Erie 
Railroad, (six feet gauge) was obtained from Henry S. Welles, 
who was engaged in prosecuting a heavy contract on that road 
at the time, and who at my request made the enquiries of the 
Engineer of the road, and I have no doubt his information was 
correct, as it corresponds with Mr. Redfield's, taking into 
account the difference in the width of the gauge. You will 
perceive that the average of 12 tons, 800 pounds and 14 tons, 
300 pounds would make the weigftt of the cars 13 tons, 550 
pounds instead of 6} tons. Two thousand pounds to the ton 
having been adopted in the State of New York, it is of common 
occurrence to write weights down in figures in the manner 
adopted by Mr. Whiton. It cannot be possible that the weight 
of the cars on the 6 feet gauge of the Erie Railroad can be less 
than those on the 4 feet 8 J inch gauge from Albany to Buffalo. 
I should not have troubled the Committee with this explanation 
had Mr. Killaly been in Toronto, but as the statement of Mr. 
Whiton apparently conflicts with the evidence given by me 
before them, 1 deem it alike proper and relevant, 
With respect, 

I remain, Yours truly, 

ROSWELL G. BENEDICT. 



Rochester, 26th February, 1851. 
R. G. Benedict, Esq., 

Dear Sir, — Yours of the 24th came duly to hand, and having 
noticed the questions propounded, in answer would reply to 
yours : 

First, That S wheel freight cars weigh 8 tons. 
Second, That 8 wheel passenger cars weigh 8 tons. 
Third, That 8 wheel platform cars weigh 6|- tons. 
Fourth, The load for freight cars is 7 tons. 
Fifth, The average number of loaded cars drawn in freight 
trains is 20. 

Respectfully Yours, 

G. B. REDFIELD. 



135 

[The following evidence, in relation to the Bill to empower the 
St. Lawrence and Lake Champlain Railroad Company to 
make a branch road to the Province line east of the River 
Richelieu, and to construct a Bridge over the said River, 
was taken by the Committee at various sittings, but was 
not recorded at the time in the minutes, in order to admit of 
the evidence on the subject of the Main Trunk Line being- 
first completed.] 



John Young, Esquire, of Montreal, Vice-President of the St. 
Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad Company, called in, and 
examined : 

Ques. 77. Will you have the goodness to communicate to 
the Committee your views upon the eligibility cr propriety of 
bridging the Richelieu at any point between St. Johns and 
the Province Line, with yonr general impressions upon the 
subject, and such details connected with it as you may be 
enabled to communicate ? — I am opposed to the obstruction in 
any way of the navigation of Lake Champlain. A bridge placed 
across the Lake at any point above St. John's would obstruct 
navigation, and such is the unanimous opinion of the Board of 
Trade of Montreal, and of the merchants generally. I am 
largely engaged in trade, particularly with Western Canada 
and the Western States ; and, great as is the commerce now 
carried on with the Eastern States and these localities, it is as 
nothing compared with what will be the commerce between 
them in even 25 years. The Western States are interested, 
and more particularly the people of Canada, in sending their 
produce to a market by the cheapest route. The people of 
Canada are still more interested in attracting the trade which 
now passes through the Erie Canal to the east, to the route of 
the St. Lawrence. At present the great bulk of produce from 
the west is landed at Buffalo, Oswego, or Ogdensburgh, above 
all the public works of Canada. A large amount of produce is 
also landed at Oswego from Canada in transit to New York. 
It is my opinion that the construction of a canal to connect the 



186 

waters of Lake Charnplain with the St. Lawrence, thereby 
enabling the vessel loading at Chicago, Cleveland, Hamilton, 
or Toronto, to discharge her cargo at Burlington or Whitehall, 
and re-load there with the freight upwards, which now reaches 
Hamilton, Toronto, Chicago, &c, through the Erie Canal, would 
give to Canada the complete command of the whole transport 
from the west to the east, and insure the collection of tolls on 
the St. Lawrence works, which are now paid into the Treasury 
of the State of New York. By survey of the ground ordered by 
Government, it was found that a highly favorable line for a 
canal existed, but the outlet on Lake Charnplain was below 
St. Johns, and not above, consequently all vessels, timber, &c. &c. 
must pass St. Johns, going south. — At present vessels, timber, 
&c. descend the St. Lawrence, ascend the Richelieu River, and 
pass through the Chambly Canal to St. Johns. Timber has to 
pass through the canal, is rafted at St. Johns, and from thence 
towed through the Lake. The piers of the proposed bridge are 
to be 60 feet wide. It is evident therefore that the raft put 
together at St. Johns would have to be broken up into cribs at 
the bridge (which will be about 21 miles from St. Johns), and 
re-rafted after passing through. This would add gitatly to the 
expense of the transport. In the season of 1850, about 2,000- 
000 cubic feet of timber was exported from Canada to the 
United States through St. Johns, and there is no doubt, but that 
this trade is destined to increase rapidly. 2995 vessels arrived 
at St. Johns the past season, and 2997 were cleared, and this 
is but the beginning of a trade which will increase to an ex- 
traordinary extent when vessels from the upper Lakes can pass 
through to ports on Lake Charnplain without breaking bulk. 
To obstruct, therefore, any part of the navigation between St. 
Johns and other Lake Charnplain ports, will prove of the most 
serious detriment to navigation. The vessels referred to as 
arriving at St. Johns, sail to and from St. Johns. If there was a 
bridge across the Lake, they would be compelled to come to 
an anchor and warp through the " draw," when it would often 
be impossible to get under weigh with certain winds. For 
further information, I would refer you to the evidence given 
before a Committee of the Senate of the State of New York on 






137 

this subject, a copy of which I now lay before the Committee. 
(Witness handed in a printed copy of the Report of a Com- 
mittee of the Senate of the State of New York, dated 28th 
January, 1851, which is fyled with the Records of the Com- 
mittee.) According to the returns of the Inspector General, 
there was shipped from St. Johns in 1S50 : 

79,120 Tons of Timber, Staves, &c. 
21,472 Tons of Agricultural produce. 

3,577 Tons of Manufactures. 

1,904 Tons of general Merchandise. 



Benjamin Brewster, Esq., of Montreal, called in, and exami- 
ned : 

Ans. to Ques. 77. With reference to this question, I should 
say a great trade now exists between the St. Lawrence and the 
Atlantic ports, and this renders it advisable to facilitate as 
much as possible all the present methods of conveying passen- 
gers and goods, which contribute to the support of our Public 
Works. There can be no doubt that a bridge over the Riche- 
lieu would favor this trade, and 1 may state, in confirmation 
of my own views, that the forwarders on the St. Lawrence will 
prepare for an augmentation of their traffic the moment they 
are assured of the construction of such a work. If thrown 
across near Ash or Bloody Islands, and adapted for Railroad 
purposes, so that cars could run over without breaking bulk, 
and thus keeping open the communication at all seasons of 
the year, and connected with the unrivalled line of inland 
navigation terminating at the extensive wharf now in course 
of construction opposite Montreal, our forwarders would ob- 
viously be placed in a most advantageous position, and would 
undoubtedly possess themselves of a very large share of the 
commerce at present passing by the Erie Canal to the New 
England States. The profits on this carrying trade would, of 
themselves be very considerable ; but besides the private gain, 
freights descending from or ascending to the upper Lakes 



138 

would pay toll through the whole of the Canadian Canals. It 
has been alleged that a bridge at the point I have mentioned 
would be an obstruction to the navigation of the river 
Richelieu ; but this could be so managed as to have it in a 
narrow place where the water is shallow, so that it would in 
truth diminish the channel to a very trifling extent. Besides, it 
is 10 be remembered that there are already several bridges on 
the Richelieu, and a charter has been obtained for another one 
to be erected by a Railway Company near the town of St. 
Johns. One other bridge cannot, therefore, offer any insuper- 
able objection, and would, in fact, hardly be felt by persons 
navigating the lake and river. A very considerable trade is 
now carried on, and I never heard a complaint of the existing 
bridges. 



Hon. James Ferrier, of Montreal, called in, and examined : 

Arts, to Ques. 77. I am opposed to the obstruction of all 
navigable waters. Lakes and rivers belong to every man, 
as his inalienable right. I do not think that the rights of a 
whole community should be interfered with, and their interests 
sacrificed to give certain advantages to a few, who may invest 
their capital in Railroad enterprise. 

I wish to draw the attention of the Committee to the fact, 
that the waters referred to, from St. Johns to the Province Line, 
form apart of the navigation of Lake Champlain : that the trade 
between this Province and the United States is increasing 
rapidly ; that such an obstruction as a bridge across Lake Cham- 
plain, at any point between St. Johns and the Province line, 
must interfere and have a most dangerous effect upon that 
trade particularly, so large a portion of it being in timber, and 
that timber frequently in large rafts, which must be taken apart 
at every bridge. These obstructions are already bad enough on 
the Richelieu, and I trust will never be increased by bridging 
Lake Champlain. Besides, consider many of the individuals 
owning vessels navigating the waters of Lake Champlain have 



139 

their whole properly and living vested in ilieir vessels. Were a 
bridge thrown across, they, in every storm, and particularly in 
spring and fall, during the heavy gales on that lake, would be 
exposed to be dashed to pieces on the piers of the bridge; no 
vessel can be brought up in safety under a heavy gale of wind 
to pass a draw-bridge. I believe there are parties in the States of 
New York and Vermont exerting all their inllnence to obtain the 
right to bridge Lake Ghamplain on this side of the line. Have 
not the Ogdensburgh and Vermont Central Railroads with all 
their interests made unsuccessful applications to the New York 
Legislature, for two Sessions past, to bridge at Rouse's Point? 
Last Session one of the Senators of that State, on the floor of 
their House stated, that should the New York Legislature refuse 
the right to bridge Lake Champlain, the Canada Legislature 
would give the right to bridge on our side of the line ; and 
after this argument the Bill passed the Senate. Now the united 
interests of the Vermont Central and Ogdensburgh Railroads, 
with the St. Lawrence and Lake Champlain Company, bring 
up a Bill before this Parliament, asking the right to bridge the 
Lake on this side the line. They have had that Bill, as now 
printed, sent to Albany, and put into the hands of the Members 
of both Houses of the Legislature, with assurances that it will 
become law. The friends of free navigation are deceived, and 
may be led to the conclusion that if the Ganada Legislature give 
the right of bridge on their side the line, and damage the navi- 
gation, they may as well give the right to bridge at Rouse's 
Point. With all the advantages that the State of New York has 
derived from the Ogdensburgh Railroad, and w T ith the interests 
of that road, and the Vermont Central, brought to bear upon 
their Legislature, that Government has hitherto protected the 
rights of the navigators of Lake Champlain ; and I trust that 
our Legislature will never pass an Act that would damage 
the navigation of that Lake. 



William A. Merry, Esq., Secretary of the Champlain and St. 
Lawrence Railroad Company, called in, and examined. 



140 

Ques. 78. For what purpose does the Company with which 
you are connected require a bridge over the River Richelieu? — 
In order to compete with the Ogdensburgh Railroad for a large 
carrying trade, which the Champlain and St. Lawrence Rail- 
road Company established and held previous to the opening of 
the Ogdensburgh Road, but which that road has taken from 
them, and now monopolises — namely, the transport of the pro- 
duce of the Western States and Canada West, from the River 
St. Lawrence to Lake Champlain for consumption in the 
Eastern States, and for shipment from the Atlantic ports. 

Ques. 79. What advantages did that road possess which 
enabled it to deprive your Company of that branch of business? 
— The advantage of delivering at the chief point for shipment on 
Lake Champlain, which the Champlain and St. Lawrence 
Company could not do, as their line terminated at St. Johns, 
and they were obliged to transfer it to vessels there, at a con- 
siderable increase of expense and time. 

Ques. 80. What are the present relative positions of those two 
Railroads with respect to the business of which you speak? — 
Were it not for the passing of a bill by the Legislature of 
the State of New York, permitting the construction, at Rouse's 
Point, by the Ogdensburgh Company, of piers (between which 
a vessel will be placed) to allow trains to pass over the waters 
of Lake Champlain, the other Company was on the point of 
being in a position to justify the expectation that it could 
advantageously compete for the trade alluded to, as within less 
than one month the extension of their road to Rouse's Point will 
be opened for traffic, which will admit of property being taken 
at the St. Lawrence and delivered at the same point with 
greater facility and at less cost than by the Ogdensburgh Road, 
the latter being 118 and the former but 37 miles long. But as 
a large proportion of the produce carried over those roads from 
the St. Lawrence, is destined either for Boston or for some of 
the intermediate localities along the lines of Railway from 
Rouse's Point eastward, and as the Ogdensburgh Company 
have now powers to construct what may be termed a floating 



i 

141 

bridge, and which is in fact, launched and nearly complete, 
by means of which their cars and freights may at once be trans- 
ferred to the Vermont and Canada Road, and so on to Boston 
and other places, avoiding the detention and expense of two 
transhipments and a ferry, the advantages so far preponderate 
in their favor, that it is quite impossible under the circum- 
stances to attempt to compete with them. 

Ques. 81. Is that a large and likely to be a growing trade ? — 
Yes. During the months of October and November, 1S49, there 
were carried over the Railroad from Laprairie to St. Johns, for 
shipment to the Eastern States, above 40,000 barrels of flour. 
Besides other produce during the spring and summer of 1850, 
about the same quantity was taken to Lake Champlain, and it 
was expected that the fall business would have more than 
doubled that of the former year. On the first of October the 
Ogdensburgh Road opened, and the whole of the western pro- 
duce carrying trade took that channel to Rouse's Point, up wards 
of 100,000 barrels having been delivered at Ogdensburgh dur- 
ing the two last months of navigation. Ever since, scarcely any 
of those products have passed that port, to the serious injury of 
our forwarding interests, and of the revenues from our public 
works. It would be impossible to estimate the extent to which 
that trade, v'rX the St. Lawrence, may grow in a few years. 

Ques. 82. Would a bridge at Ash Island, similar to that 
sanctioned by the State of New York, place your Company on 
a footing of equality with the Ogdensburgh road, and give it a 
fair chance to recover and retain a part of the business of 
which you have been speaking ? — I am decidedly of opinion 
that it would, as besides having a good connexion by means 
of it with the Eastern States roads, we will soon have our road 
open to within a little more than a mile of Montreal harbor, 
where we shall have commodious wharves and every facility 
for doing business to any extent. 

Ques. 83. What effect do you think a structure similar to the 
piers at Rouse's Point, if erected at Ash Island, with an opening 



142 

200 feet wide, would have on the navigation of the rivei ■:-■- 
In my opinion it would be no obstruction to navigation, except 
in the possible event of a vessel approaching to pass at the 
time a train was just being crossed, when a detention of tw> 
to five minutes might occur ; otherwise I believe it would be an 
advantage, as the navigable channel there is narrow, and as the 
piers would have extensions on either side, giving an opening 
of about 300 feet; and having fenders and warping posts as 
well as lights at night, it would be hailed by ail parties navi- 
gating the river as a vast improvement. 

Ques. 84. When the Railroad from St. Johns to Rouse's 
Point is opened, will the Lake Champlain Steamers go down 
to St. Johns as at present ? — No. It has been officially com- 
municated by the President of the Lake Champlain Transpor- 
tation Company, who have all the large Steamers on those 
waters, that they will not pass Rouse's Point, but will there 
connect with the road, and I am of opinion that all vessels 
with freights for Canada will discharge there. It is generally 
considered that the only business which will go up the river, 
will be the lumber and the grain produced in the vicinity of 
it, or of the St. Lawrence below Sorel, and that no inward 
freight will descend by water below Rouse's Point. 

Ques. 85. Are not the interests of the Ogdensburgh Railroad 
Company, and those of the Company you represent, identical, 
and are not both controlled by the same influence ? — Quite the 
reverse ; they are direct competitors for almost every branch 
of business ; the object of the former being to tap the downward 
trade of the St Lawrence at Ogdensburgh and the upward at 
Rouse's Point, whereas the Champlain and St. Lawrence 
Company seek to bring every thing downwards through the 
Canals to Montreal, and goods destined for the West they 
endeavour to bring past Rouse's Point, also to Montreal to 
ascend the Canals. The western produce carrying trade, is 
and ever will be the great bone of contention, unless the Cana- 
dian Company should be forced to relinquish its pretensions, 
from being cut off by a want of connexion with the roads of 



143 



Sastern States. Not one influential Director of the Ogdens- 
burgh Road possesses or is likely to possess a single share of 
the Slock of the Champlain and St. Lawrence Company, not- 
withstanding what is alleged to the contrary. The latter 

..any is altogether independent of the former, and will con- 
tinue to be so. 

Ques. S6. Are not the reasons which have been urged against 
bridging Lake Champlain at Rouse's Point, equally applicable 
to a bridge at Ash Island ? — By no means. Lake Champlain 
at the site ol bridge at Rouse's Point, is a mile wide ; the deep 
water, half a mile ; at Ash Island, the entire width of the river 
is about 600 feet — the channel about half that, — one is the Lake, 
(the other the River. Immediately above and below Ash 
Island the channel is less than 200 feet — straight, without swell 
at ail times, and not much current — in fact not one of the argu- 
ments had reference or were applicable to open piers at Ash 
Island. I would respectfully direct the attention of the Com- 
mittee to the fact, that all the evidence hitherto given, had 
reference solely to the project of bridging Lake Champlain at 
Rouse's Point, where the channel, or deep water, is several thou- 
sand feet wide, and not to that of bridging the River Richelieu 
at Ash Island, where it is not three hundred feet wide. 



Mr. N. B. Proctor^ Captain of Steamer u Ethan Allen, v> 
examined.: 

Ques. 87. Are you acquainted with the navigation of Lake 
Champlain and the River Richelieu from Rouse's Point to St. 
Johns ? — Yes. 1 have been navigating those waters for twenty- 
two years ; seventeen as pilot, and for the last five, captain of a 
•steamer. 

Ques. 83. Have you seen the plans of the floating bridge at 
Rouse's Point, and the works in progress there ? — Yes. 

Ques. 89. What do you think will be their effects on navi- 
gation generally and particularly on the lumber trade? — I have 



144 

had, perhaps, more experience in the latter than almost any 
man about Lake Champlain. When that business began, the 
steamer I command was built, and ever since has been 
chiefly employed in towing rafts, during the season for lumber- 
ing on the Lake. Almost every stick that passed through from 
St. Johns to Whitehall was towed by the " Ethan Allen," 
These rafts are sometimes three and sometimes four cribs wide, 
each crib y 23 feet : the widest raft ever towed through the Lake 
was 92 feet, except one which was 115 feet, and that was 
found so hard to tow, that it was never again attempted. When 
rafts do not exceed 100,000 feet, they are made of three cribs 
wide, 69 feet ; when larger than 100,000, they are usually four 
cribs or 92 feet, because, as it is often necessary to put into 
small bays along the Lake, the largest rafts T if only three cribs 
wide, would be too long to get into those bays, otherwise they 
would be invariably as narrow as three cribs, that width being 
much more easy of tow than if wider. Besides, the river at the 
southern end of the Lake is narrow, in some places not more 
than 100 feet, and rafts must be split up to pass when any ves- 
sels are met in the river ; and if they were rafted at once of 
the best width at St. Johns, there would be less loss of time and 
less cost. From my long experience in towing rafts on Lake 
Champlain, I consider myself able to form a correct opinion of 
what would and what would not be an obstruction ; and 1 state 
unhesitatingly that the piers erected at Rouse's Point will be no 
injury to the trade in lumbering there, but on the contrary may 
prove advantageous. A clear open space of 250 feet will allow 
the passage of any raft without the risk of striking, by reason 
of a raft bending or sheering with the wind, as that is nearly 
three times as wide as the largest raft. In very strong south 
winds, the swell at that point is so great that rafts cannot head 
the sea, and must anchor ; the piers and piles will be a break- 
water and afford shelter to rafts as well as vessels, and will be 
found a benefit, and not an obstruction. With regard to steam- 
ers and sailing craft, my opinion is that the opening is suffi- 
cient at all times to allow them to pass freely, and that their 
-security and perhaps safety at times will be increased by hav- 
ing the shelter of those piers to run to at night, particularly 



145 

when the lights on each side will be a guide, which is now 
much required. I have had occasion lately to converse on these 
matters with many of the pilots and masters of vessels on the 
Lake, who, as well as myself, were opposed to a drawbridge, 
and they all approve of the piers, and are much pleased with 
the plan for the reasons I have stated. A few days ago I spoke 
on the subject with Mr. Pierce of St. Johns. We were looking 
at the works, and I asked him what he thought? He said there 
could be no objection to them, if they had an open space of 
from 150 to 200 feet, and that he w r ould sign a petition to that 
effect. Mr. Pierce is largely engaged in lumbering there, and 
has sailing vessels also. He strongly opposed the drawbridge and 
attended the Legislature at Albany, and gave his evidence 
against it. The feeling on Lake Champlain is unanimously 
in favor of the piers. Every sailor and owner of craft there 
would go for them. 

Ques. 90. Do you know Ash Island, and what effect, in 
your opinion, would piers of the same construction there have 
on navigation ? — The channel at Ash Island is narrow, barely 
wide enough for my steamer to swing round in ; above, at 
Bloody Island and below at Hospital Island the channel is 
about 150 feet only. Piers built at Ash Island with an opening 
of 150 to 200 feet would improve the navigation, particularly 
if lighted at night. They would not hinder any vessel or raft 
in any wind, but would rather prevent the latter swinging on 
the rocks. As far as I am concerned, and I have a strong in- 
terest in keeping the navigation unobstructed, I would be glad 
to see piers at Ash Island. I would remark that so low down 
in the river there is no swell — the current is slight. The river 
to the east of Ash Island is not navigable, growing rushes. A 
bridge across that side would not obstruct anything, as the 
channel there is useless, and a piled bridge could not check 
the water or throw it to the other side. 

Ques. 91. What effect do you think the extension of the 
Railroad from St. Johns to Rouse's Point will have on the busi- 
ness of Lake Champlain ? — The steamers and other vessels on 



146 

the lake, which now go to St. Johns, are making arrangements 
to stop at Rouse's Point; and as that road is nearly finished, I 
think that after two or three weeks from this time, no vessels 
except those engaged in lumbering will go into the river, but 
will stop at Rouse's Point, as much time will be saved, and 
the business can be done cheaper. 



Chas. Seymour, Esq., Secretary of the Montreal and Ver- 
mont Junction Railroad Co., called in, and examined : 

Qttes. 92. Have you any information to lay before the Com- 
mittee respecting the Bill of the Champlain and St. Lawrence 
Railroad Company, and if so state it? — I have examined the 
Bill introduced by the Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad 
Company before the alterations were made, and also since the 
most objectionable portions of the Bill w T ere struck out. 
That Company having abandoned their original project of 
bridging the navig ible waters of Lake Champlain, north of the 
Province Line, and adopted in its stead a plan similar to the 
one recently granted by the Legislature of New York, which 
provides for a clear unobstructed channel of 250 feet, there are 
manifestly less objections to the passing of the Bill in its pre- 
sent shape than as it originally stood. One important and fa- 
vorable feature in the new plan, is the fact, that the wider the 
space or channel left for vessels to pass through, the greater is 
the accommodation afforded to Railways, as a narrow passage 
way and a short float will not admit of an entire train passing 
over it at once; while a broader space or channel, requiring or 
permitting a longer float, will carry a full train at one trip. The 
steadiness and general capacity of the float or boat will, I am 
assured, be in proportion to, and increased with its length. 
The New York Legislature, in making the liberal concession 
herein alluded to, evidently designed to consult and harmonize 
both the navigating and railway interests. In obtaining that 
concession this same Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad 
Company were instrumental. The necessity or desirableness 



147 

-other, crossing north of the Province Line, after the same 
Company have procured the same privileges at Rouse's Point, 
may well be questioned; but th* 1 newly proposed mode of 
crossing in either place, is divested of many of the principal 
objections that existed in regard to ihe bridge. The business 
between those two great lines of Railway, east and west of 
Albany, is many times larger than the business at Rouse's 
Point or Ash Island, and as yet they have managed to do with- 
out a bridge or car-float, and the public interests have net suf- 
fered. If 1 am correctly informed, and I have no doubt upon 
the subject, the General Government of the United States will 
not permit any obstruction to the navigation at Rouse's Point, 
however slight, even with the sanction of the Legislatures of 
New York and Vermont. If, however, Canada should admit 
the principle in any degree of interfering with those waters 
that are considered as public highways, and forming an inter- 
national navigation and an important channel of inter-commu- 
nication, it is impossible to say what course the Federal Gov- 
ernment of the United States may adopt in reference to any 
future obstructions that may seriously affect a large number of 
navigators and vessels employed between the Chambly Canal 
and ports on Lake Champlain. 

[Witness produced the following correspondence in reference 
to the opinion of the United States Government relative to 
bridging Lake Champlain.] 

(Copy.) 

Toronto, July 14, 1851. 
Hon. William Henry, 

&c, &c. 
Dear Sir, 

During your residence at Washington as a member of 
the United States Congress, I believe you had occasion to con- 
fer with the Secretary of State upon the subject of bridging the 
navigable waters of Lake Champlain. Permit me to enquire 
what opinion was expressed regarding the right of any one or 



148 

two States to grant such a charter, and the probability of such 
grant being ratified or made by the General Government. 

Very Respectfully, 

Yours, 

BENJ. HOLMES. 



Toronto, July 14, 1851. 
Dear Sir, — In answer to your inquiries in relation to the 
opinion of Mr. Buchanan, late Secretary of Slate of the 
United States, on the subject of Bridging Lake Champlain, I 
have to say, that he expressed the opinion that the navigable 
waters of Lake Champlain, not only dividing two States 
but furnishing a channel of inter-communication between 
Canada and the United States, are beyond the control of either 
Vermont or New York or both said States ; that the Lake was 
a national water — a public highway, aad no obstruction to its 
navigation could legally be made without the consent of the 
General Government. 

Mr. Buchanan also expressed the opinion, that policy as 
well as duty to a neighboring, friendly power, should prevent 
the General Government from assenting to a measure prejudi- 
cial to the interest of the citizens of Canada. 
I have the honour to be, 
Your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM HENRY. 
To B. Holmes, Esquire, M. P. P., 
Toronto. 



APPENDIX, 

No. 1. 

BY-LAW. 

To provide for the taking Stock in tlie " Ontario, Simcoe and 
Huron Railroad Company " in the sum of £50,000, issuing Debentures 
for that amount, and securing payment of the same. 

Whereas the construction of a Railroad uniting the waters of Lakes 
Ontario, Simcoe and Huron, would tend materially to the advancement 
and prosperity of the County of Simcoe : 

And whereas certain proposals have been made to the Directors of 
"The Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Union Railroad Company" for 
the construction of a Railroad through the County of Simcoe, at and 
for the sura of six thousand two hundred and fifty pounds per mile, 
on the terms following, to wit, " That within two years and a half from 
the period of commencement the said Railroad should be completed, 
taking in payment the bond of the County of Simcoe for fifty thousand 
pounds ; the private subscriptions of the people of Toronto guaranteed 
by the six per cent, bonds of the said Company for fifty thousand 
pounds ; the Stock of the Company at par for one hundred and 
fifty thousand pounds with the privileges of the Charter ; the sum of 
twenty-five thousand pounds bonus voted by the City of Toronto in 
aid of the work, and the balance in Government debentures or in the 
stock of the Company at the option of the Contractors or as may 
hereafter be agreed upon : 

And whereas the Directors of the said Company have on their part 
and behalf and as far as the same relates to them, accepted the terms 
of the said proposals : 

And whereas also, under and by virtue of the provisions of certain 
Acts of the Provincial Legislature, authority has been given to Muni- 
cipal Corporations to take stock in the said Railroad to an amount 



64 

not exceeding fthy thousand pounds, and to issue debentures for such 
Stock, providing for the payment in such manner and way as to the 
said Municipal Corporations shall seem desirable : 

And whereas also resolutions have already been passed by the 
Municipal Council of the County of Simcoe, to the effect that it was 
expedient for the general welfare of the County that aid should be 
extended towards the construction of the Said Railroad : 

And whereas also it is now deemed proper and desirable, and it is 
the intention of the Municipal Council of the County of Simcoe to 
assist in the construction and forwarding of the said Road by taking 
stock to the amount of fifty thousand pounds in the said " Ontario, 
Simcoe and Huron Union Railroad Company" on the conditions 
hereinafter expressed, and providing for the payment of the same by 
the issue of debentures payable in manner and on the terms hereinafter 
declared, and in conformity with the provisions following ; That the 
said Municipal Council of the County of Simcoe shall take stock in 
the said ''Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Union Railroad Company" to 
the amount of fifty thousand pounds, and that the debentures of the 
County to the said amount of £50,000 shall be prepared payable in 
twenty years bearing interest at the rate of six per cent per annum, 
such interest being payable half yearly, and that such debentures shall 
be lodged in the hands of the County Treasurer to be by him issued 
from time to time at by and upon the written order of the Warden of 
the Municipal Council of the County of Simcoe for the time being. 
That such order shall be given by the said Warden of the Municipal 
Council of the County of Simcoe upon the written certificate of the 
Chief Engineer employed in the construction of the work being first 
had and obtained, to the effect that certain fixed amounts have been 
actually expended on the same, to wit that when the amount of ten 
thousand pounds shall have been laid out and expended by the 
Contractors in the actual laying down, construction and building of 
the said Road that the fifth part of such sum or two thousand pounds 
in debentures shall be issued, and the remainder of said debentures 
shall be issued at a like ratio of one fifth upon such certificates first 
had and obtained as aforesaid, until the full sum of fifty thousand 
pounds debentures shall have been issued. That any profits which 
may arise during the construction of the work and until the Road be 
completed shall go to and be paid to the said '• Ontario, Simcoe and 
Huron Union Railroad Company. " That the sum of two hundred 
and fifty thousand pounds balance shall be paid in Government 



65 

j debentures or in the stock of the Company as may be agreed upon 

between the Directors and the Contractors employed on said Road. 

That three members of the Council be appointed, as Commissioners 

j to complete the contract on the part of the said Municipal Council of the 

County of Simcoe with the Directors of the " Ontario, Siracoe and 

Huron tlnion Railroad Company" which said Commissioners shall 

retain their appointment until the contract be fully agreed upon and 

entered into, and shall have full power to transact all and every the 

I necessary business previous to the stock being taken therein, to 

examine and thoroughly satisfy themselves that the security offered, 

I given and entered into for the construction and completion of the 

said Railroad, and laying down the same upon the western side of 

! Lake Simcoe, and in every other manner carrying out the said contract 

i be full, ample, perfect and undoubted. 

Be it therefore hereby enacted by the Municipal Council of the 
County of Simcoe, assembled pursuant to the statutes in that case 
made and provided, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the 
same that (j650,000) fifty thousand pounds of stock of the " Ontario, 
Simcoe and Huron Union Railroad Company" be taken forthwith by 
the Warden of the said Council for and on behalf and in the name of 
the said Municipal Council of the County of Simcoe, subject to the 
provisoes and conditions in the recital hereinbefore mentioned, and it 
is hereby enacted that for the payment of such stock there shall be 
issued by the said Council debentures to the amount of (£,S0,000) fifty 
thousand pounds payable in twenty years from the issuing thereof, with 
interest thereon at the rate of (£6) six pounds per centum per annum, 
payable half yearly. And it is also hereby further enacted that there 
be raised and levied out of, from and upon all assessable property of 
the said County in each year of the next ensuing four successive 
years from the date hereof, such sum of money as shall be sufficient 
for the payment of the interest which shall accrue and become payable 
on the debentures which shall or may be issued for the above purpose. 
It is also hereby further enacted, that for the above purpose and in 
manner aforesaid, there shall be raised and levied in the next twelve 
successive years thereafter namely in the years which shall be in the 
years of our Lord 1855, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862, 
1863, 1864, 1865 and 1866, respectively, such sum of money as shall 
be sufficient for the payment of the interest which shall accrue and 
become payable on the debentures which shall or may be issued for 
the above purpose, and also for the payment of one twentieth ( 2 \jth) 

E 



66 

part of the principal money of the said (£50,000) fifty thousand pounds 
of said debentures. It is also hereby further enacted, that for the 
above purpose and in manner aforesaid, there shall be raised and levied 
in each year of the next four successive years which will be in the 
years of our Lord 1867, 1868, 1869 and 1870, respectively, such sum 
of money as shall be sufficient for the payment of the interest which 
shall accrue and become payable on the debentures which shall or may 
be issued for the above purpose, and also for the payment of one-tenth 
( T \jth) part of the principal money of the said (£50,000) fifty thousand 
pounds of said debentures. And it is also hereby further enacted, 
that debentures shall and may be issued from time to time, as may be 
deemed expedient, by the Warden of the said County for the purpose 
of paying such part of the said (£50,000) fifty thousand pounds of 
debentures as shall be found requisite and necessary to be paid to the 
said Railroad Company in accordance with the provisoes hereinbefore 
in the said recital set forth, and that such amount of debentures shall 
be paid to the Directors of the said Railroad Company whenever the 
said Directors shall be entitled to receive the same,or within a reasonable 
time not being more than seven days thereafter. And it is also hereby 
further enacted, that William Armson, Thomas McConkey and 
Jonathan Lane, Esquires, be the Commissioners appointed, and they 
are hereby authorised and appointed to do all other things which may 
be necessary to carry out the objects of the said Municipal Council in 
relation to the taking of the said (£50,000) fifty thousand pounds of 
stock in the said Railroad Company, and as to all preliminary 
arrangements that may be connected therewith which may be in 
accordance with the spirit of this By-law, the said Commissioners to 
retain their authority until the said contract be completed. 

(Signed,) WM. ARMSON, 

Warden C. S. 
•Certified Copy. 

Frkd. C. Caprkol, 

Manager. 
25th January, 1851. 
Certified to be a true copy, 
Jno. McWatt, 
County Clerk, County of Siracoe. 



Schedule o! iho * v,m..i Coiiipam.s iii'<-'r|.nn»ied lor ilir 



Railnajs i„ Canada, Iran the dale of Hie (ii 

<i> each Corporalion, with the p , .. . i.d„ „ 

• I. UPPER CANADA. 












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GENERAL ACTS l;|.;sl'Ei.TL\G! RAILWAYS 




Canada.) — Continued. 



REMARKS. 



p, 179, amending the same, repealed by 13 and 14 Vict., ch. 1 14, 
tipfain and St. Zawrence Railway Company, (No. 1.) 



owed to commence the Railway until Stock to the amount of 
ten per cent, thereon paid up ; nor until after the Directors of the 



e River Richelieu, required for this Railway, provision is made to 

Fones, in the Bridge across the said River, belonging to him, and 

uirchase the said Bridge. 

^d upon certain conditions with a Line of Railway which may be 

ence Railway Company, from St. Johns to some point which may 

iuch Branch-Railway be completed within two years. 

he profits of the Railway shall exceed ten per cent, per annnm, 

ex Majesty. 



ct -the proposed Line of Railwa)', in the event of the Montreal and 
ndertake the extension of their Road to Prescott, as by certain 
r right of doing. (See Montreal and Lachine Railway Company. 

d to divide the Rail-road into Sections, and to construct any one 
jre the commencement of another. 



nth of the Capital Stock shall be paid up before the Railroad is 

from the Railroad, exceeding twenty pounds per cent, is required 
sasury ; provided that no such duty shall be payable uutil the divi- 



67 

No. 4. 

St. Catherines, 3rd January -, 1851. 

Welland Canal Office. 

Sir, — The desire of the Executive that I should go down to Mon- 
treal and receive your instructions having been intimated to me, I at 
once proceeded there, and I have now the honour to report, for your 
information upon the state of the works generally of tl>e Montreal and 
Atlantic Railroad ; and also to lay before you the results of my inspec- 
tion and examination of them, and to furnish as explicitly as I can, 
the information required by the instructions given me by you. In 
doing so, I shall touch upon the several matters in the order in which 
they are referred to, in your instructions. The principal points in 
which are: 

First, To make as full and as detailed an examination of the line of 
road, and of the several structures thereon as the weather would admit 
of. 

Second, To determine generally the extent of the portion of road 
worked upon, the amount of work already done, with reference also to 
the amount still to be done — to report thereon, as well as on the style 
and manner in which the works so far have been constructed. 

Third, To ascertain from the general and monthly estimates, and 
from such other documents as I might find it necessary to examine, 
the amount of monies expended up to the present on the work and 
contingencies necessarily attendant thereon — and the amount or 
quantity of the materials delivered or provided for it. 

Fourth and finally, To ascertain generally the amount of work re- 
maining to be done — the probable cost thereof, and to report the same, 
together with all the general matter or matter of detail, connected 
with the undertaking, that it is necessary the Executive should be 
made acquainted with, so as to be enabled duly to carry out the pro- 
visions of the Act chap. 29, Vict. 12. 

The necessary arrangements having been made for the inspection, 
I had the honour of being accompanied by you and also by Messrs. 
Young and Gait, Directors of the Montreal and Atlantic Railroad, and 
by Mr. Webster their Secretary, and by Mr. Gzowski their Engineer, 
over that portion of the line from the St. Lawrence to a point about 
seven miles beyond St. Hyacinthe in the usual passenger train — from 
thence attended by Mr. Gait and Mr. Gzowski, I proceeded leisurelj 
along the the remainder of the line of works on foot. The ground 



68 

being clear of snow, I had a fall opportunity of seeing every part of 
the work — immediately after which the snow commenced to fall heavily. 
Had this fall of snow taken place but a day or two earlier, it would 
have been impossible for me to have proceeded with the duty on which 
I was sent. 

I now proceed to give the results of my inspection and examination 
on the several points as they occur in your instructions. 

First, As I have already stated, after having inspected the several 
buildings &c, at the terminus at Longueil, I proceeded by train to 
about seven miles beyond St. Hyacinthe, stopping at the several way 
stations and bridges, &c», so as to make the necessary inspection of 
each — from thence I walked the remainder of the line, resting at night 
in the sub-contractors' shanties. I was thus enabled fully to examine 
the work in its various stages to judge of the materials and mode of 
construction, the nature of the rock and earth cuttings, embank- 
ments, &e. 

Second, The total length of the road, from the St. Lawrence to the 
Provincial line, may be set down as one hundred and twenty-six miles ; 
of this, about seventy-one miles, as near as may be, have been work- 
ed upon, and on that portion of these seventy-one miles, from the St. 
L iwrence to St. Hyacinthe (thirty miles) the trains have been running 
daily for about two years. These thirty miles constitute the "first 
section" of the road. On it there are several large and expensive bridges 
— one over the Grand Canal about seven miles from Longueuil, — ano- 
ther of nine hundred and fifty feet in length over the Richelieu — another 
over the Huron River about six miles East of the Richelieu. The piers 
and abutments of all the bridges are of excellent heavy ashlar masonry 
— the superstructures are of good materials and well framed, and 
altogether the structures exhibit all the qualities necessary to efficiency 
and durability. This section is chiefly embankment, which may be 
averaged throughout at 6 T % feet, but although it has been so long in 
actual use, it is by no means completed — indeed the superstructure 
may be said to have been in great part only temporarily laid, and it 
must be raised and relaid. The ballasting is chiefly yet to be done. 
The travel over it, in many places is very rough, but when ballasted 
and the rails relaid, the road will be found to have been benefited by 
the length of time during which the embankment will have had to 
fettle and consolidate, prior to the final laying of the rails. The 
Engineer sets down the sum of £ 1 8,000 as required for these pur- 
poses. From the rates at which this work of ballasting is let, and the 



69 

progress made in it, I have no doubt but that this sum will be found 
sufficient. 

The second section into which the line is divided, is from St» TTya- 
cinthe to the St. Francis, thirty-eight miles. Of this length the rails are 
now laid on about twelve miles — and the cross ties to take the rails on, 
about three miles more. The remainder of this section, has been worked 
on continuously and is so far advanced that the Contractor calculates on 
having the rails laid on the whole of it early in spring. I am however 
of opinion that the section will not be ready for the cars before the 
latter end of July. Upon this section also, there are several heavy- 
bridges crossing the Yarnaska, two branches of the Black River, Moose 
River, Shingle Creek, &., &c. The bridge over the Yarnaska may be 
looked on as finished, and the piers and abutments of all the others are 
also nearly completed — the masonry of the entire is very creditable — 
considerable progress is made on the superstructure of these bridges 
also, which can be finished before the other parts of the road are ready. 
For this section the whole of the cross ties, and of the rails, chains and 
spikes are ready on hand. 

The principal works remaining to be done are the completion of 
some embankment, and rock cutting in two or three places. The force 
employed on them is necessarily restricted, either from the nature of 
the drainage or the manner in which the work must be carried on from 
the ends. 

Section No 3, comprises that portion of the line from the St. 
Francis (including the bridge over that River) to the Depot at Sher- 
brooke being 27£ miles. Of this distance about 3 miles terminating at 
the Depot in Shipton are in progress, and the works thereon very 
forward, some heavy culverts built, the cuttings and embankments 
well advanced, and a very large amount of the work done at the bridge 
over the St. Francis. The masonry in the abutments and pier of this 
bridge, although of stone not so capable of being well dressed as that 
in the other bridges, is also of the most solid and permanent description. 
The rails, chains, spikes and cross ties for these three miles are also 
on hand. On the remainder of this section to Sherbrooke, about twenty- 
four and a quarter miles, nothing has been done, for this distance the line 
is yery favourable throughout, and no difficulties whatever present 
themselves.. 

The fourth anj last section is from the Depot in Sherbrooke to the 
Province line. On this section nothing has been doue : its length is 
about thirty and three-qnarter miles. 



70 

In concluding my general remaiks upon the points referred to in 
the second instruction, I would state that "the style and manner in 
" which the works, so far, have been constructed" is creditable to the 
skill and management of the Engineer, and ensures that the road 
when completed, will be a sound and durable structure, and of cheap 
maintenance. There are some of the embankments which from the 
soft nature of the base on which they stand, and the quality of the 
material of which they are composed, will in my judgment, be" subject 
to much settlement for some years, and will require to be raised and 
the superstructure relaid several times before they finally stand to their 
grade. This difficulty, more or less to be encountered in all such works, 
will be probably greater on this, from the fact of some of these banks 
being formed at once, in one lift, either by tumbling carts or wheel- 
barrows, and no means taken to consolidate the materials, 

Third. In proceeding to comply with the third instruction to me, 
namely, to ascertain from the monthly estimates and such other esti- 
mates or documents as I might find necessary, " the amount expended 
up to the present" on the work and its contingencies, I have to express 
my acknowledgment of the full and free manner in which I was per- 
mitted access to the estimates, accounts, exhibits of disbursements, &c, 
as well in the Engineer's office as in that of the Secretary. 

When, on my inspection, the estimates for the month of November 
were prepared and ready for payment ; and there being a fixed force 
on the work, there was no difficulty in ascertaining what the disburse- 
ments for December also would be. In order therefore to furnish a 
" statement of the amount expended up to the present," I had an 
exhibit prepared which I now give, showing the amounts paid on the 
several heads to November — the amounts to be paid for November 
and December (the means for which Mr. Gait informs me are in hand) 
and thus I am enabled to give you the statement required* 



Abstract of the Disbursements of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic 
Railroad Company, in the construction and equipment of the Railway 
up to the 25th October, 1850, together with an estimate of the Dis- 
bursements made and to be made in the months of November and 



71 



December, 1850, forming an estimate of the expenditure of the Com- 
pany up to the 1st January, 1851. 



Construction, direct 
expenditure. 


Paid. 


To be paid. 


Total. 




£ s. d. 
15706 6 8 

15602 17 11 
92447 7 1 
14661 4 9 
45379 13 2 
6773 19 9 

3857 12 10 

2684 5 

872 1 5 

1531 7 8 

17 1 5 


£ s. d. 
800 O 

1600 

1471 














£ s. d. 
16506 6 8 


Lands, stations and fenc- 
ing 


17202 17 11 


Grading 


93918 7 1 


Superstructure 


14661 4 9 


Iron 


45379 13 2 


Laving track 


6773 19 9 


Freight and passenger 

Buildings 

Machine and workshops... 

Water stations 

Turn tables 


3857 12 10 

2684 6 

872 1 i 

1531 7 8 


Snow ploughs 


17 I 5 






£ 
Black, Wood & Co. un- 
der their contract 


199533 13 1 
162533 6 9 


3871 
17595 16 3 


203404 13 1 
180129 3 O 


Total £ 


362066 19 10 


21466 16 3 


383533 16 1 



Incidental Expendditure. 



Office expenses 

Agency 

Presidents 

Law expenses 

Advertising 

Insurance 

Loss on Bills of Exchange 

Profit and loss 

Contingencies 

Interest 

Interest on instalments.... 

Total 



Paid. 



£ s. d. 
4034 17 9 
2166 3 8 

500 

703 5 9 

944 16 

409 2 

179 11 

11 3 

2349 2 

7354 2 

3131 12 



£21783 16 11 



To be paid. 



£ s. 

354 12 




d. 
6 



123 19 


2 


474 11 
250 


3 




Total. 



£ s. d. 

4389 10 3 

2166 3 8 

500 O 

703 5 9 

1068 15 7 

409 2 I 

179 11 2 

11 3 7 

2823 13 3 

9604 2 2 

3131 12 4 



3203 2 11 ! 249S6 19 10 



72 

Equipment. 





Paid. 


To be paid. 


Total. 




£ 3. 

10362 13 
3720 10 
3197 7 


d. 


7 
9 


£ s. d. 
1000 7 2 

2253 4 8 


£ s. d. 
11363 2 


Passenger carriages 

Freight and platform cars. 


3720 10 7 
5450 12 5 


Total 


£17280 11 


4 


3253 11 10 


20534 3 2 



General Result. 
Construction — 

Direct Expenditure £383,533 16 1 

Incidental Expenditure 24,986 19 10 

Total 408,520 15 11 

Equipment 20,534 3 2 

Total Expenditure to 1st January, 1851... 429,054 19 1 

"The amount of materials provided for the work" consists of 4,098 
tons of iron rail, 20 tons of iron for bridges, 123 tons of rail chairs, 
106 tons of rail spikes, between 60 and 70,000 cross ties for rails, 
220,000 feet of timber, 4,800 yards of stones, &c, the value of which 
is paid and included in the above amounts. 

Fourth, The extent of " rolling stock" now on the road is as 
follows : 

One Engine — " The Longueuil" American, two. 

Two do «* Britannia," " Princess" — Scotch. 

Three do " Morin," " Montreal," M Sherbrooke" — American. 

Two first class passenger cars. 

One first and second do. 

One second cl;iss do. 

Ten freight cars do. 

Ten platform do. 

Ten earth do. 

In Construction. 

Ten platform cars. 

One second class carriage. 



73 

fourth mid last instruction. To furnish the information required by 
this instruction in detail, would involve much time,— in fact it would 
make it necessary for me to go into a detailed measurement and esti- 
mate of the works in the remainder of the line. But although it is 
impossible for me now so to give it, I conceive I am enabled to give 
you such information on the state of the road generally, whether as 
relates to the proportion of work done, compared with what remains 
to be done, and the amount expended on it contrasted with the amount 
still to be expended, as will enable you to advise the Executive in the 
application of the provisions of 29th chap. Vict. 12th to this case. 

The following is the estimate I make of the cost of this road, exclu- 
sive of equipment. I entertain a strong belief that it is quite sufficient 
for its proper construction. This estimate is based on the following 
principle, viz : cost of Section No. 1, is taken to be the amount already 
paid on it, to which is added the amount to be paid, the amount 
required for the ballasting and re-laying the rails, and one-fourth of 
the sum given in the statement of expenditure and under the head of 
"Incidental Expenditure," the remaining three-fourths being put on 
the other three sections. 

Section 1. Thirty miles in length and in use. 

Amount paid 199,533 

" to be paid on work done 3,871 

Ballasting and re-laying 16,529 

The difference between this amount and £18,- 
000, being embraced in the preceding item. 
One- fourth of preliminary and Incidental 

Expenses 6,246 

£226,179 
Section 2. 38 miles — 12 miles in use. 

The rails &c, &c, delivered for the remainder 
which may be used in July next. 

Thirty-eight miles® £6550 per 248,900 

Add for three way and water stations 1,050 

One-fourth of preliminary and incidental ex- 
penses 6,246 

256,196 
Section 3. 27£ miles, rails. 

For three miles delivered, and works much ad- 
vanced. Twenty-seven and a quarter miles 
© £6,550 per 178,487 



74 



Add for two main stations and engine house 

and way station 12,350 

Proportion of Incidental Expenses, 6,246 



Section 4. 30J miles — nothing done. 

Thirty and three quarters mile @ £6550 per... 201,412 
Add for one main station and Engine House 

and three way stations 7,050 

One-fourth incidental expenses 6,246 



General Charges. 

Engineering and office expenses 10,000 

Contingencies although in fact these are 

covered by the mileage say 10,000 



197,033 



214,708 



914,166 



From the forward state of sections one and two, there can be no 
doubt as to the sufficiency of the amount set down in the foregoing 
estimates, for their full completion. Nor have I any doubt of the sum 
stated for section 3 being also ample. From the details and inform- 
ation afforded me by Mr. Gzowski, I am equally persuaded that the 
amount for section 4 is sufficient, and that, in short, therefore the 
sum of £914,166 will cover the cost of constructing the road. The 
three sections 2, 3 and 4 are under contract, with Black & Co., 
who are experienced and intelligent contractors, and well capable of 
judging at what price work can be done for. Prior to entering into 
contract, they examined the ground closely, and had full access to the 
Engineer's detailed measurements and estimates, on all of which they 
based their price. The section No. 4, as then located by Mr. Morton, 
was, throughout, on the east side of the Coaticook River, from near Len- 
noxville to the Province line. It crossed the summits of the Country 
— had very deep cuttings and embankments — some bad curves and 
grades, some of the latter being as high as fifty-eight feet to the mile. 
It is now proposed to cross the Coaticook River about seven miles 
south of Lennoxville, and follow up the valley of that river on the 
west side to the Province line. The route has been explored and 
selected by Mr. Gzowski. The summit by it is three hundred and six 
feet lower than that on the eastern route. It is very direct, and about 
a mile shorter than the other, the deep cuttings and embankments of 
which are avoided, and the greatest grade on it will be but forty-five 



75 

feet to the mile. These are all great advantages towards the after 
maintenance of the line, as well as in favour of the contractors, and, 
together with the draw back which the Company are entitled to keep 
in hands, amounting to .£50,000, ensure, in my judgment, the construc- 
tion of the road for the sum stated. 

Besides the above enumerated very favourable features in favour of 
the line west of the Coaticook, another most important advantage to 
be obtained by its adoption would be, that it admits of a direct con- 
nection with the "Boston Passumsic Road." From the point where 
the west Coaticook line crosses the frontier, to " Clyde Pond," at 
which the Boston Road would come in, is about fourteen miles. The 
Boston Road is now completed to St. Johnsbury, which is about thirty- 
five miles from Clyde Pond. From Clyde Pond to a common point 
on the Connecticut River (where either the east or west Coaticook 
route would join) is about sixteen miles. The west Coaticook route 
would be nine miles longer than the other, but this increased length 
(independent of thus having the direct junction with Boston) is made 
up for by the much more favourable country through which it passes. 
One object aimed at in the foregoing, is to show that all those 
changes found to be desirable since the contract with Messrs. 
Black & Co. was entered into, tend directly to lessen the cost of 
construction. 

On the construction therefore of the Quebec Branch, the Montreal 
and Atlantic Railroad would have two northern terminations; one at 
Quebec and one at Montreal; and two southern terminations; one at 
Boston and one at Portland; and that portion of the line from Rich- 
mond in Canada to Clyde Pond in Vermont, a length of seventy-two 
miles, would be a Main Trunk Line between all those places ; and of 
these seventy-two mile*, fifty-eight would be in Canada. 

By the contract, the contractors were to receive in payment 
£125,000 of Montreal City bonds — and one- fourth of the amount of 
their contract in the stock of the Company at par, and further, be paid 
such amount in stock also, as might be due them on the work until 
half the amount of it was done and the Provincial guarantee Deben- 
tures issMed, when such stock then in the hands of the contractors over 
and above the proportion of one-fourth as stated already, was to be 
exchanged for an equal amount of the guaranteed Debentures. By 
this transaction, the spirit of the Act would not have been acted on, as 
one-half of the full cost of the road would not bona fide have been paid 
by the Company prior to their obtaining the guarantee, which under 



76 

all circumstances should strictly be enforced. But by a late arrange- 
ment this condition, namely, replacing the amount of the surplus pay- 
ment in stock with guaranteed debentures, is quashed and waived by 
the contractors, and the guarantee when issued is to be solely disposed 
of to the completion of the remaining half of the works of the road. 
As shewn in the estimate, the total cost of constructing the road is set 
down at £914,166. The whole expenditure on the construction of 
the road by the Company to the first of January 1851, £408,519. 
The position therefore of the Company, as to the issuing of the 
guarantee, is this : 

Half the cost of constructing the road is £457,083 

Amount expended by the Company to first January 408,519 

Leaving a balance of £48,564 

still to be expended by them, before they would be entitled to the 
guarantee. But out of this sum they claim credit for £20,534 expended 
by them on equipment now in us^, requiring them, if this view is 
adopted to expend £28,030 before the guarantee be afforded. At the 
present rate of expenditure on the works, this amount will be expended 
in six or eight weeks. 

Although not immediately pressing, I consider it may be satisfactory 
to lay before you an estimate of the cost of the requisite equipment, 
which will be required on the completion of the road. A large por- 
tion of the expenditure, however, will not be called for until after its 
completion. 

Approximate estimate of the cost of equipment 

Say twenty-six first class Engines® £2,500 per £65,000 

Say for carriages and cars.. 49,000 

£114,000 
Deduct value of equipment on hand and paid for by the 

Company 20,500 

Ultimately required £93,500 

Of this sum say one-half may be required within eighteen months, 
and the remainder as the trade may make necessary ; but no guarantee 
can be called for until the Company can show that they have expended 
one half, say £46,750 or, if they are given credit in their present 
negotiations for the expenditure of £20,500, they will have to show 
an expenditure of £57,000 before they would be entitled to the guaran- 
tee on this amount. 



77 

In the estimate herein given, I have not embraced the item of 
interest, as I considered it was more properly the Province of the 
Finance Department. It may be well that I should refer to the sub- 
ject generally. 

Calculating on an equable rate of progress on the works, and that 
the Company would be enable to obtain the usual allowance of time 
in the payment for the iron, &c, the gross amount of guaran- 
teed bonds that may be required prior to the road coming fully into 
operation would be probably £400,000 and at the following rates 
and periods. 

£100,000 1st. April, 1851 

" 1st. July, " 

" 1st. January, 1852 

" 1st. April, w 

the interest payable semi-annually. 

On this calculation there would be the sum of £24,000 required to 
meet the interest from the present to the 1st January, 1853, inclusive. 
Within this same period the Company should receive from the lease of 
the road executed with Black & Co. the sum of £34,000. 

It will be at once perceived from the foregoing that the construction 
I put on the w r ords in the Act "until one- half* of the entire line of 
road shall have been completed," is (the correctness and sufficiency of 
the estimate being first ascertained and admitted) that the Company 
are entitled to the guarantee, so soon as they can show an actual 
expenditure on the road of one-half the estimated cost of construction. 
I consider that such is not only the reasonable interpretation of the 
Act, but that, in the present case, it is infinitely more desirable and 
for the interest of the road and of the public, that such interpretation 
should be put on it — rather than (as some might be disposed) to re- 
quire one-half the actual number of miles to be completed, without 
any reference to the works of the other half, before the guarantee is 
granted. 

Every practical man, acquainted with such works, knows that their 
speedy and proper completion may be advanced and ensured more by 
the heavy portions of the road throughout being carried on simul- 
taneously, than by confining the operations to one-half the road. 

The only reason that I can imagine to be advanced in support of 
the view of having one-half the mileage completed in the first instance 
is that thereby the local way travel of the road would be obtained. 
But the reason, however applicable, and probably very judicious in 



78 

some cases, is not applicable to this — inasmuch the centre of this road 
terminates in the centre of an extensive part of marsh lands, and is 
several miles distant from any road whatever. 

Should these my views, however, not be adopted, the next six 
months must in my opinion be entirely devoted to overcoming two or 
three minor obstacles near the St. Francis, and the ultimate completion 
of the road be correspondingly delayed, without the slightest practical 
benefit. 

On my late inspection, I found a large force employed on the 
forming up to grade several miles of road in consequence of the im- 
pression on the minds of the Company that one-half the mileage would 
be required. The frozen state of the ground and the nature of the 
material renders this course not only a most wasteful expenditure of 
their means, but by it also the work will be retarded, the frost kept in 
the ground and the proper formation of the road seriously interfered 
with. So strong is this my impression, that I would recommend the 
Company should at once be required to discontinue this unseasonable 
work, at the same time authorizing them immediately to commence on 
the several points along the line generally, where heavy rock or earth 
work is to be encountered. By adopting this course, a worse than 
useless expenditure will be put a stop to, and the proper cornpletiM 
and durability of the road accelerated and rendered more certain. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, by Sir, 

Your very obedient Servant, 

(Signed,) HAMILTON H. KILLALY. 

To the Honorable Joseph Bourret, 
Commissioner of Public Works. 

Certified to be a true copy of the original 
fyled in this office. 
Thomas A. Begly, 
Secretary. 

Department of Public Works, 
Toronto, 2Zrd January, 1851. 



79 

No. 5. 

GREAT WESTERN RAILROAD COMPANY. 

At a Meeting of the Stockholders of the Company, held in the 
Court House, on Monday, the 2nd instant, for the purpose of electing 
Directors for the ensuing year; 

E. C. Thomas, Esq., Sheriff, presided; J. T. Gilkison, Esq., acting 
as Secretary. 

The Chairman, having explained the object of the Meeting, called 
on the Secretary to read the Report of the retiring Directors: 
To the Stockholders of the Great Western Railroad Company. 

The Directors avail of your annual meeting to report their proceed- 
ings during their year of office; in which they include a review of the 
present position and prospects of your Company. 

At your meeting, 14th October last, held to authorise calls for 
instalments, your Directors submitted a Report, detailing their pro- 
ceedings to that date; in which they announced the subscription for 
stock by the City of Hamilton, and the actual commencement of the 
work by the contractors. They have now to acquaint you of the 
additional subscriptions for stock by the County of Oxford and the 
Towns of London and (rait, each for twenty- five thousand pounds 
Provincial currency, and of the unanimous passage of a by-law, by tf 
the rate-payers of the County of Middlesex, authorising the proper 
officers of that County to confirm and subscribe for a similar amount, 
which subscription is expected to be perfected very shortly, — and 
other Municipalities are willing to take stock if required. 

With the foregoing stock taken by Corporations, and the subscirp- 
tions of private shareholders, your Board felt justified in gradually 
extending the works, and there is at the present time a force Employed 
on the line, between this City and Woodstock, equal to three thousand 
men, besides the necessary Engineers, Agents, &c, &. The sections 
between Woodstock and London are staked out, ready for work, and 
the contractors notified to commence the grading operations. The 
cuttings on this part of the line, however, are light, and can be made 
ready for the superstructure in a much shorter period of time than the 
heavier works on the east side of the Grand River. 

Your Board, relying on the Provincial Guarantee, to furnish one- 
half the cost of the road, have resolved to limit the issue of shares to 
forty thousand: ten thousand of which they have placed at the disposal 
of Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Atcheson, the agents for the Company in 



80 

Great Britain; and other ten thousand shares they have, by agreement, 
reserved for subscriptions by Railroad Corporations and Capitalists, 
interested in your road, belonging to the neighbouring States; and 
with the view of this latter subscription being carried into effect at an 
early day, three gentlemen of the highest respectability, having very 
great experience in railway matters, and being connected with and 
possessing the confidence of corporations and individuals from whom 
the largest subscriptions are to be got: viz., Erastus Corning, of 
Albany, John M. Forbes, of Boston, and J. W. Brooks, of Detroit, 
Esquires, have become, by the purchase of stock, qualified to be Di- 
rectors of your Company, and the retiring Diiectors beg to recommend 
the election of the said Gentlemen by the stockholders present, as part 
of the Board for the coming year. 

Until the subscriptions for stock sent to Great Britain, or for the 
United States, are perfected, and the necessary instalments paid there- 
on, your Board have confined, and are restricting the outlay of money 
to the parts of the road which can be finished with the present avail- 
able resources of the Company, that ia to say, the division between 
this City and London, and the line to Gait; and so soon as the sub- 
scriptions referred to are received, (and no doubt is entertained of 
their being perfected during the present month,) the retiring Directors 
recommend thtir successors to force the completion of the whole line 
without delay. 

The receipts of the Company to the present time amount to eighty- 
one thousand five hundred and seventy-nine pounds, two shillings and 
five- pence, currency, and the disbursements to fifty-eight thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-one pounds, twelve shillings, and nine- 
pence, leaving on hand (the balance) twenty-two thousand seven hun- 
dred and seven pounds, nine shillings and eight-pence. The Directors 
have further to state, that an arrangement has been concluded with 
your Bankers, by which a current credit to the extent of fifty thou- 
sand pounds Provincial currency has been established, on terms con- 
sidered favourable to the Company. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

(Signed,) ROBERT W. HARRIS, 

President. 



Railway Office, Hamilton, 
2nd June, 1851. 



81 

Moved by "W. L. Distin, Esq., seconded by Mr. R. Bull, 

Resolved, — That the Report just read and submitted to this Meet- 
ng be adopted, and the same be published. 

Moved by Dr. Hamilton, seconded by W, L. Distin, Esq., 

Resolved, — That the thanks of the Shareholders are especially due to 
the President, Robert W. Harris, Esq., for the time and attention he 
has devoted to the affairs of the Company during the past year, am<l 
that the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds be presented to him, 
not as an adequate remuneration, but as an acknowledgment of the 
valuable services he has rendeied the Company at a period of so much 
importance to their interests. 

(In acknowledging which, the President respectfully declined ac- 
cepting the £250.) 

Moved by Miles O'Reilly, Esq., seconded by Edward Jackson, Esq , 

Resolved, — That the thanks of this Meeting are due, and that they 
are hereby tendered, to the Directors for the past year. 

Moved by John Whyte, Esq., seconded by Jas. B. Ewart, Esq., 

Resolved, — That the special thanks of this Company are due, and 
are hereby tendered, to Sir Allan N. MacNab, the representative of 
this City, for the services which he has rendered to the Company in 
his place in Parliament. 

Moved by Sir Allan N. MacNab, seconded by Geo. S. Tiffany, Esq., 
Resolved, — That Alex. Campbell, and W. L. Distin, Esqrs., be 
requested to act as scrutineers. 



The election of Directors was then proceeded with, and the follow- 
ing gentlemen declared duly elected: — 

Robert W. Harris, Esq., Hamilton; Sir Allan N. MacNab, Dun- 
durn; Henry McKinstry, Esq., Richard Juson, Esq., Jno. Young, 
Esq., George S. Tiffany, Esq., Hamilton ; W. H. Dickson, Esq. 3 
M. P. P., Niagara ; W. P. McLaren, Esq., Hamilton ; Erastus 
Corning. Esq., Albany; John M. Forbes, Esq., Boston; J. W. Brooks 
Esq., Detroit. 

F 



82 

On motion of Walter H. Dickson, Esq., the Sheriff left the Chair, 
and the same being taken by Sir Allan N. MacNab, the thanks of the 
meeting were then given to the Sheriff for his conduct in the Chair. 

(Signed,) J. T. GILKISON, 

Secretary. 
Court House, 
Hamilton, June 3, 1851. 



At a meeting of the Directors, subsequent to the above, Robert W. 
Harris, and W. P. McLaren, Esqrs., were respectively elected Presid- 
ent and Chairman of the Company. 

(Signed,) J. T. GILKISON, 

Secretary. 
Office of the Great Western Railroad Co., 
Hamilton, June 3, 1S5L 



No. 6. 



BILL. 

An Act for consolidating in one Act certain pro- 
visions usually inserted in Acts authorizing the 
making of Railways. 

WHEREAS it is expedient to comprise in one gen- 
eral Act sundry provisions usually introduced into 
Acts of the Provincial Parliament, authorising the con- 
struction of Railways in this Province, as well for the 
purpose of avoiding the necessity of repeating such pro- 
visions in each of the several Acts relating to such un- 
dertakings, as for insuring greater uniformity in the pro- 
visions themselves : Be it theiefore enacted, &c, 

L That this Act shall apply to every Railway which 
shall, by any Act which shall hereafter be passed be au- 
thorised to be constructed, and this Act shall be incorpo- 
rated with such Act; and all the clauses and provisions 
of this Act, save so far as they shall be expressly varied 
or excepted by any such Act, shall apply to the under- 
taking authorised thereby, so far as the same shall be 
applicable to such undertaking, and shall, as well as the 
clauses and provisions of every other Act which shall be 
incorporated with such Act, form part of such Act, and 
be construed together therewith as forming one Act. 

II. That in citing this Act, in any special Railway Act 
and in other Acts of Parliament, and in legal instruments, 
it shall be sufficient to use the expression, " The Rail- 
way Clauses Consolidation Act" 

III. That for the purpose of making any incorporation 
of this Act with special Acts hereafter to be passed, it 
shall be sufficient in any such Acts to enact that the 
clauses of this Act, with respect to the matter so pro- 



84 

posed to be incorporated, describing such mattter as it 
is described in this Act, in the words introductory to the 
enactment with respect to such matter, shall be incor- 
porated with such Acts, and thereupon all the clauses and 
provisions of this Act, with respect to the matter s > in- 
corporated shall, save so far as they shall be expressly 
varied or excepted by such Acts, form part thereof, and 
such Acts shall be construed as if the substance of such 
clauses and provisions were set forth therein with refer- 
ence to the matter to which such Acts shall relate. 

IV. The power given by the spec'al Act to construct 
the Railway, and to take lands for that purpose, shall be 
exercised subject to the provisions and restrictions con- 
tained in this Act, and compensation shall be made to the 
owners and occupiers of and all other parties interested 
in any such lands so taken or injuriously affected by the 
construction of the Railway, for the value and for all 
damages sustained by reason of such exercise, as regards 
such lands, of the powers by this or the special Act, or 
any Act incorporated therewith, vested in the Company; 
and, except where otherwise provided by this Act or the 
special Act, the amount of such compensation shall be 
ascertained and determined in the manner provided by 
this Act. 

V. Any Company desirous to obtain a Special Act for 
the construction of a Railway, shall be held to deposit with 
the Secretary of the Province, previous to the applica- 
tion to the Legislature, a copy of their Stock- Book, show- 
ing the number of their subscribers, and the actual bond 
fide amount of the subscriptions, and that at least 
one quarter of the intended capital has been actually 
subscribed, the truth whereof shall be supported by the 
affidavit or solemn affirmation, as the case may be, of two 
of the Directors or Shareholders of the Company, and 
the Company shall also at the same time deposit with the 
said Secretary a certificate of the Cashier of any charter- 
ed Bank in this Province of the deposit therein of a sum 



85 



equal to ten per cent, upon the amount of subscriptions, 
with authority to the Secretary to control the withdrawal of 
the said deposit for such time as the Secretary may think 
proper, not longer than six months after the Railway shall 
have been actually commenced and proceeded with. 

VI. No Bill for a Special Act for the allowance or esta- 
blishment of a Railway shall be received by the Legis- 
lature unless and until there shall be deposited with the 
Clerks of both branches, a certificate from the Secretary 
of the Province, that the Company applying has com- 
plied in all respects with the requirements of the next 
preceding clause. 

INTERPRETATION. 

VII. And with respect to the construction of this Ac!, 
and of any Special Act, and of other Acts to be incor- 
porated therewith, be it enacted as follows : 

1. The expression "the special Act," used in this 
Act shall be construed to mean any Act which shall be 
hereafter passed, authorising the construction of a Rail- 
way, and with which ihis Act shall be so incorporated as 
aforesaid ; and the word " prescribed," used in this Act 
in reference to any matter herein stated, shall be con- 
strued to refer to such matter as the same shall be pre- 
scribed or provided for in the special Act ; and the sen- 
tence in which such word shall occur shall be construed 
as if, instead of the word " prescribed," the expression 
"prescribed for that purpose in the special Act" had 
been used ; and the expression " the lands," shall mean 
the lands which shall, by the special Act, be authorised 
to be taken or used for the purpose thereof; and the ex- 
pression " the undertaking," shall mean the Railway and 
works, of whatever description, by the special Act au- 
thorised to be executed. 

2. The following words and expressions, both in this 
and the special Act, shall have the meanings hereby 



86 

assigned to them, unless there be something in the sub- 
ject or context repugnant to such construction; (that is 
to say,) 

The word "Lands" shall include all real estate, mes- 
suages, lands, tenements and hereditaments of any tenure : 

The word " Lease" shall include any agreement for a 
lease : 

The word " Toll " shall include any rate or charge or 
other payment payable under this Act or the special Act 
for any passenger, animai, carriage, goods, merchandize, 
articles, matters or things conveyed on the Railway: 

The wo^d" Goods "shall include things of every kind 
conveyed upon the Railway : 

The expression " Superior Courts " shall mean the 
Courts of Chancery, Queen's Bench and Common Pleas 
in Upper Canada, and the Superior Court in Lower 
Canada, as the case may be: 

The word " County " shall include any Riding or 
like division of a County, or any division thereof into 
separate Municipalities : 

The word ' ; Highways " shall mean all public roads, 
streets, lanes, and other public ways and communications: 

The word "Sheriff" shall include Under Sheriff or 
other legal competent Deputy ; and where any matter 
in relation to any lands is required to be done by any 
Sheriff or Clerk of the Peace, the expression " the 
Sheiiff, " or the expression " Clerk of the Peace," shall 
in such case be construed to mean the Sheriff or Clerk 
of the Peace of the District, County, Riding, Division, 
or place where such lands shall be situate ; and if the 
lands in question, being the property of one and the same 
party, be situate not wholly in one District, Couniy Rid- 
ing, Division, or place, the same expression shall be 
construed to mean the Sheriff or Clerk of the Peace of 



87 

any such District, County, Riding, Division, or place 
where any part of such lands shall be situate: 

The word "Justice" shall mean Justice of the Peace 
acting for the District, County, Riding, Division, City or 
place where the matter requiring the cognizance of imy 
such Justice shall arise, and who shall not be interested 
in the matter; and where such matter shall arise in 
respect of lands being the property of one and the same 
party, situate not wholly in any one District, County, Rid- 
ing Division, City or place, shall mean a Justice acting for 
the District, County, Riding, Division City, or place where 
any \ art of such lands shall be situate, and who shall not 
be interested in such matter; and where any matter shall 
be authorised or required to be done by two Justices, 
the expression "two Justices" shall be understood to 
mean two Justices assembled and acting together: 

Where under the provisions of this Act or the Special 
Act any notice shall be required to be given to the owner 
of any lands, or where any act shall be authorised or re- 
quired to be done with the consent of any such owner, 
the word " owner" shall be understood to mean any Cor- 
poration or person who under the provisions of this Act, 
or the Special Act, or any Act incorporated therewith, 
would be enabled to sell and convey lands to the Com- 
pany. 

The expression "the Company" shall mean the com- 
pany or party which shal; be authorised by the Special 
Act to construct the Railway. 

The expression " the Railway" shall mean the Railway 
and w r orks by the Special Act authorised to be constructed. 

The word " clause" shall mean any separate section of 
this Act, or any other Act therein referred to, distinguished 
by a separate number. 

The word, " shareholder" shall mean every subscriber 
to or holder of stock in the undertaking, and shall extend 
to and include the personal representatives of the share- 
holder. 



88 

3. The Interpretation Act of this Province shall, in so 
far as the provisions thereof shall apply hereto, be deemed 
to form part hereof in the particulars not provided herein 



INCORPORATION. 

VIII. Every Company established under any Special 
Act shall be and is hereby declared to be, a body corporate 
under such name as shall be declared in the Special Act, 
and shall be and is hereby invested with all the powers, 
privileges and immunities which are or may be necessary 
to carry into effect the intentions and objects of this Act 
and of the Special Act therefor, and which are incident 
to such Corporation as are expressed or included in the 
Interpretation Act of this Province. 



POWERS. 
IX. The Company shall have power and authority ; 

1. To receive, hold, and take all voluntary grants and 
donations of land or other property which shall be made 
to it, to aid in the construction, maintenance and accom- 
modation of the Railway, but which shall be held and used 
for the purpose of such grants or donations only* 

2. To purchase, hold and take of any corporation or 
person any land or other property necessary for the con- 
struction, maintenance, accommodation and use of the 
Railway, and also to alienate, sell or dispose of the same. 

3. To take, use, occupy and hold, but not to alienate 
except by way of lease, so much of the public beach or of 
the land covered with the waters of any river or lake in 
this Province as may be required for the Railway, doins: 



89 

no damage to, nor causing any obstruction in the naviga- 
tion of the said rivers or lakes: provided thai the lease 
shall be conditioned not to extend beyond the time during 
which such beach or land is required for the Railway. 

4. To make, carry or place the Railway across or upon 
the lands of any Corporation or person whomsoever on 
the line of the Railway, or within the distance from such 
line as may be stated in the Special Act, although the 
name of such party be not entered m the book of refer- 
ence hereinafter mentioned, through error or any other 
cause, or although some other party be erroneously men- 
tioned as the owner of or entitled to convey, or be in- 
terested in such lands. 

5. To construct, maintain and work the Railway across, 
along, or upon any stream of water, water course, 
canal, highway or railway which it shall intersect 
or touch ; but the stream, water course or canal so 
intersected or touched, shall be restored by the Company 
to its former state, or to such state as not unnecessarily 
to have impaired its usefulness. 

6. To make, complete, alter and keep in repair the 
Railway with one or more sets of rails or tracks to be 
worked by the force and power of steam, or of the atmo- 
sphere, or of animals, or by mechanical power, or by any 
combination of them. 

7. To erect and maintain all necessary and convenient 
buildings, stations, depots, wharves and fixtures, from 
time to time to alter, repair or enlarge the same, and to 
purchase and acquire stationary or locomotive engines 
and carriages, waggons, floats and other machinery and 
contrivances necessary for the accommodation and use of 
the passengers, freights and business of the Railway. 

8. To make branch Railways, if required and pro- 
vided by the Special Act, and to manage the same, and for 



90 

that purpose to exercise and possess all the powers, 
privileges and authorities necessary therefor, in as full and 
ample a manner as tor the Railway. 

9. To turn and change the course of any river not being 
a navigable river, or of any brook, stream or water course 
requisite or convenient for the Railway. 

10. To erect a bridge across any navigable river or 
stream, or any tide water, for the sole and exclusive travel 
on the Railway, provided such bridge shall be so con- 
structed as not unnecessarily to obstruct or impede the 
navigation of such river, stream or water. 

1 1. To construct erect and make all other matters and 
things which shall be necessary and convenient for the 
making, extending and using of the Railway, in pursuance 
of and according to the meaning and intent of this Act, 
and of the Special Act. 

1*2. To take, transport, carry and convey persons and 
goods on the Railway, to regulate the time and manner 
in which the same shall be transported, and the tolls and 
compensation to be paid therefor, and to receive such 
tolls and compensation. 

13 To borrow from time to time, either in this Province 
or elsewhere, such sums of money as may be expedient 
for completing, maintaining and working the Railway, and 
at a rate of interest not exceeding eight per cent, per 
annum, and to make the bonds, debentures or other se- 
curities granted for the sums so borrowed, payable either 
in currency or in sterling, and at such place or places 
within this Province or without as may be deemed ad- 
visable, and to sell the same at such prices or discount as 
may be deemed expedient, or as shall be necessary, and 
to hypothecate, mortgage or pledge the lands, tolls, re- 
venues and other property of the Company for the 
due payment of the said sums and the interest thereon, 



9t 

but no such debenture shall be for a less sum than 
twenty-five pounds. 

1 t. To enter into and upon any lands of Her Majesty 
without previous license therefor, or of any Corporation 
or person whatsoever lying in the intended route or line 
of the Railway. 

15* To make surveys, examinations, or other necessary 
arrangement on such lands necessary for fixing die site of 
the Railway, and to set out and ascertain such parts of 
the lands as shall be necessary and proper for the Rail- 
way. 

16. To take, remove and use for the necessary con- 
struction, maintenance and repair of the Railway, any 
earth, gravel, stone, sand, timber or other materials 
necessary therefor, on or upon the lands taken, or upon 
or out of the lands of any person adjoining or lying con- 
venient to the line of the Railway. 

17. To fed or remove any trees standing in any woods, 
lands or forests, where the Railway shall pass, to the dis- 
tance of six rods from either side thereof. 

18. To cross, intersect, join and unite the Railway with 
any other Railway at any point on its route, and upon the 
lands of such other Railway, with the necessary con- 
veniences for the purposes of such connection; and the 
owners of both Railways may uniie in forming such in- 
tersection, and grant the facilities therefor; and in case 
of disagreement upon the amount of compensation to be 
made therefor,or upon the point or manner of such crossing 
and connection, the same shall be determined by arbitra- 
tors to be appointed by a Judge of the Superior Courts 
in Lower Canada or Upper Canada as the case may be. 



92 

PLANS AND SURVEYS. 

X. Plans and surveys shall be made and corrected as 
follows: . 

1. Surveys and levels shall be taken and made of the 
lands through which the Railway is to pass, together with 
a map or plan thereof, and of its course and direction, 
and of the lands intended to be passed over and taken 
therefor, so far as then ascertained, and also a book of 
reference for the Railway, in which shall be set forth a 
general description of the said lands, the names of the 
owners and occupiers thereof, so far as they can be as- 
certained, and every thing necessary for the right under- 
standing of such map or plan; and the map or plan and 
book of reference shall be examined and certified by the 
person performing the duties formerly assigned to the 
Surveyor General or his deputies, who shall deposit 
copies thereof in the office of the Clerks of the Peace 
in the Districts or Comities through which the Railway 
shall. pass, and also in the Office of the Secretary of the 
Province, and shall also deliver one copy thereof to the 
said Company ; and all persons shall have liberty to re- 
sort to such copies, and to make extracts or copies thereof, 
as occasion shall require, paying to the said Secretary of 
the Province, or to the said Clerks of the Peace, at the 
rate of six pence for every hundred words ; and the said 
triplicates of the said map or plan and book of reference 
so certified, or a true copy thereof certified by the Se- 
cretary of the Province or by the Clerks of the Peace, 
shall be, and is and are hereby declared to be, good evi- 
dence in any Court of Law and elsewhere. 

2. Any omission, misstatement or erroneous descrip- 
tion of such* lands, or of such owners or occupiers thereof, 
in any map or plan or book of reference, may be correct- 
ed by two Justices on application made to them, after 
giving ten days' notice to the owners of such lands, for 
the correction thereof, and the parties shall certify the same 



93 

accordingly if it shall appear to them that such omission, 
misstatement or erroneous description arose from mistake ; 
and the certificate shall state the particulars of any such 
omission, and the manner thereof, and shall be deposited 
with the said Clerks of the Peace of the Districts or 
Counties, respectively, in which such lands shail be situ- 
ate, and be kept by them respectively along with the 
other documents to which they relate ; and thereupon such 
map or plan, or book of reference shall be deemed to be 
corrected according to such certificate ; and it shall be 
lawful for the Company to make the Railway in accord- 
ance with such certificate. 

3. If any alterations from the original plan or survey be 
intended to be made in the line or course of the Rail- 
way, a plan and section in triplicate of such alterations 
as shall have been approved of by Parliament, on the 
same scale and containing the same particulars as the 
original plan and survey shall be deposited in the same 
manner as the original plan, and copies or extracts of 
such plan and section as shall relate to the several Districts 
or Counties in or through which such alterations shall 
have been authorised to be made, shall be deposited with 
the Clerks of such several Districts and Counties. 

4. Until such original map or plan and book of refer- 
ence, or the plans and sections of the alterations, shall 
have been deposited as aforesaid, the execution of the 
Railway or of the part thereof affected by the alterations, 
as the case may be, shall not be proceeded with. 

5. The Clerks of the Peace shall receive and re- 
tain the copies of the original plans and surveys, and 
copies of the plans and sections of alterations, and copies 
and extracts thereof respectively, and shall permit all 
persons interested to inspect any of the documents afore- 
said, and to make copies and extracts of and from the 
same, under a penalty for default of currency. 



94 

6. The copies of the maps, plans and books of 
reference, or of any alteration or correction thereof, or 
extracts therefrom, certified by any such Clerk of the 
Peace, which certificate such Clerk of the Peace shall 
give to all parties interested when required, shall be re- 
ceived in all Courts of Justice or elsewhere as good 
evidence of the contents thereof. 

7. No deviation of more than one mile from the line of 
the Railway or from the places assigned thereto, in the 
said map or plan and book of reference or plans or sec- 
tions shall be made, nor into, through, across, under or 
over any part of the lands shewn in such map or plan 
and book of reference, or plans or sections, or within one 
mile of the said line and places, save in such instances 
as are provided for in the Special Act. 

8. Provided that the Railway may be carried across or 
upon the lands of any person on the line, or within the 
distance from such line as aforesaid, although the name 
of such person be not entered in the book of reference, 
through error or any other cause, or although some other 
person be erroneously mentioned as the owner of or en- 
titled to convey, or be interested in such lands. 

9. The lands which may be taken without the consent 
of the proprietor thereof, shall not exceed thirty yards in 
breadth, except in such places where the Railway shall 
be raised more than five feet higher, or cut more than five 
feet deeper than the surface of the line, or where offsets 
shall be established, or where stations, depots or fixtures 
are intended to be erected, or goods be delivered, and 
then not more than two hundred yards in length by one 
hundred and fifty yards in breadth, without the consent 
of the person authorised to convey such lands; and the 
places at which such extra breadth is to be taken, shall 
be shewn on the map or plan, or plans or sections, so far 
as the same may be then ascertained, but their not being 
so shewn shall not prevent such extra breadth from being 



95 

taken, provided it he taken upon the line shewn or 
within the distance aforesaid from such line. 

10. The extent of the puhlic beach or of the land 
covered with the waters of any river or lake in this Pro- 
vince, taken for the Railway, shall not exceed the quan- 
tity limited in the next preceding clause. 



LANDS, AND THEIR VALUATION. 

XL The conveyance of lands, their valuation and the 
ompensation therefor, shall be made in manner follow- 



1. All corporations and persons whatever, tenants in 
tail or for life, greces de substitution, guardians, curators, 
executors, administrators, and all other trustees whatso- 
ever, not only for and on behalf of themselves, their heirs 
and successors, but also for and on behalf of those whom 
they represent, whether infants, issue unborn, lunatics, 
idiot s, femes couvertes, or other persons, who ate or shall 
be seised, possessed of or interested in any lands, may 
contract for, sell and convey unto the Company all or any 
part thereof; and any contract, agreement, sale, convey- 
ance and assurance so to be made, shall be valid and ef- 
fectual in law to all intents and purposes whatsoever, any 
law, statute, usage or custom to the contrary thereof in 
anywise notwithstanding, and such corporation or person, 
so conveying as aforesaid, is hereby indemnified for what 
he shall respectively do by virtue of or in pursuance of 
this Act. 

2. Provided, that any contract or agreement made by 
any party authorised by this Act to convey lands, and 
made before the deposit of the map or plan and book of 
reference, and before the setting out and ascertaining of 
the lands required for the Railway, shall be binding at the 
price agreed upon for the same lands, if they shall be after- 



96 

wards so set out and ascertained within one year from the 
date of the contract or agreement, and although such 
land may, in the mean time, have become the property of 
a third party ; and possession of the land may be taken 
and the agreement and price may be dealt with, as if 
such price had been fixed by an award of arbitrators as 
hereinafter provided, and the agreement shall be in the 
place of an award. 

3. All corporations or persons who cannot in common 
course of law sell or alienate any lands so set out and as- 
certained, shall agree upon a fixed annual rent as an equi- 
valent, and not upon a principal sum, to be paid for the 
lands ; and if the amount of the tent shall not be fixed 
by voluntary agreement or compromise, it shall be fixed 
in the manner herein prescribed, and all proceedings shall 
in that case be regulated as herein prescribed ; and for 
the payment of the said annual rent, and every other an- 
nual rent agreed upon or ascertained, and to be paid for 
the purchase of any lands, or for any part of the purchase 
money of any lands, which the vendor shall agree to leave 
unpaid, the Railway and the tolls thereon shall be, and 
are hereby made liable and chargeable, in preference to 
all other claims and demands thereon whatsoever, the 
deed creating such charge and liability being duly regis- 
tered in the Registry Office of the proper County. 

4. Whenever there shall be more than one party pro- 
prietor of any land as joint tenants or tenants in common, 
or par indivis, any contract or agreement made in good faith 
with any party or parties proprietoror beingtogetherpropri- 
etors of one-third or more of such land, as to the amount 
of compensation for the same or for any damages thereto, 
shall be binding as between the remaining proprietor or 
proprietors as joint tenants or tenants in common and par 
indivis; and the proprietor or proprietors who have so 
agreed, may deliver possession of such land, or empower 
the er try upon the same, as the case maybe. 



97 

5. After one month from the deposit of the map or 
plan and book of reference as aforesaid, and from notice 
thereof in at least one newspaper published in each of 
the Districts and Counties through which the Railway is 
intended to pass, application may be made to the owners 
of lands or to parties empowered to convey lands, or 
interested in lands which may suffer damage from the taking 
of materials or the exercise of any of the powers 
granted for the Railway, and thereupon agreements and 
contracts may be made with the said parties touching 
the said lands or the compensation to be paid for the 
same, or for the damages, or as to the mode in which the 
said compensation shall be ascertained, as shall seem 
expedient to both parties, and in case of disagreement 
between them, or any of them, then all questions which 
shall arise between them, shall be settled as follows, that 
is to say : 

6. The deposit of a map or plan and book of reference, 
and the notice of such deposit, given as aforesaid, shall 
be deemed a general notice to all such parties as afore- 
said of the lands which will be required for the said 
Railway and works. 

7. A notice served upon the party, containing a des- 
cription of the lands to be taken, or of the powers in- 
tended to be exercised with regard to any lands, describ- 
ing them ; a declaration of readiness to pay some certain 
sum, or rent as the case may be, as compensation for such 
lands or for such damages, and the name of a person to 
be appointed as the Arbitrator of the Company, if their 
offer be not accepted ; and such notice shall be accom- 
panied by the certificate of a sworn Surveyor for either 
Province, as the case may be, disinterested in the matter 
and not being the Arbitrator named in the notice, that 
4he land, if the notice relate to the taking of land, is shewn 
on the said map or plan and is required for the Railway, 
or is within the limits of deviation hereby allowed ; that 
he knows the land, or the amount of damage likely to 



98 

arise from the exercise of the powers ; and that the 
sum so offered, is in his opinion, a fair compensation for 
the land, and for the damages as aforesaid. 

8. If the opposite party be absent from the District or 
County in which the lands lie, or be unknown, then upon 
application to a Judge of the District or Circuit Court, as 
the case may be, accompanied by such certificate as afore- 
said, and by an affidavit of some officer of the Company 
that the opposite party is so absent, or that after diligent 
enquiry the party on whom the notice ought to be served 
cannot be ascertained, the Judge shall order a notice as 
aforesaid, but without the certificate, to be inserted three 
times in the course of one calendar month in some news- 
paper published in the said District or County. 

9. If within Jen days after the service of such notice, 
or within one month after the first publication thereof as 
aforesaid, the opposite party shall not notify to the Com- 
pany his acceptance of the sum offered by them, or notify 
to them the name of a person whom he appoints as Arbi- 
trator, then the Judge shall, on the application of the 
Company, appoint a sworn Surveyor for Upper or Lower 
Canada, as the case may be, to be sole Arbitrator for 
determining the compensation to be paid as aforesaid. 

10. If the opposite party shall, within the time afore- 
said, notify to the Company the name of his Arbitrator, 
then the two Arbitrators shall jointly appoint a third, or if 
they cannot agree upon a third, then the Judge shall, on 
the application of the party or of the Company, (previous 
notice of at least one clear day having been given to the 
other party,) appoint a third Arbitrator. 

11. The Arbitrators, or any two of them, or the sole 
Arbitrator, being sworn, before some Justice of the Peace 
for the County in which the lands lie as aforesaid, faith- 
fully and impartially to perform the duties of their office 
shall proceed to ascertain the said compensation in sucl 



99 

ray as they or he, or a majority of them, shall deem best, 
md the award of such Arbitrators, or any two of them, or 
hf the sole Arbitrator, shall be final and conclusive : Pro- 
id, that no such award shall be made or any official 
Let be done by such majority, except at a meeting held at a 
Erne and place of which the othei Arbitrator shall have 
at least one clear day's notice, or to which some meeting 
lat which the third Arbitrator was present, shall have been 
adjourned ; and no notice to either of the parties shall be 
accessary, but they shall be held sufficiently notified 
through the Arbitrator they shall have appointed, or whose 
appointment they shall have required. 

12. Provided, that if in any case where three Arbi- 
trators shall have been appointed, the sum awarded be 
not greater than that offered, the costs of the Arbitration 
shall be borne by the opposite party, and deducted from 
the compensation, but if otherwise, they shall be borne 
by the Company, and in either case they may, if not 
agreed upon, be taxed by the Judge aforesaid. 

13. The Arbitrators, or a majority of them, or the sole 
Arbitrator, may examine on oath or solemn affirmation 
the parties, or such witnesses as shall voluntarily appear 
before him or them, and may administer such oath or af- 
firmation ; and any wilfully false statement made by any 
witness, under such oath or affirmation, shall be deemed 
wilful and corrupt perjury, and punishable accordingly* 

14. The Judge by whom any third Arbitrator or sole 
Arbitrator shall be appointed, shall, at the same time, fix 
a day on or before which the award shall be made, and 
if the same be not made on or before such day, or some 
other day to which the time for making it shall have been 
prolonged, either by the consent of the parties or by the 
order of the Judge, as it may be for reasonable cause 
shewn, on the application of such sole Arbitrator or of 
one of the Arbitrators after one clear day's notice to the 
others, then the sum offered by the Company as afore- 
said shall be the compensation to be paid by them. 



100 






15. If the Arbitrator appointed by such Judge, or L 
any Arbitrator appointed by the parties, shall die before 
the award be made, or be disqualified, or refuse or fail to 
act within a reasonable time, then, upon the application of 
either party, such Judge being satisfied by affidavit or 
otherwise of such disqualification, refusal or failure, inaj r 
in his discretion, appoint another Arbitrator in the place 
of him by the Judge previously appointed, and the Com- 
pany and party may each appoint an Arbitrator in the 
place of their Arbitrator deceased or otherwise not acting 
as aforesaid, but no recommencement or repetition of 
prior proceedings shall be required in any case. 

] 6. Any such notice for lands, as aforesaid, may be 
desisted from, and new notice given with regard to the 
same or other lands, to the same or any other party, but in 
any such case the liability to the party first notified for all 
damages or costs by him incurred in consequence of such 
first notice and desistment shall subsist 

17. The Surveyor or other person offered or appointed 
as Valuator, or as Arbitrator, shall not be disqualified by 
reason that he is professionally employed by either party, 
or that he has previously expressed an opinion as to the 
amount of compensation, or that he is related or of kin to 
any member of the Company, provided he is not himself 
personally interested in the amount of the compensation^ 
and no cause of disqualification shall be urged against 
any Arbitrator appointed by the Judge after his ap- 
pointment, but shall be made before the same, and its 
validity or invalidity shall be summarily determined by 
the Judge ; and no cause of disqualification shall be urged 
against any Arbitrator appointed by the Company or by 
the opposite party, after the appointment of a third Arbi- 
trator ; and the validity or invalidity of any cause of dis- 
qualification urged against any such Arbitrator, before the 
appointment of a third Arbitrator, shall be summarily de- 
termined by any sucb Judge, on the application of either 
party, after one clear day's days notice to the other, and 



101 

ch cause be determined to be valid, the appointment 
.shall be null, and the party offering the person so adjudged 
to be disqualified, shall be held to have appointed no Ar- 
bitrator. 

18. No award made as aforesaid shall be invalidated 
ifrom any want of form or other technical objection, if die 
'requirements of this Act shall have been complied with, 
tend if the award shall state clearly the sum awarded, and 
Ke lands or other property, right or thing for which such 
sum is to be the compensation; nor shall it be necessary 
that the party or parties to whom the sum is to be paid 
be named in the award. . 

10. Upon payment or legal tender of the compensa- 
tion or annual rent so awarded or agreed upon as afore- 
said to the party entitled to receive the same, or upon 
deposit of the amount of such compensation in the 
manner hereinafter mentioned, the award or agreement 
ghall vest in the said Company the power forthwith to 
take possession of the lands, or to exercise the right, or 
to do the thing lor which such compensation or annual 
rent shall have been awarded or agreed upon ; and if any 
resistance or forcible opposition shall be made by any 
person to their so doing, the Judge mav, on proof to 
his satisfaction of such award or agreement, issue his 
warrant to the Sheriff : f the District or County, or to a 
Bailiff, as he may deem most suitable, to put the said 
Company in possession, and to put down such resistance 
pr opposition, which the Sheriff or Bailiff, taking with him 
sufficient assistance, shall accordingly do: Provided that 
such warrant may also be granted by any such Judge, 
without such award or agreement, on affidavit to his satis- 
faction that the immediate possession of the lands or of 
the power to do the thing mentioned in the notice, is 
necessary to carry on some part of the said Railway 
with which the said Company are ready forthwith to 
proceed ; and upon the said Company giving security 
to his satisfaction, and in a sum which shall not be less 



102 

than double the amount mentioned in the notice, to pay 
or deposit the comp nsation to be awarded within one 
month after the making of the award, with interest from 
the time at which possession shall be given, and with 
such costs as may be lawfully payable by the Company. 

20. The compensation for any lands which might 
be taken without the consent of the proprietor, shall 
stand in the siead of such lands ; and any claim to 
or incumbrance upon the said lands, or any por ion 
thereof, shall, as against the Company, be conver ed 
into a claim to the compensation, or to a like propor- 
tion thereof, and they shall be responsible accordingly 
whenever they shall have paid such compensatio 1, or any 
part thereof, to a party not entitled to receive the same, 
saving always their recourse against such party r Provided 
that if the Company shall have reason to fear any claims 
or incumbrances, or if any party to w^hom the compensa- 
tion or annual rent, or any part thereof shall be pay- 
able shall refuse to execute the proper conveyance 
and guarantee, or if the party entitled to claim the same 
cannot be found, or be unknown to the Company, or if 
for any other reason the Company shall deem it advisable, 
it shall be lawful, if the lands be situated in Upper 
Canada, for them to pay such compensation into the 
office of either of the Superior Courts for Upper 
Canada, with the interest thereon for s'x months and 
to deliver to the Clerk of the Court an authentic copy 
of the conveyance, or of the award or agreement if 
if there be no conveyance, and such award or agree- 
ment shall the reafter be deemed to be the title of the 
Company to the land therein mentioned; and a notice, 
in such form and for such time as the said Court shall 
appoint, shall be inserted in son e newspaper published 
in the District or County in which the lands are situate, 
and in the City of Toronto, which shall state that the title 
of the Company, that is, the conveyance, agreement or 
award, is under this Act, and shall call upon all persons 
entitled to the land, or to any part thereof or repre- 



103 

senting or being the husbands of any parties so entitled, 
to fyle their claims to the compensation or any part 
thereof, and all such claims shall be received and adjudged 
upon by the Court, and the said proceedings shall for 
ever bar all claims to the lands, or any part thereof, in- 
cluding dower, as well as all mortgages or incumr ranees 
upon the same; and the Court shall make such order for 
the distribution, payment or investment of the compensa- 
tion, and for the securing of the rights of all parties in- 
terested as to the right and justice, and according*to the 
provisions of this Act, and the special Act and to law, 
shall appertain; and the costs of the proceedings, or any 
thereof, part shall be paid by the Company, or by any other- 
party as the Court shall deem it equitable to order; and if 
such order of distribution as aforesaid be obtained in less 
than s'x months from the payment of the compensation into 
Court, the Court shall direct a proportionate part of the 
interest to be returned to the Company, and if from any 
error, fault or neglec" of the Company, it shall not be 
obtained until after the six mo: ths are expired, the Court 
shall order the Company to pay to the proper claimants 
the interest for such further period as may be right. 

21. That if the lands so taken be situate in Lower 
Cana-la, and if the said Company shall have reason to 
fear any such claim, mortgage, hypothec, or incumbrance, 
or if any party to whom the compensation or annual rent, 
or any part thereof, shall be payable, shall refuse to 
execute the proper conveyance and guarantee, or if the 
party entitled to claim the compensation or rent cannot 
be found, or be unknown to the Company, or if for any 
other reason the Company shall deem it advisable, it shall 
be lawful for them to pay such compensation into the 
hands of the Prothonotary of the Superior Court for the 
District in which such land is situate, with the interest 
thereon for six months, and to deliver to the said Protho- 
notary an authentic copy of the conveyance, or of the 
award, if there be no conveyance, and such award shall 
thereafter be deemed to be the title of the said Company 



104 

to the land therein mentioned, and proceedings shall 
thereupon be had for the confirmation of the title of the 
said Company, in like manner as in other cases of con- 
firmation of title, except that, in addition to the usual 
contents of the notice, the Prothonotary shall state that 
the title of the Company (that is, the conveyance or 
award,) is under this Act, and shall call upon all persons 
entitled to the lands, or any part thereof, or representing 
or being the husband of any party so entitled, to fyle their 
oppositions for their claims to the conpensation, or any 
part thereof, and all such oppositions shall be received 
and adjudged upon by the Court ; and the judgment of 
confirmation shall for ever bar all claims to the land or 
any part thereof, (including dower not yet open,) as well 
as any mortgage, hypothec or incumbrance upon the same ; 
and the Court shall make such order for the distribution, 
payment or investment of the compensation, and for the 
security of the rights of all parties interested, as to right 
and justice, and the special Act, and according to the pro- 
visions of this Act and to law, shall appertain; and the 
costs of the said proceedings, or any part thereof, shall be 
paid by the Company, or by any other party, as the Court 
shall deem it equitable to order; and if judgment of con- 
firmation be obtained in less than six months from the pay- 
ment of the compensation to the Prothonotary, the Court 
shall direct a proportionate part of the interest to be re- 
turned to the Company, and if from any error, fault or 
neglect of the Company, it shall not be obtained until after 
the six months are expired, the Court shall order the 
Company to p?iy the Prothonotary the interest for such 
further period as may be right. 

22. If the said Railway shall pass through any land 
belonging to or in possession of any tribe of Indians in 
this Province, or if any act occasioning damage to their 
lands shall be done under the authority of this Act or 
the special Act, compensation shall be made to them 
therefor, in the same manner as is provided with respect 
to tli3 lands or rights of other individuals; and whenever 



105 

it shall be necessary that Arbitrators shall be chosen by 
the parties, the chief officer of the Indian Department 
within this Province, is hereby authorized and required 
to name an Arbitrator on behalf of the Indians, and the 
amount which shall be awarded in any case, shall be 
paid, where the lands belong to the Indians, to the 
said chief officer, for the use of such tribe or body. 

23. Whenever it shall be necessary for the Company 
to occupy any part of the lands belonging to the Queen's 
Majesty, or which may at any time heretofore have been 
especially set apart and reserved, o** which are desig- 
nated or commonly known as Crown, Clergy or School 
Lands, or lands reserved for Military purposes, they shall 
first apply for and obtain the license or consent of her 
said Majesty, under the hand and seal of the Governor 
for the time being, and having obtained such license and 
consent, they may at any time or times enter into or upon, 
have, hold, use, occupy and enjoy any of the said lands 
for the purposes of the Railway. 



XII. HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES. 

SHALL BE REGULATED AS FOLLOWS I 

1. The Railway shall not be carried along any existing 
highway but merely cross the same in the line of the 
Railway, unless leave be obtained from the proper Munici- 
pal authority therefor; and no obstruction of such high- 
way with the works shall be made without turning the 
highway so as to leave an open and good passage for 
carriages, and, on completion oi the works, replacing the 
highway, under a penalty of 

for any contravention ; but, in either case, the rail itself, 
provided it does not rise above or sink below the surface 
of the road more than one inch, shall not be deemed an 
obstruction. 



106 

2. No part of the Railway which shall cross any high- 
way, without being carried over by a bridge, or under by 
a tunnel, shall rise above or sink below the level of 
the highway more than one inch ; and the Railway may 
be carried across or above any highway within the limits 
aforesaid. 

3. The space of the arch of any bridge erected for 
carrying the Railway over or across any highway shall at 
all times be, and be continued of the open and clear 
breadth and space, under such arch, of not less than twenty 
feet, and of a height from the surface of such highway to 
the centre of such arch of not less than twelve feet; and 
the descent under any such bridge shall not exceed one 
foot in twenty feet. 

4. The ascent of all bridges erected to carry any high- 
way over any Railway shall not be more than one foot in 
twenty feet increase over the natural ascent of the high- 
way ; and a good and sufficient fence shall be made on 
each side of every bridge, which fence shall not be 
less than four feet above the surface of the bridge. 

5. Signboards stretching across the highway crossed 
at a level by any Railway, shall be erected and kep' up 
at each crossing at such height as to leave sixteen feet 
fromfthe highway to the lower edge of the signboard, and 
having the words "Railway Crossing" painted on each 
side of signboard, and in letters not less than six 
inches in length ; and for every neglect to comply with 
the requirements of this section, a penalty not exceeding 

currency shall be incurred. 



XIII. FENCES. 

1. Fences shall be erected and maintained on each 
side of the railway, of the height and strength of an 
ordinary division fence, with openings, or gates, or bars 



107 

therein and farm crossings of the road, for the use of the 
proprietors of the lands adjoining the railway ; and also 
cattle guards at all road crossings, suitable and sufficient 
to prevent cattle and animals from getting on the railway ; 
and until such fences and cattle guards shall be duly 
made, the Company shall be liable for all damages 
which shall be done by t! eir trains or engines to cattle, 
horses or other animals on the Railway ; and after the 
fences or guards shall be duly made, and whiie they are 
duly maintained, no such liability shall accrue for any 
such damages unless negligently or wilfully done ; and 
if any person shall ride, lead or drive any horse or other 
animal upon such Railway and within the fences and guards 
other than the farm crossings, without the consent of the 
Company, he shall for every such offence forfeit a sum 
not exceeding and shall 

also pay all damages which shall be sustained thereby to 
the parly aggrieved ; and no person other than those 
connected with, or employed by, the Railway, shall walk 
along the track thereof, except where the same sha'l be 
laid across or along a highway. 

2. Within six months after any lands shall be 
taken for the use of the Railway, and i( thereunto 
required by the proprietors of the adjoining lands 
respectively, but not otherwise, the lands shall be, by 
the Company, divided and separated, and kept constantly 
divided and separated from the lands or grounds adjoin- 
ing thereto, with a sufficient post or rail, hedge, ditch, 
bank or other fence sufficient to keep off hogs, sheep and 
cattle, to be set and made on the lands so taken, and 
which the Company shall, at theirown costs and charges, 
from time to time, maintain, support and keep in sufficient 
repair. 



108 
XIV. TOLLS 

SHALL BE ESTABLISHED AS FOLLOWS : 

1. Tolls shall be from time to time fixed and regulated 
by the by-laws of the Company, by the Directors, it' made 
thereunto authorised by the by-laws, or by the shares 
holders at any general meeting, and shall and may be 
demanded and received for ail passengers and goods 
transported upon die Railway or in the steam vessels 
to the undertaking belonging, and which shall be paid 
to such persons and at such places near to the Rail- 
way, in such manner and under such regulations as the 
by-laws shall direct ; and in case of denial or neglect 
of payment of any such tolls, or any part thereof, on 
demand, to such persons, the same may be sued for and 
recovered in any competent Court, or the agents or 
servants of the Company may, and they are hereby em- 
powered to seize the goods for or in respect whereof 
such toils ought to be paid, and detain the same 
until payment thereof; and in the meantime the said 
goods shall be at the risk of the owners thereof; and all 
or any of the said tolls may, by any by-law T , made at any 
general meeting, be lowered and reduced and again 
raised as often as it shall be deemed necessary for the 
interests of the undertaking: Provided that the same 
tolls shall be payable at the same time and under the 
same circumstances upon all goods and persons, so that 
no undue advantage, privilege or monopoly may be 
afforded to any person or class of persons by any by-laws 
relating to the tolls. 

2. In all cases a fraction in trre distance over which 
goods or passengers shall be transported on the Railway 
shall be considered as a whole mile; and for a fraction 
of a ton in the weight of any goods, a proportion of the 
tolls shall be demanded and taken, according to the num- 
ber of quarters of a ton contained therein, and a fraction 
of a quarter of a ton shall be deemed and considered as 
a whole quarter of a ton. 



109 

3. The Directors shall, from time to time, print and 
stick up, or cause to be printed and stuck up, in the 
office, and in all and every of the places whe.e the tolls 
are to be collected, and in every passenger car, in some 
conspicuous place there, a printed board or paper ex- 
hibiting all the tolls payable, and particularizing the price 
or sum of money to be charged or taken tor the carriage 
of ay matter or thing. 



XV. GENERAL MEETINGS. 

The Shareholders shall always have power to as 
semble together at general meetings for purposes con- 
nected with or belonging to the undertaking, and may at 
any general meeting remove and elect Directors, and 
remove any officers under them, make, revoke, amend 
or change any by-laws, rules or orders, the method of 
calling general meetings and their time and place of 
assembling only excepted, for the regulation of the under- 
taking and Railway, and for the well governing of all per- 
sons travelling, or the transport of goods carried on the 
Railway, and by such by-laws to impose fines or forfeit- 
ures for the breach of such by-laws, rules or orders, not 
exceeding the sum of pounds for every offence. 

Provided, that no By-laws shall be binding, unless they 
shall have been approved of by the Governor in Council, 
nor until after their publication in the Canada Gazette for 
at least fifteen days. 



XVI. DIRECTORS: THEIR ELECTION AND DUTIES. 

1. A Board of Directors of the undertaking to manage 
its affairs, the number whereof shall be stated in the 
special Act, shall be chosen annually by a majority of the 
shareholders voting at such election, and if such election 
shall not be held on the day appointed by the by-laws, 



110 

it shall be the duty of the Directors to notify and 
cause such election to be held vvkhin thirty clays aher the 
day so appointed; and on the day so notified, no person 
shall be admitted to vote except those who would have 
been entitled to vote had the election been hel 1 on the 
day when, by such articles or by-laws, it ought to have 
been held ; and vacancies in the Board of Directors shall 
be filled in such manner as may be prescribed by the 
by-laws; and m> person shall be a Director unless he be 
a stockholder, owning stock absolutely in his own right, 
and qualified to vote for Directors at the election at 
which he shall be chosen. 

2. The method of calling general meetings, and the 
time and place of die first meeting of stockholders for 
the appointment of Directors shall be determined and 
settled in the special Act. 

3 The number of votes to which each Shareholder 
shall be entitled on every occasion when the votes of the 
members are to be given, shall be in the proportion to the 
number of shares held by him, unless otherwise provided 
by the special Act ; and all shareholders, whether resi- 
dent in this Province or elsewhere, may vote by proxy, 
if they shall see fit; Provided that such proxy do pro- 
duce from his constituent an appointment in writing, in 
the words or to the effect following, that is to say : 

"I. , of , one of the share- 

" holders of the , do hereby appoint 

" , of to be my proxy, and 

" in my absence to vote or give my assent to any busi- 
ness, matter or thing relating to the said undertaking, 
" that shall be mentioned or proposed at any meeting of 
" the shareholders of the said Company, or any of them, 
" in such manner as he, the said shall think 

" proper. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
" hand and seal, the day of , in 

"the year ." 



Ill 

4. The votes by proxy shall be as valid as if the 
principals bad voted in person ; and every matter or thing 
proposed or considered in any public meeting of the 
shareholders shall be determined by the majority of votes 
and proxies then present and given as aforesaid, and 
all decisions and acts of any such majority shall bind the 
Company, and be deemed the decisions and acts of the 
Company. 

5. The Directors fiist appointed, or those appoint- 
ed in their stead in case of vacancy, shall remain in 
office until the next annual election of Directors at the 
t me appointed by the by-laws therefor, at which time an 
annual general meeting of the shareholders shall be 
held to choose Directors for the ensuing year, and gene- 
rally to transact the business of the Company : Provided 
always, that the said Directors, in case of the death, 
absence, resignation or removal of any of them, may 
appoint others in their stead; but if such apointment be 
no r made, such death, absence, resignation or removal 
shall not invalidate the acts of the remaining Directors. 

6. The Directors shall, at their first or at some other 
meeting, after the day appointed for the annual general 
meeting, elect one of their number to be the President 
of the Company, who shall always, when present, be 
the Chairman of and preside at, all meetings of the 
Directors, and shall hold his office until he shall cease 
to be a Director or until another President shall be 
elected in his stead ; and they may in like manner elect 
a Vice-President, who shall act as Chairman in the ab- 
sence of the President. 

7. The Directors at any meeting at which not less 
than a quorum to be settled by the Special Act shall be 
present, shall be competent to use and exercise all and 
any of the powers vested in the said Directors, but no 
one Director shall have more than one vote at any meet- 
ing except the Chairman, who shall, in case of a division 



112 

of equal numbers, have the casting vote, and the Direct- 
ors shall be subject to the examination and control of 
the Shareholders at their annual meetings and be subject 
to all by-laws of the Company, and to the orders and 
directions from time to time made at the annual or at 
any special meetings, such orders and directions not 
being contrary to any express directions or provisions of 
this Act or the Special Act: And provided also, that the 
Act of any majority of a quorum of the Directors 
present at any meeting regularly held, shall be deemed 
the act of the Directors. 

8. No person holding any office, place or employment, 
in, or being concerned or interested in any contracts under 
or with, the Company, shall be capable of being chosen 
a Director or of holding the office of Director. 

9. The Directors shall make by-laws for the manage- 
ment and disposition of the stock, property and business 
affairs of the Company, not inconsistent with the laws of 
this Province, and for the appointment of all officers, 
servants and artificers, and prescribing their respective 
duties. 

10. The Directors may from time to time, make such 
calls of money upon the respective Shareholders, in 
respect of the amount of capital respectively subscribed 
or owing by them, as they shall deem necessary, provided 
that thirty days' notice at the least be given of each 
call, and that no call exceed the prescribed amount to be 
determined therefor in the Special Act, nor made at a less 
interval than two months from the previous call, or a 
greater amount be called in, in any one year, than the 
prescribed amount therefor in the Special Act, and 
every Shareholder shall be liable to pay the amount 
of the call so made in respect of the shares held by 
him to the persons and at the times and places from 
time to time appointed by the Company or the Directors. 



113 

11. If before or on the day appointed for payment, 
any Shareholder do not pay the amount of any call, 
he shall be liable to pay interest for the same, at the 
rate of six percentnm per annum, from the day appointed 
for the payment thereof to the time of the actual pay- 
ment. 

12. If at the time appointed for the payment of 
any call, any Shareholder shall fail to pay the amount 
of the call, he may be sued for the same, in any Court 
of Law or Equity having competent jurisdiction, and the 
same may be recovered with lawful interest from the day 
on which such call was payable. 

13 la ~*J action or suit to recover any money due 
upon any call, it shall not be necessary to set forih the 
special matter, but it shall be sufficient to declare that the 
Defendant is the holder of one share or more, stating the 
number of shares, and is indebted in the sum of money 
to which the calls in arrear shall amount, in respect of 
one call or more upon one share or more, stating the num- 
ber and amount of each of such calls, whereby an action 
hath accrued to the said Company by virtue of the special 
Act. 

14. The certificate of proprietorship of any share 
shall* be admitted in all Courts as primd facie evid- 
ence of the title of any shareholder, his executors, ad- 
ministrators, successors or assigns to the share therein 
specified ; nevertheless the want of such certificate shall 
not prevent the holder of any share from disposing thereof. 

15. Any persons neglecting or refusing to pay a ratea- 
ble share of the calls as aforesaid, shall forfeit a sum not 
exceeding five pounds for every one hundred pounds of 
their respective shares in the undertaking ; and all such 
persons neglecting to pay their rateable calls as aforesaid, 
for the space of two calendar months after the time ap- 
pointed for the payment thereof, shall forfeit their res- 



114 

pective shares in the undertaking, and all the profit and 
benefit thereof; all which forfeitures shall go to the Com- 
pany for the benefit thereof, 

16. Provided that no advantage shall be taken of the 
forfeiture unless the same shall be declared to be forfeited 
at a General Meeting of the Company, assembled at any 
time after such forfeiture shall be incurred, and every such 
forfeiture shall be an indemnification to and for every 
Shareholder so forfeiting against all actions, suits or pro- 
secutions whatever, to be commenced or prosecuted for 
any breach of contract or other agreement between such 
Shareholder and the other Shareholders with regard to 
carrying on the said undertaking. 

17. The Directors of the said Company may sen, either 
by public auction or private sale, and in such manner 
and on such terms as to them shall seem meet, any shares 
so declared to be forfeited, and also any shares remaining 
unsubscribed for in the capital stock of the Company, or 
pledge such forfeited or unsubscribed shares for the pay- 
ment of loans or advances made or to be made thereon, 
or of any sums of money borrowed or advanced by or to 
the Company. 

18. A certificate of the Treasurer of the Company 
that the forfeiture of the shares was declared, shall be 
sufficient evidence of the fact therein stated, and of their 
purchase by the purchaser; and with the receipt of the 
Treasurer for the price of such shares shall constitute a 
good title to the shares, and the certificate shall be by the 
said Treasurer enregistered in the name and with the 
place of abode, and occupation of the purchasers, and 
shall be entered in the books required to be kept by the 
by-laws of the Company, and such purchaser shall there- 
upon be deemed the holder of such shares and shall not 
be bound to see to the application of the purchase money, 
nor shall his title to such shares be affected by any irregu- 



115 

aritv in the proceedings in reference to such sale, and 
kny shareholder may purchase any shares so sold. 

19. Shareholders willing to advance the amount of 
;heir shares or any part of the money due upon the respect- 
ive shares beyond the sums actually called for, may pay 
he same, and upon the principal moneys so paid in 
advance, or so much thereof as from time to time shall 
exceed the amount of the calls then made upon the shares 
in respect of which such advance shall be made, the 
Company may pay interest at the legal rate of interest for 
[he time being, as the shareholders paying such sum in 
advance and the said Company may agree upon: Pro- 
vided, such interest shall not be paid out of the capita! 
subscribed. 



20. The Directors shall and they are hereby required 
to cause a true, exact and particular account to be kept 
and annually made up and balanced on the thirty-first 
day of December in each year, of the money collected 
and received by the Company, or by the Directors 
or Managers thereof, or otherwise, for the use of the 
Company, and of the charges and expenses attending the 
erecting, making, supporting, maintaining and carrying on 
lof the undertaking and of all other receipts and ex- 
penditures of the Company or the Directors, and at the 
iigeneral meetings of the Stockholders of the under- 
Itaking, to be from time to time holden as aforesaid, a 
ildividend shall be made out of the clear profits of the 
said undertaking, unless such meetings shall declare other- 
|wise ; and such dividend shall be at and after the rate of 
|so much per share upon the several shares held by the 
i Shareholders in the stock of the Company, as such 
meeting shall think fit to appoint or determine: Pro- 
vided always, that no dividend shall be made whereby 
the capital of the said Company shall be in any degree 
(reduced or impaired, or be paid thereout, nor shall any 
dividend be paid in respect of any share, after a day ap- 



116 

pointed for payment of any call for money in respect 
thereof until such call shall have been paid. 

21. The Directors of the Company may, in their dis- 
cretion, until the Railroad shall be completed and open- 
ed to the public, pay interest at any rate not exceeding six 
pounds per centum per annum, on all sums called up in 
respect of the shares, from the respective days on which 
the same shall be paid, such interest to accrue and be paid 
at such times and places as the Directors shall appoint for 
that purpose : Provided always, that no interest shall 
accrue to the proprietors of any share upon which any 
call shall be in arrear in respect of such shares or any 
other share to be holden by the same shareholder during 
the period which such call shall remain unpaid, nor shall 
any interest be paid or taken from the Capital subscribed 
or any part thereof. 

22. The Directors shall from time to time appoint such 
and so many officers as they may deem requisite, and 
take from them such sufficient security by one or more 
bond or bonds, in a sufficient penalty or penalties or other- 
wise from the manager and officers for the time being, for 
the sake of keeping and accounting of the moneys to be 
raised by virtue of this Act and the Special Act for the 
faithful execution by them of their offices respectively, as 
the Directors shall think proper. 



XVII. SHAREHOLDERS, SHARES AND THEIR TRANS- 
FER. 

Shares in the undertaking may be, by the parties, sold 
and disposed of by deed, to be made in duplicate in the 
form following, one part of which shall be delivered 
to the Directors, to be fyled and kept for the use of the 
said Company, and an entry thereof shall be made in a 
book to be kept for that purpose ; but no interest on the 



117 

shares transferred shall be paid by the purchaser until 
said duplicate shall be so delivered, fyled, and entered. 

Sales shall be in the form following, varying the names 
and descriptions of the contracting parties, as the case 
may require : 

I, A B, in consideration of the sum of 
paid to me by C D, hereby do sell and transfer to 
him share (or shares) of the stock of the 

to hold to him the said C D, 
his Heirs, Executors, Administrators and Assigns, sub- 
ject to the same rules and orders, and on the same 
conditions that I held the same immediately before the 
execution thereof. And I, the said C. D., do hereby 
agree to accept of the said share (or 

shares) subject to the same rules, orders and conditions* 
Witness our hands ami seals, this day of 

in the year of 



XVIIL MUNICIPALITIES. 

1. All Municipal Corporations in this Province may 
subscribe for any number of shares in the Capital Stock of, 
or lend to or guarantee the payment of any sum of money 
borrowed by the Company from any Corporation or person, 
or indorse or guarantee the payment of any debenture to be 
issued by the Company for money by them borrowed, and 
shall have power to assess and levy from time to time upon 
the whole rateable property of the Municipality a sufficient 
sum for them to discharge the debt or engagement 
so contracted, and for the like purpose to issue Deben- 
tures payable at such times and for such sum respectively., 
not less than twenty-five pounds Currency, and bearing 
or not bearing interest, as such Corporation may think 
meet. 



118 

2. Any such debenture issued, indorsed or guar- 
anteed, shall be valid, and binding upon such Corpora- 
tion, if signed or indorsed, and countersigned by such 
officer or person, and in such manner and form as shall 
be directed by any by-law of such Corporation, and the 
Corporation seal thereto shall not be necessary, or the 
observance of any other form with regard to the Deben- 
ture than such as shall be directed in such by-law as 
aforesaid. 

3. No Municipal Corporation shall subscribe for Stock 
or incur any debt or liability under this Act or the Special 
Act, unless and until a by-law to that effect shall have been 
duly made, and adopted with the consent first had of a ma- 
jority of the qualified electors of the Municipality, to be 
ascertained in such manner as shall be determined by the 
said by-law, after public advertisement thereof containing 
a copy of such proposed by-law, inserted at least four times 
in each newspaper printed within the limits of the Munici- 
pality, or if none be printed therein, then in some one or 
more newspaper printed in the nearest City or Town 
thereto and circulated therein. 

4. The Mayor, Warden or Reeve, being the head of 
such Municipal Corporation, subscribing for and holding 
Stock in the Company, to the amount of £25,000, or 
upwards, shall be and continue to be ex officio one of the 
Directors of the Company, in addi'ion to the number of 
Directors authorised by the Special Act, and shall have 
the same rights, powers and duties as any of the Direc- 
tors of the Company. 



XIX. SHAREHOLDERS. 

1. The Stock of the Company shall be deemed per- 
sonal estate, and shall be transferable in the manner pre- 
scribed by the by-laws of the Company; but no shares 
shall be transferable until all previous calls thereon shall 



119 

have been fully paid in, or the said shares shall have been 
declared forfeited for the non-payment of calls thereon. 

2 Each Shareholder shall be individually liable to the 
creditors of the Corporation to an amount equal to the 
amount unpaid on the Stock held by him, for the debts 
and liabilities thereof, and until the whole amount of his 
Stock shall have been paid up ; and all the Shareholders 
shall be jointly and severally liable for all the debts due 
or owing to any of the laborers and servants of the Com- 
pany for services performed for them, but shall not be 
liable to an action therefor before an execution against 
the Company shall have been returned unsatisfied in 
whole or in part, and the amount due on such execution 
shall be the amount recoverable with costs against suck 
Shareholders. 

3. The original Capital Stock may be increased 
from time to time to any amount, but such increase 
must be sanctioned by a vote in person or by proxy, of at 
least two-thirds in amount of all the Shareholders, ^t a 
meeting of them expressly called by the Directors 
for that purpose, by a notice in writing to each Share- 
holder, served on him personally, or properly directed 
to him, and deposited in the Post Office nearest te 
his place of residence, at least twenty days previous to 
such meeting, stating the time and place and object of the 
meeting, and the amount of increase, and the proceedings 
of such meeting must be entered on the minutes of the 
proceed : ngs and thereupon the Capital Stock may be in- 
creased to the amount sanctioned by such a vote. 

4. The funds of the Company shall not be employed 
in the purchase of any Stock in their own or in any other 
Corporation. 



120 

XX. ACTIONS FOR INDEMNITY AND FINES AND 
PENALTIES AND THEIR PROSECUTION. 

1. All suits for indemnity for any damage or injury 
sust lined by reason of the Railway, shall be instituted 
within six calendar months next after the time of such 
supposed damage sustained, or if there shall be a continu- 
ation of damage, then within six calendar months next 
after the doing or committing such damage shall cease, 
and not afterwards; and the Defendants may plead the 
general issue and give this Act and the special Act and 
the special matter in evidence at any trial to be had there- 
upon, and may aver that the same was done in pursuance 
of and by authority of this Act and the special Act. 

2. All persons by any means or in any manner or way 
whatsoever, obstructing or interrupting the free use of the 
Railway, or the carriages, vessels, engines or other works 
incidental or relative thereto, or connected therewith, 
shall, tor every such offence, be deemed guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, and on conviction thereof, shall be punished 
by imprisonment in the Provincial Penitentiary, for a term 
not to exceed five years. 

3. All persons wilfully and maliciously, and to the 
prejudice of the Railway, breaking, throwing down, da- 
maging or destroying the same, or any part thereof, or any 
of the buildings, stations, depots, wharves, vessels, fixtures, 
machinery or other works or devices incidental and rela- 
tive thereto, or connected therewith, or doing any other 
wilful hurt or mischief, or wilfully or maliciously obstruct- 
ing or interrupting the free use of the Railway, ves- 
sels or works, or obstructing, hindering or preventing ihe 
carrying on, completing, supporting and maintaining the 
Railway, vessels or works, shall be adjudged guilty of 
a misdemeanor, unless the offence committed shall, under 
some other Act or Law, amount to a felony, in which 
case such person shall be adjudged guilty of a felony, and 
the Court by and before whom the person shall be tried 



121 

and convicted, shall have power and authority to cause 
such person to be punished in like manner Sls persons 
guilty of misdemeanor, or felons (as the case may be) are 
directed to be punished by the laws in force in this 
Province. 

4. All fines and forfeitures imposed by this Act, or the 
special Act, or which shall be lawfully imposed by any 
by-law, the levying and recovering of which are not par- 
ticularly herein directed, shall, upon proof of the offence 
before any one or more Justice or Justices of the Peace 
for the District, County or place where the act oc- 
curred, either by the confession of the parties, or 
by the oath or affirmation of any one credible witness, 
w T hich oath or affirmation such Justice or Justices is o are 
hereby empowered and required to administer without 
fee or reward, be levied by distress and sale of the of- 
fender's goods and chattels, by warrant under the hand 
and seal or hands and seals of such Justice or Justices; 
and all fines, forfeitures and penalties, the application 
whereof is not hereinbefore particularly directed, shall 
be paid into the hands of the Treasurer of the Com- 
pany, to be applied to the use thereof and the over- 
plus of the money so raised, and after deducting the 
penalty and the expenses of the levying and recovering 
thereof, shall be returned to the owner of the goods so 
distrained and sold ; and for want of sufficient goods and 
chattels whereof to levy the said penalty and expense, the 
offender shall be sent to the Common Gaol for the County 
or District in which he shall have been convicted, there 
to remain without bail or mainprize, for such term, not 
exceeding one month, as the Justice or Justices shall 
think proper, unless the penalty or forfeiture and all ex- 
penses attending the same, shall be sooner paid and sa- 
tisfied ; but every such person or persons may, within four 
calendar months after the conviction, appeal agai. st the 
same to the Court of General Quarter Sessions, to be 
holden in and for the County or District, 



122 

5. All contraventions of this Act or of the special Act, 
by the Company or by any other party, for which no pu- 
nishment or penalty is herein provided, shall be a misde- 
meanor, and shall be punishable accordingly: but such 
punishment shall not exempt the Company, if they be the 
offending party, from the forfeiture by this Act and ihe 
special Act, of the privileges conferred on them, by 
the said Acts, if by the provisions thereof or by law, the 
same be forfeited by such contravention. 

6. All By-laws, Rules and Orders regularly made, shall 
be put into writing and signed by the Chairman or person 
presiding at the meeting at which they were adopted, and 
shall be kept in the office of the Company ; and a print- 
ed copy of so much of them as may relate to or affect any 
party other than the members or servants of the Company, 
shall be affixed openly in all and every passenger car, and 
in all and every of the places where tolls are to be gath- 
ered, and in like manner as often as any change or altera- 
tion shall be made to the same ; and the By-laws, Rules 
and Orders shall be binding upon and observed by all par- 
ties, and shall be sufficient in any Court of Law or Equity 
to justify all persons who shall act under the same; and 
any copy of the same or of any of them certified as correct 
by the President or Treasurer, shall be deemed authentic, 
and shall be received as evidence thereof in any Court, 
without further proof: Provided nevertheless, that all such 
By-laws, Rules and Orders shall be submitted from time 
to time, to the Governor General or person administering 
the Government of this Province for approval. 

7. That copies of the minutes of proceedings and re- 
solutions of the Shareholders of the Company, at any 
general or special meeting, and of minutes of proceedings 
and resolutions- of the Directors, at their meetings, ex- 
tracted from the minute-books kept by the Treasurer of 
the Company, and by him certified to be true copies, ex- 
tracted from such minute-books, shall be primd facie 
evidence of such proceedings and resolutions in all 



123 

Courts of civil jrisdiction, and all notices given by the 
Treasurer of the Company, by order of the Directors, 
shall be deemed notices by the said Directors and 
Company. 



XXI. WORKING OF THE RAILWAY. 

1. Every servant of the undertaking employed in a pas- 
senger train or at stations for passengers, shall wear upon 
his hat or cap a badge, which shall indicate his office, and 
he shall not without such badge, be entitled to demand or 
receive from any passenger any fare or ticke!,or to exer- 
cise any of the powers of his office, nor meddle or inter- 
fere with any passenger or his baggage or property. 

2. The trains shall start and run at regular hours to be 
fixed by public notice, and shall furnish sufficient accom- 
modation for the transposition of all such passengers and 
goods as shall witsiin a reasonable time previous thereto, 
be offered for transportation at the place of starting, and 
at the junctions of other Railways, and at usual stopping 
places established for receiving and discharging way-pas- 
sengers and goods from the trains, and such passengers 
and goods shall be taken, transported, and discharged, 
at, from, and to such places, on the due payment of the toll, 
freight or fare legally authorised therefor, and the party 
aggrieved by any neglect or refusal in the premises, shall 
have an action therefor against the Company. 

3. Checks shall be affixed by any agent or servant to 
every parcel of baggage having a handle, loop, or fixture 
of any kind thereupon, and a duplicate of such check 
shall be given to the passenger delivering the same ; and 
if such check be refused on demand, the Company shall 
pay to such passenger, the sum of to 
be recovered in a civil action ; and further, no fare or toll 
shall be collected or received from such passenger, and 



124 

if he shall have paid his fare, the same shall be refunded 
by the Conductor in charge of the train ; and any passen- 
ger producing such check, may himself be a witness in any 
suit brought by him against the Company, to prove the 
contents and value of his baggage not delivered to him. 

4. The baggage, freight, merchandize or lumber cars 
shall not be placed in rear of the passenger cars, and if 
any such be so placed, the officer or agent directing or 
knowingly suffering such arrangement, and the Conductor 
of the train, shall severally be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and be punished accordingly. 

5. Every Locomotive Engine shall be furnished with a 
bell, of at least thirty pounds weight, or a steam whistle ; 
and the bell shall be rung, or the whistle sounded at the 
distance of at least eighty rods from every place where 
the Railway shall cross any highway, and be kept ringing 
or be sounded at short intervals, until the engine shall 
have crossed such highway, under a penalty of 

for every neglect thereof, to be paid by the Com- 
pany, who shall also be liable for all damages sus- 
tained by any person by reason of such neglect, one half 
of which penalty and damages shall be chargeable to and 
collected by the Company from the Engineer having 
charge of such engine and neglecting to sound the whis- 
tle or ring the bell as aforesaid. 

6. Passengers refusing to pay their fare, may by the 
Conductor of the train and the servants of the Company, 
be with the^r baggage put out of the cars, using no un- 
necessary force, at any usual stopping place, or near any 
dwelling-house, as the conductor shall elect, first stopping 
the train. 

7. All persons in charge of a locomotive engine, or 
acting as the conductor of a car or train of cars, who shall 
be intoxicated on the Railway, shall be deemed guilty of 
a misdemeanor. 



125 

9. Any passenger injured while on the platform of a 
car, or on any baggage, wood or freight car, in violation 
of the primed regulations posted up at the time in a con- 
spicuous place, inside of the passenger cars then in the 
train, shall have no claim for the injury, provided sutR- 
cient room inside of such passenger cars sufficient for the 
proper accommodation of the passengers was furnished 
at the time. 



XXII. GENERAL PROVISIONS. 

1. When and as often as any contractor for the con- 
struction of any part of a Railway in progress of construction 
shall be indebted to any labourer for thirty or any less 
number of days' labour performed in constructing said 
Railway, the Company shall become liable to pay such 
labourer the amount due to him for such labour, and for 
the recovery of which an action may be maintained by 
him against the Company, if notice in writing shall 
have been given by him to the Company within twenty 
days after the performance of the labour claimed by him, 
stating the amount, and number of days' labour for which 
the claim is made, and the time when and the name of 
the contractor for whom the same were performed ; and 
the notice shall be signed by the labourer or his attorney ; 
and shall be served on an Engineer, Agent, or Superin- 
tendent employed by the Company, and having charge 
of the section of the road on which such labour was 
performed, personally or by leaving the same at the 
office or usual place of business of such engineer, agent 
or Superintendent, with some person of suitable age : 
Provided always that no such action shall be maintained 
under the provisions of this section, unless the same have 
been commenced within thirty days after notice then 
given as above provided. 

2. The Company shall not be bound to see to the 
execution of any trust, whether express, implied or con- 



126 

struclive, to which any of the shares may be subject ; 
and the receipt of the party in whose name any 
share shall stand in the books of the Company, or if it 
stands in the name of more parties than one, the receipt 
of one of the parties named in the Register of Share- 
hol lers shall from time to time be a sufficient discharge 
to the Company for any dividend or other sum of money 
payable in respect of the share, notwithstanding any 
trust to which the share may then be subject, and 
whether or not the Company have had notice of the 
trusts, and the Company shall not be bound to see to the 
application of the money paid upon such receipts. 

3. Her Majesty's Mail, Her Majesty's Naval or Military 
Forces or Militia, and all artillery, ammunition, pro- 
visions or other stores for their use. and all policemen, 
constables and others travelling on Her Majesty's service, 
shall at all times, when thereunto required by Her Ma- 
jesty's Deputy Postmaster General, the Commander of 
the Forces, or any* person having the Superintendence 
or command of any Police Force, and with the whole 
resources of the Company if required, be carried on the 
Railway, on such terms and conditions, and under such 
regulations as the Governor in Council shall make ; and 
the Company may be required by the Governor or any 
person thereunto authorized by him, to place any Electric 
Telegraph and the apparatus and operators they may 
have, at the exclusive use of the Government, receiving 
thereafter reasonable compensation for such servce: 
provided that any further enactments which the Legisla- 
ture of this Province may hereafter make, for the carriage 
of the Mail or Her Majesty's Forces, and other persons 
and articles as aforesaid, or the tolls therefor, or in any 
way respecting the use of any Electric Telegraph or 
other service to be rendered to the Government, shall not 
be deemed an infringement of the privileges intended to 
be conferred by this Act or the Special Act. 



127 

4. A true and perfect account of the names and places 
of abode of the several Shareholders shall be kept and 
entered in a book to be kept for that purpose, as well as 
of the several persons who shall from time to time be- 
come Proprietors of, or entitled to any shares therein, and 
of all the other acts, proceedings and transactions of the 
said Company and of the Directors for the time being. 

5. A Map and Profile of the completed Railway and of 
the land taken or obtained for the use thereof, shall within 
a reasonable time after completion of the undertaking be 
made and fyled in the office of the Commissioners of 
Public Works, and also like maps of the parts thereof 
located in different Counties shall be fyled in the Registry 
Offices for the Counties in which such parties shall be 
respectively ; and every such map shall be drawn on 
such a scale and on such paper as may from time to time 
be designated for that purpose by the Chief Commis- 
sioners of Public Works, and shall be certified and signed 
by the President or Engineer of such Corporation. 

6. An account shall be annually submitted to the three 
branches of the Legislature, within the first fifteen days 
after the opening of each Session of the Provincial Parlia- 
ment alter the opening of the Railway or any part thereof 
to the public, containing a detailed and particular ac- 
cuunt, attested upon oath of the President, or Vice-Presi- 
dent in his absence, of the moneys received and expend- 
ed by the Company, and a classified statement of the pas- 
sengers and goods transported by them, with an attested 
copy of the last annual statement; and no further provi- 
sions which the Legislature may hereafter make with 
regard to the form or details of such account or the 
mode of attesting or rendering the same, shall be deemed 
an infringement of the privileges hereby granted to the 
Company. 

7. If the construction of the Railway shall not have 
been commenced, and ten per cent, on the amount of the 



128 

Capital shall not have been expanded thereon, within 
three years after the passing of the Special Act or if (he 
Railway shall not be finished and put in operation in ten 
years from the passing of such Special Act as aforesaid, 
its corporate existence and powers shall cease. 

8. No Corporation formed under this Act shall lay 
down or use, in the construction or repair of its Road, 
any iron rail of less weight than pounds to the 
lineal yard, except for turnouts, sidings and switches; 
nor shall the gauge of any such road be broader or nar- 
rower than feet. 

9. The Parliament of this Province, may from time to 
time reduce the tolls upon the Railway, but not, without 
consent of the Company, or so as to produce less than ten 
per cent, per annum profit on the Capital actually expend- 
ed in its construction; nor unless, on an examination 
made by the Commissioners of Public Works of the 
amount received and expended by the Company, the net 
income from all sources, for the year then last passed, 
shall have been found to exceed ten per cent, upon the 
Capital so actually expended. 

10. The Provincial Parliament, may at any time annul 
or dissolve any Corporation formed under this Act ; but 
such dissolution shall not take away or impair any 
remedy given against any such Corporation, its Share- 
holders, Officers or Servants, for any liability which shall 
have been previously incurred. 

11. Nothing herein contained shall affect or be con- 
strued to afFecr, in any manner or way whatsoever, the 
rights of Her Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors, or of 
any person or persons, or of any bodies politic, corporate 
or collegiate, such only excepted as are herein mentioned. 



129 
No. 7. 

Documents n ferred to in Evidence of C. P. Treadwell, Esq. 



_\. Chapter on the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa, from a Pam- 
phlet by Win. F. Coffin, Esq., Joint Sheriff of the District of 
Montreal, entitled, "Three Chapters on a triple project.'' 

THE ST. LAWRENCE AND THE OTTAWA. 
Having, thus far, endeavoured to point out, as the first fea- 
uire in a system or scheme of railroads, one that should con- 
nect the Province of Canada with the great American cities of 
the Atlantic seabord, with the least circuit or delay, let us 
now turn to another feature in such a scheme, a feature of 
equal importance to the Province and of still greater impor- 
tance to the metropolis of Canada. We allude to a line of 
railroad communication from Montreal upwards to Prescott on 
the St. Lawrence. 

So far as this subject has elicited any expression of opinion, 
that opinion appears to indicate a preference of a line of route, 
following the course of and running almost parallel to the St. 
Lawrence, as the most feasible and desirable ; labouring, how- 
ever, under the evident disadvantage of competition both with 
the St. Lawrence and the canal. We would suggest another 
and a very different route, presenting, as we imagine, a com- 
bination of more extensive advantage, of greater facility, and 
of equal, if not lesser, expense. We would propose a line of 
railroad, to commence at the Lachine terminus of the Montreal 
and Lachine Railroad, to cross the Island of Montreal and the 
Isle Jesus to St. Eustace, then ascend the course of the Riviere 
du Chene to St. Andrews, and from St. Andrews to Grenville 
Basin, a distance altogether, as a railroad would run, of about 
55 miles. It may be as well to mention here, that a charter 
actually exists for the construction of a railroad from St. An- 
drews to Grenville, that a line has been run, and other pre- 
liminary proceedings taken. At Grenville the Ottawa presents 
many and remarkable facilities for bridging. At this point 
the Railroad might be conveyed across the river, at or about the 
Hawkesbury mills, striking through the Ottawa, Eastern, and 



130 

Johnstown Districts of Canada West, through the Townships 

of Hawkcsbnry or Caledonia, through Roxborough and Finch, 
and Winchester and Mountain, through Matilda or Edwards- 
burg to Prescott, This line of country, from the Ottawa to the 
St. Lawrence, is stated, upon very reliable information, to be 
singularly level, and peculiarly adapted to railroad operations. 
The facilities which this line of country offers, suggested, many 
years since, the idea of a canal to connect the waters of the 
St. Lawrence with those of the Ottawa, from Prescott to below 
the Carillon Rapids. This line was surveyed and reported 
upon ; it was invested not only with " a local habitation," but 
" a name." It was designated as the " Petite Nation" Canal, 
and the length is stated as fifty miles. The inference is, that 
a line of country adapted to a canal, can offer no great obsta- 
cles to the construction of a Railroad. 

From the imperfect statistics at our disposal, on a short no- 
nice, it is difficult to ascertain what amount of intermediate- 
transport this section of country may be expected to furnish. 
We look for information and assistance in these important 
details to those resident and interested in the locality ; but we 
know that many of the above enumerated townships, through 
most of which the road will most probably run, are rich, fertile, 
highly cultivated, and productive. A railroad running through 
the heart of a country, derives supplies from both sides ; it is 
more beneficial and more likely to be benefited than one 
which, flanked by a river, is restricted to unilateral operations. 
But, at Prescott, this Railroad would arrest and bring down to 
Montreal so much of the traffic of the West, both passenger 
and freight, as might not already have been embarked on our 
canal, or have been attracted by the rival line of Railroad at 
Ogdensburg. This Ogdensburg Railroad, recollect, is not yet 
nnfait accompli. It has been undertaken with an intelligent 
foresight, an energy and enterprise highly honourable to its pro- 
jectors, but it has yet to be constructed. A Railroad such as 
this is not to be built in a day. It involves immense labour, 
enormous expenses ; it takes a tortuous and protracted course, 
through a mountainous and most difficult country ; it offers 
little or no intermediate transportation, and in length equals at 



m 

feast the whole of the present suggested line from Prescott to 
Stem ille, and from Grenville to Montreal. And yet, with all 
She disadvantages ob their side, and the advantages on ours, 
how little has been done by us, and how much by them ! 

In contrasting the merits of the two lines of communication 
from Montreal to Prescott, by the St. Lawrence, or by the 
Ottawa, it may be as well to take into consideration first the 
question of distance. The distance from Montreal to Prescotl 
by the St. Lawrence is 130 miles ; the distance from Montreal 
to Prescott, via the Ottawa, is not more. This assertion is 
made in the absence of all exact survey, but with every wish 
to approach exactitude, and will be better understood by re- 
ferring to a good map, and by noting the course of the Ottawa 
in refer, nee to that of the St. Lawrence. The "bridging," and 
expenses contingent on the same, maybe calculated at about 
equal. 

Thus much for comparative distances. In facility of con- 
struction it is unrivalled. From Lachine to St. Eustache the 
country is a dead flat, \nd the passages of the Ottawa easy, 
and may be rendered still more so by the selection of points 
where the river is either narrowed in its course or intersected 
by rocks and islands. From St. Eustache to St. Andrews, by 
following the course of the Riviere du Chene, the gradient will 
be one of very trifling inclination. This is affirmed from per- 
sonal observation and from the best corroborative statements. 
From St. Andrews to Grenville it is a level, or nearly so. 
From Hawkesbury on the Ottawa to the St. Lawrence it is 
affirmed, as before stated, that the country is singularly level, 
and peculiarly adapted to railroad operations. 

With regard to the amount or extent of intermediate trans- 
portation, it may be as well to observe, that whereas fifty-five 
miles of railroad extending in the direction of Prescott by the 
St. Lawrence, would most probably terminate in an open field 
some twenty miles or so below Cornwall ; and whereas it is 
very clear that the road must be completed throughout to Pres- 
cott before it could cither compete or co-operate advantageously 
with river and canal, the same extent of railroad by way of 
the Ottawa would terminate at Grenville, from whence Bytown 



132 

may be now reached by uninterrupted steam navigation in the* 
space of from three to four hours. Commanding the route 
to Grenville, we should for ever command the trade of an 
immense section of country, of unknown and inexhaustible- 
resources, the progress and improvement of which has been 
thus far retarded by an indifference to its claims, and by a dis- 
regard of interests which are peculiarly those of Montreal. 
We owe reparation both to it and to ourselves, and trust ihat 
the opportunity of doing it justice, and ourselves an inestima- 
ble benefit will not be lost for want of an effort. There is not 
on this Continent a line of road which offers greater opportuni- 
ties of gradual completion by sections, of which each seetron, 
as completed, will not only promote the progress of a great and 
general design, but will possess within itself sufficient re- 
sources to repay the investment. 

It is not at all necessary that parties engaged in this enter- 
prise should prosecute it at once from Grenville to Lachine. 
The Grenville and Carillon section might be completed at 
once, and would pay on completion, ft would be as easy, and 
perhaps more expedient, to commence another section at 
Lachine, and extend from that point to the Riviere du Chene, 
and at a subsequent and more convenient period, complete the 
connection by the intermediate link from St. Eustache to St. 
Andrews. The distance from Lachine to St.. Eustache is not 
supposed to exceed 16 milrs — it is called 20 from Montreal. 
At St. Eustache, the railroad would attract all the internal 
traffic, the natural route of which towards Montreal is through 
that village, and which between that village and Montreal has 
to encounter bad, and at this season of the year impassable 
roads, the ascent of the Montreal mountain, two toll bridges 
or ferries, and one turnpike. The farmer could bring a heavy 
load from the North River or the Gore to St. Eustache, transfer 
it to the rail-cars, and proceed himself to Montreal, dispose of 
his produce, realize the proceeds, and be home again in less 
time than in the present state of the communication he could 
expect to reach Montreal. 

The scarcity and the uncertainty of the supply of the Mont- 
real markets at this particular season is always a cause of suf- 



V33 

fering and complaint. This year it has weighed grievously on 
the poor, ami has been severely fell by every class of house- 
holders. The cost of food is doubled in Montreal, simulta- 
neously with the cost of fuel, until u the river takes." During 
the interval that elapses between the close of the navigation 
and the freezing of the St. Lawrence, we are dependent for 
*he necessaries of life either on the stores in hand, or on the 
imperfect and inadequate resources of the Island of Montreal. 
The state of the roads, impracticable or nearly so at this sea- 
son, contracts still more the limits of this circle. Supplies are 
doled oat to us with the deliberation or the indifference of the 
monopolist, who can command his times and his prices. We 
must remedy this defect, we must place ourselves beyond the 
vicissitudes of a scanty or arbitrary supply. If Montreal is to 
become a great and populous city, we must have cheap food 
ill seasons, and abundance of it 

By a railroad to St. Andrews, we shall receive equable, and 
sufficient, supplies to our market at any season of the year. 
Up to the present time of writing, the beginning of February, 
rail cars from that point might have reached Montreal daily 
without interruption. We believe that in this section of coun- 
try a Railroad could operate throughout the winter with but 
slight or very temporary hindrance, and no one will doubt 
what effect a daily i: tercourse with the substantial farmer of 
the Counties of Two Mountains and Ottawa would have upon 
the inhabitants of Montreal. Nor is it essential to this result 
that such a railroad should actually reach St. Andrews. 
Every step in that direction will be an invitation and an en- 
couragement. The supplies of that section will meet our 
advances in >re than halfway. So soon as the Railroad 
reaches St. Eustache, so soon will both the stockholders and 
the citizens of Montreal experience the benefits of its opera- 
tion ; benefits which will increase and multiply with the pro- 
gress of the undertaking. 

No thinking man with data such as these before him — data 
which, however imperfect or incomplete, are full of promise 
and reasonable hope, — will doubt of the expediency of this 
undertaking ; an undertaking which, so far as the city of 



134 

Montreal is concerned, should be looked upon, not so much 
a question of expediency, not so much in the light of a specu- 
lation, as a matter of positive necessity. But there is no man 
resident within this most populous section of Canada East to- 
whom this project does not hold out the most evident, undeni- 
able and immediate advantages. To the farmer it secures 
constant demand ; to the citizen unfailing supply ; to the capi- 
talist prompt, and undoubted returns. Let the matter be but 
fairly stated, without exaggeration or extenuation, let the atten- 
tion of the public be, but once, thoroughly aroused to the real 
Importance of the subject, and we may appeal with confidence 
to its support. It is not to the capitalist alone that we are to- 
look for assistance. The monied man, practised and " wide 
awake/' requires neither inducement nor suggestion. He- 
understands his own interest.. Let the investment be but pro- 
fitable and we shall find him there, nothing loth. We look 
to the farmer, the sturdy " old country" settler, who has chop- 
ped and cleared his way to competence, whose earnings, small 
but steadily acquired, await secure investment. To this man 
we look with confidence ; his shrewd sense will teach him 
that no more advantageous investment can be found than the 
employment of his money in the construction of a railroad 
almost to his own door, which, while it insures him interest at 
the rate of seven or eight per cent., will double the value of 
his property, his produce and his labour. And we rely equally 
on the French Canadian farmer, the wealthy and intelligent 
habitant^ to whom a want of enterprise and confidence has 
been imputed, with an equal lack of generosity and justice. 
Of confidence he has naturally only too much ; in his particu- 
lar line he lacks neither enterprise nor energy, but the ways of 
the rail are, as yet, not his ways. If we have preceded him in 
this matter, it is our good fortune, not his blame. What ex- 
perience has taught us, experience will impress upon him. 
He may look timidly at first upon a costly project disagreeably 
suggestive of other and still more specious failures; but he 
will see as we saw, and he will be convinced as we were con- 
vinced, not one whit more slowly or more cautiously; and once 
convinced, he will embark in undertakings of this nature with 



135 

as much alacrity and courage as any other constituent of the 
population of Canada. 

I3ul to inspire confidence among all classes of men, and 
every variety of race, requires something more than individual 
exertion. The motive of an individual maybe misunderstood 
or misrepresented. The most disinterested zeal differs not in 
appearance from the eagerness of selfish interest. The man 
may mar the cause, "non specie tanliimsed opprobrio quoque." 
It is to the representatives of the people in their respective 
categories ; it is to those who have acquired and who enjoy a 
legitimate influence, whose influence has been endorsed by 
the suffrages of their fellow citizens, that we must look for 
the most beneficial exercise of that influence, — in social inter- 
course, in conversation, by personal explanation and exhortation. 
The man who feels strongly, impresses deeply. We turn to the 
Members of the Legislature in their individual capacity in 
their several spheres and localities, as the best and most effi- 
cient propagandists of improvement ; we rely upon their exer- 
tions and upon their support, and feel assured that in this 
reliance we shall not be disappointed. 

But it is upon the Legislature itself that all eyes turn at this 
conjuncture. Newly elected and full of promise, it cannot be 
for one moment doubted but that all projects of public im- 
provement and advance, all measures of general and compre- 
hensive utility, more especially Railroads and Canals, will 
receive earnest attention and warm encouragement. It is in 
the power of Parliament to give an impulse to Canadian en- 
terprise and Canadian prosperity ; to give it, at the same time, 
such a direction and tendency as will secure it alike from 
depression, or change, or competition. It may place us at 
once, not only above rivalry, but in a position inaccessible to 
rivalry ; it may secure to the commerce of this country im- 
mense and permanent advantages; not by invidious and irritat- 
ing legislation, not by pandering to the mean instincts of our 
nature, not by devising distinctions, and differences, and disa- 
bilities, but by asserting the superiority which nature has 
conferred upon us, and by employing that superiority for the 
benefit of mankind. It is in the power of our Legislature, at 



vse 

this peculiar crisis, by the judicious encouragement of local 
undertakings, based upon a well designed and well matured 
system, to make this Province the highway to the West. Do- 
but hold out to capital and enterprise every legitimate induce- 
ment, and we shall, ere long, see grow up a complete line of 
canal communication connecting the waters of the Ocean with 
the waters of the Lakes. We shall see grow up a continuous 
Railroad communication, connecting the St. Lawrence with the 
Oltawa, the Ottawa with Montreal, and Montreal with the 
World. Canada will monopolize the travel and the traffic of 
the West upon the catholic basis of economy, convenience and 
speed, and she will exercise that monopoly with universal 
acquiescence and approval. 

What the nature and measure of the inducement ous:ht to 
be may vary with circumstances. We have no lack of exam- 
ples or precedents. Without going to the East or West Indies, 
to the Island of Trinidad, or Ceylon, or to the Colony of 
Demarara, we find in our sister Colonies of Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick new and familiar instances of wise and fos- 
tering legislation. The great St. Andrews and Fredericton 
Railway, the first skein in that web of communication which 
will, at no remote period, connect the British Provinces with 
each other, and with Europe, has obtained the necessary capi- 
tal, without difficulty or hesitation, on the guarantee of the 
Province of five per centum per annum on the amount of capital in- 
vested in the enterprise. The certainty of five per cent., the 
character of the security, and the contingency of six or eight per 
cent., have overcome all scruples and will surmount every obsta- 
cle. The application of like principles here will insure like re- 
sults. Let the Legislature of this Province but guarantee like in- 
terest on the capital invested in such enterprises as the St. Law- 
rence and Lake Champlain Canal, the St. Lawrence and Ottawa 
Grand Junction Railway, the St. Lawrence and Atlantic, and 
the Great Western Railroad, all grand trunk lines of road, of 
general interest and benefit to the Province at large, and the 
means of prosecuting these great works will be forthcoming. 
We claim no assistance for the line connecting the St. Law- 
rence, opposite to Montreal, withSwanton, in Vermont; first, 






137 

because we do not view it as an enterprise of Provincial inter- 
est ; and, secondly, because we look upon its construction 
inevitable on the completion of the canal and the Vermont 
Railroads, either by the existing Company to St. Johns, or by- 
others who watch and await their decision; but we claim the 
Provincial guarantee to the projects above named, with perfect 
confidence that the effects of that guarantee will be such as to 
render the guarantee itself a mere work of supererogation 

But we demand something more from our Provincial Lcgis- 
lature. We demand the abandonment and repeal of those re- 
strictive principles in railway legislation — principles equally 
unjust, impolitic, and fallacious — which have dictated the 
limitation of railway profits. We can hardly imagine a greater 
absurdity, a more glaring anomaly in the legislation of a new 
country, deficient in •means, rich in resources, and covetous 
of the means to devclope those resources, than enactments 
which blow hot and blow cold, which invite and repel, which 
court the assistance of the capitalist in the spirit of the hawker 
who pull's his wares and at the same time drives a hard bar- 
gain. It has the effect, too, of all hard bargains ; it deters 
custom, it provokes retaliation, it encourages cheatery. It is a 
matter of notoriety, all the world over, that the attempted li- 
mitation of railway profits is of none effect. It is eluded openly, 
and the evasion, an act of public immorality, is greeted on all 
hands with the chuckle of public approbation. Why, there- 
fore, this Legislative provocative to sm? Why persist in en- 
actments unjust in principle, immoral in tendency, and 
impotent in purpose ? If the St. Lawrence and Lake Champ- 
lain Railroad Company could legally declare a dividend of 
twenty per cent , or the Montreal and Lachine Railroad Com- 
pany a dividend of fifteen, we should soon dispense with the 
necessity and the humiliation of running after capital. Cap- 
ital would run after us. The cc delicate attentions" would be 
all the other way. Canadian stocks would be at a high pre- 
mium, and our money market pant under a phlcthora of ingots 
and doubloons. We do most earnestly hope that Provincial 
enterprise will be ridded forthwith of this hamper and in- 
cumbrance. We in no way object to a wholesome govern- 



133 

mental supervision of railway tariffs of tolls and charges. 
We object not to the reservation of right to the public to take 
possession of any Railroad, on certain specified and equitable 
conditions ; but we protest against restrictions. Let us have 
free trade and unlimited profits. 

Thus much for our triple project. It consists of three de- 
signs, all conducive to the same object. The first being a 
canal connecting the waters of the St. Lawrence with the 
waters of Lake Champlain ; the second, a Railroad connecting 
Montreal with Sawnton and Burlington, Boston and New 
York ; the third, but second in importance, and equal in public 
utility with the canal, a railroad connecting the upper waters of 
the Saint Lawrence with the waters of the Ottawa, and the 
waters of the Ottawa with Montreal. We have called it a 
triple project, because although each feature in the triplet may 
be entertained and acted upon independently, the combination 
of the three will secure to this Province the following great 
and enduring advantages : — 

It will give to our waters, to our canals, to our communica- 
tions, the transport of a vast amount of the freight traffic of the 
west, an amount which has been aptly called " the lion's 
share ;" 

It will augment in proportion the tolls on our canals, and the 
revenues of the Province ; 

It will cheapen the cost of descending freight, and enable 
those who bring down cheaply to take back cheaply. It will 
put economy in competition with speed, and will place the 
Canadian canal on a fair footing of advantageous rivalry with 
the American Railroad ; 

At all points of contact in the Canadian territory, it will give 
increased intercourse, and create increased wants, demands 
and consnmption ; 

It will transfer to our Railroads a large porportion of the 
passage traffic from the United States to the west ; 

It will afford a new outlet to the trade of the Ottawa ; 

It will impart fresh vigour to that trade by increasing its 
certainty, and giving to it a choice of markets ; 



139 

| If will make Montreal a thoroughfare and an emporium; a 

>ughfare of commerce and commercial travel, and a depot 

>le of supplying ail markets, at any notice and to any 

ml; 
I It will secure to this metropolis cheap and well regulated 
lupplies at all seasons ; 

| It will give a fresh and permanent impulse to the activity 
and energy, the progress and prosperity of Canada. 

We expect all this from the newly convened Parliament. 
vVe repeat our conviction that the guarantee demanded, if ap- 
plied with prudence and judgment, will ultimately prove to 
lave been superfluous and unnecessary. It will have proved 
mosl valuable as a security and an inducement, as inspiring 
Uie capitalist, both indigenous and foreign, with confidence 
hnd courage. The Legislature may lend us its name without 
rear of dishonour. We shall not fail to meet these engage- 
ments. It will have endorsed our securities, it will have im- 
parted currency to our credit without the risk or even the 
apprehension of real responsibility. But if from unforeseen or 
'unimaginable obstacles, or from untoward or uncontrollable 
circumstances, the Legislature should withhold the guarantee, 
fel us not lose heart or countenance. Let us not relax nor 
desist, nor rest satisfied with the indolent commentary "where 
18 the money to come from?" The money, assuredly, will not 
be found if it is not sought ; let us endeavour to find it, or, at 
the least, put ourselves in a position to employ it if it is to 
be found. Let us get from the Legislature all that it is com- 
petent or inclined to give. Let us get intelligent legislation, 
based on broad and attractive principles. Hold out to the 
stockholder every inducement consistent with the public se- 
curity. But while Parliament "gives all it can," it will never 
do lor us to play the voluptuous sluggard, and "dream the 
res!." The first railroad undertaken by the Bostonians en- 
countered still greater difficulties and surmounted heavier dis- 
couragement. That same railroad now returns a steady income 
of eight per cent. 

" Aide toi it Dieii V ail era." Let us cease from calling 
upon Hercules, and grapple with the churlish god. To com- 



140 






plete works of the contemplated magnitude would unquestion- 
ably require a large expenditure of capital. But the canal is a 
work which will most probably be assumed by the Province. 
The railroad between the St. Lawrence, the Ottawa, and Mont- 
real, appeals strongly to the interest and common sense of the 
native capitalist. The return will be immediate, the expen- 
diture will spread over a number of years. It holds out re- 
markable facilities for completion by sections, of which each 
section as completed, will pay. The calls upon the stockhold- 
ers will be graduated by circumstances ; they will of no ne- 
cessity be heavy or hurried, and will in a great degree depend 
upon the apparent success of the undertaking, and the increas- 
ing confidence of the public. 

From England we are taught to expect no assistance. We 
are told that her present engagements already exceed her 
means. Not so. For all rational and legitimate engagements 
she has the necessary means, and means to spare. She emerges 
from the fiery furnace, cleansed of the dross of mad specula- 
tion. Parties have suffered, but not the strength or the wealth 
of the nation. England has the means even now, and will 
soon have more to employ in prudent investment. Capital 
will accumulate in despite of pressure or crisis or panic : it 
must find employment. It will ever be attracted by fair pro- 
mise and adequate security, and amid the late monetary mis- 
haps of mankind we see no particular reason to question the 
credit, or despair of the prospects of Canadian enterprise. 

From Old England we turn, naturally enough, to New Eng- 
land. The abolition of differential restrictions, the equalization 
of duties in this colony, will give rise to new commercial re- 
lations with the manufacturing States of the Union. Distance 
and climate, freight and insurance, costs and charges cc-nsid- 
ered, the manufactures and the machinery of Boston will com- 
pete extensively in Canada with those of England. A new 
market is opened to " Yankee notions," and American inge- 
nuity. All tha' is wanted now is to render that market 
accessible by short, speedy, safe and cheap communications, 
ways of traffic and modes of conveyance which will at the 



141 

lime time create and employ capital. Can we for one mo- 
em doubt that those who have invested millions in opening 
j devious communications with visionary markets in the 
■mote West, who by slow but sure degrees have realized these 
sions, will neglect the field of enterprise presented to them 
most at their own doors. Will those who hive undertaken 
le Ogdensbnrgh Railroad, a work of immense labour, im- 
lense expenditure, profitless in itself, and useful alone as a 
|nk of communication, be so blind to their own interests as 
i!> refuse assistance to projects which are emphatically their 
\vn, which will make the road to Boston not the mail route 
nl\\ but the commercial highway to Europe, which will en- 
ble them to supply Montreal and its 60,000 inhabitants, and 
ic dense population of Canada, with their* manufactures and 
leir imports; which will return to them, at the same lime, the 
reduce of the Ottawa and of the west ; and which, in fact, to 
11 the advantages contemplated by the Ogdensbnrgh Railroad 
.'ill combine many more, with greater conveniences, more 
face nt ration, and far less cost. 

In conclusion, and in apology, we again repeat that we have 
(entured upon the observations and suggestions contained in 
le foregoing pages, in the earnest hope that our efforts, we 
ill add even our inaccuracies, may have the effect of attract- 
lg public attention to these matters at once. If anything is to 
!>e done towards the promotion of these objects, it is to be done 
foiv. This is the time and the opportunity ; let it not escape 
is. Let us no longer palter with doubts and fears and mis- 
givings. Let us meet and grapple with the difficulty, if any 
ixist ; determined to win the best or know the worst, provi-' 
lent of the present, hopeful for the future, resolute to lose 
lothing by our own apathy, and mindful ever, that 
In the disproof of chance 
Lies the true proof of man. 



142 






B — .Letter from C. P. Treadwell, Esquire, published in Mo 

treal Herald of 30i.li November, 1850, with Report of a sur- 
vey of part of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Grand June- t 1 
tion Railway. 

This Survey- was performed in compliance with the request! 
and under the particular direction, of Mr. Sheriff Treadwell and | 
other gentlemen of the Ottawa District. It commences on the [ 
Long Sault on the Ottawa, about a mile below the Hawkesbury 
Mills, and at a point, in the opinion of competent judges, the j 
most suitable for the construction of a bridge. 

From this place to the Hawkesbury Village the distance is 
one mile and twenty-seven chains. In the first twenty chains 
of this distance the.ascent does not much exceed ten feet above 
the present, level of the water, but in the next seven it rises tdjj 
twenty-four. At midway it reaches the height of twenty-eight | 
and throughout the remainder of the distance there is an easy, I 
gradual descent of six feet, making the height of the village, 
a little beyond the creek, about twenty-two feet above the wa- 
ter's edge. The next mile and three quarters of the route 
passes over an even clayey surface, having an ascent of about 
seven feet to the mile. At the Seigniory line, thirty-four chains 
further onward, the highest elevation on the line between the 
Ottawa and the Springs is obtained — viz : fifty-eight feet. 

From this point to the Road at Hart wick's the distance is* 
seventy-two chains, with a descent of twenty feet ; thence to 
L'Orignal the distance is one mile and thirty-eight chains, and 
the height forty-two feet : but this last distance presents differ- 
ent elevations, some of which are not more than twenty-five 
feet. From L'Orignal, in direct line to the Springs, the dis- 
tance is 7| miles. This part of the route presents every faci- 
lity that could be desired in the construction of a Railroad, 
With the exception of a small eminence of a few feet, the whole 
distance may be calculated upon as nearly level, and I feel 
confident in asserting that a better site, from L'Orignal to the 
Springs, could not be obtained. With respect to the line here 
laid down between Hawkesbury Village and L'Orignal, I am 
not prepared to advocate it as the only route, except for the 



143 

onvcnience of lumbermen. On Lhe contrary, T can see no ne- 
cssiiy for it touching at any point on the Ottawa between these 
wo places. The course from Hawkesbury Village to-L'Orig- 
al should be direct, as well with a view of shortening the dis- 
IDCe as of securing a more eligible 4 and uniform route. 

ROBERT HAMILTON, 
Iawktsbury, Provincial Land Surveyor. 

January 22, 1849. 



pi Ottawa and St. Lawrence Grand Junction Railroad. 

This contemplated Railroad Will unite with that of the St. 
Lawrence and Atlantic at Montreal, and with the Ottawa River 
it Hawkesbury and L'Orignal ; it will also touch the St. Lawr- 
ence at Prescott, and thereby connect, with the Ogdensburgh 
ind Boston Railroad. The last-named line is opposed to the 
we in question : nevertheless, they will, when completed, create 
m immense amount of business for each other, and render an 
important benefit to the Railroad to the Atlantic and Portland; 
for it is generally admitted that commerce and travel increase 
in proportion to the facilities afforded by speedy and cheap 
conveyance. 

Permit me through the medium of your paper to enumerate 
some of the advantages which, in my opinion, will arise from 
the completion of the great work above alluded to. In the first 
place it will increase the value of real estate, which at the pre- 
sent moment is far below an average, in comparison with other 
countries possessing no greater advantages. 

It will also, by connecting Lachine with St. Eustache, bring 
an excellent farming country within forty minutes of the city, 
so that persons wishing to reside in the country, and enjoy the 
luxury as well as the economy of such a residence, and at the 
same time attend to their interests in towm, will be enabled to 
do so with comparatively little expense ; neither must it be for- 
gotlcn that the markets will be better supplied with all kinds 
of country produce, whilst the vast water power afforded by the 
two branches of the river which form the Islands of Montreal 
and Jesus, will induce capitalists to engage in various kinds 
of manufactures, by which the country would progress in com- 



144 

merce arid increase in wealth. As the line proceeds upwards 
between the Grande and Petite Brule, it will pass over a level 
tract of land well adapted for cultivation. 

Only scatter among its present contented people a few Low- 
land Scotch, Irish, English, and German farmers, who will in- 
troduce an improved system of husbandry among the settlers, 
and this section, which, the Montreal merchants will well re- 
member, was admitted to be the best wheat growing country in 
Canada, will produce more abundant crops than when first re- 
claimed, and furnish a greater quantity of vegetables, poultry, 
sheep, cattle and pigs for the Montreal markets than it has ever 
yet been able to bring forward. 

The next place of importance after leaving the Brule, will be 
St. Andrews on the North River. This fine stream is pecu- 
liarly adapted to manufacturing purposes, and should the pre- 
sent improvement be carried out, will at no distant day form a 
town of no mean note, and produce a handsome revenue to the 
Railroad interest. At Carrillon the lumber merchant, who may 
have run over the rapids, will embark in the train, and save 
one half of his expense and a great deal of hard labour to the 
men. x\t this place also a large amount of business in freight 
may be expected, not only from the resident merchants, but 
from the farmers in the more remote districts. 

The next great object to the Compan} 7 will be the crossing of 
the Ottawa. This I am confident, will be found practicable at 
any point from Stuther's Island to the large pier at Hawkesbury 
Mills ; the only question for the engineers to determine being 
the place of easiest approach to, and departure from the river. 

The above named mills belong to the estate of the late Hon. 
George Hamilton, and were carried on with great advantage 
under the management of Messrs. Hamilton and Low. They 
have been visited by several of our Governors, and other per- 
sons of distinction, and have been declared to be the most per- 
fect and best regulated establishments for the manufacture of 
deals in the British Provinces. They are now under the direc- 
tion of Messrs. Hamilton and Thompson, and may be stated to 
manufacture, annually, near half a million of pine deals for the 
British market. 






145 

Now, if all the bright deals made by this establishment were 
taken from the mills by Railroad, and could be shipped from the 
wharf at Montreal, and sold there for only one pound additional 
per hundred pieces, being- the difference between bright and 
floated deals, this alone would secure to the Railroad Company 
a yearly income of nearly live thousand pounds, and at the 
same time make deals worth as much at the mills as they are 
now at the shipping port, and whenever the trade shall become 
unprofitable, either from scarcity or otherwise, the vast water 
privilege, and the great extent of the facilities for employing it > 
may yet render this place the Manchester of Canada. 

At T ,'Orignal the freight and passengers of the upper section 
of the Ottawa will be secured. This, together with that of the 
country around, will, it is confidently expected, form a very 
large annual item, and when the communication shall be open- 
ed up from the Ottawa to the French River and to Lake Huron, 
this place will be on the direct route thence to the Atlantic, 
both at Portland and by the Gulf of the St. Lawrence. 

From L'Originai to the Caledonia Springs, a distance of 
about seven miles, is a perfect level. The business of the Ca- 
ledonia Springs will also be an object of importance to the 
Railroad, not only from the conveyance of passengers and 
freight, but also from the transmission of its far-famed waters, 
which are now being sent to all the principal cities and towns 
in CanaJa, to many parts of the United States, to England, 
Ireland, and Scotland, and to the West Indies; and it is by no 
means improbable that this traffic may increase in a ten-fold 
proportion, and travel in the same ratio. 

From the Caledonia Springs the road will proceed to the 
great bend in the Nation River, where, particularly at low wa- 
ter, sawn timber will be taken up and transported direct to 
Montreal. This section contains an immense quantity of fuel, 
and the opportunity afforded of forwarding it to the Montreal 
market will be felt very beneficially, both by the Company and 
by farmers. 

After leaving the Nation River, the road will pass through 
South Plantagenet, Cambridge, and Finch, in a direct line a 
little to the east of the High Falls, and thence nearly on the 

K 



146 

same course to Prescott. It may not be impossible that the 
line of Railroad from By town may intersect the line here laid 
down at the High Falls, and if so, it will connect Bytown bolh 
with Prescott and Montreal. Before the route reaches Prescott 
it will have passed several fine waterfalls on the Nation, where 
mills are now erected, and where manufactories may yet be 
established to a great extent, and in a country extremely rich 
in agricultural products, both of which objects are of material 
consideration to Railroad proprietors. 

Prescott was situated at the foot of ship navigation from the 
great lakes previous to the completion of the St. Lawrence 
Canal, and although this grand communication has been in 
operation for some years, it is only during six months in the 
year that its facilities can be rendered available. There is little 
doubt but passengers generally the year round would leave the 
boats at this point and take the Railroad. The variety and ex- 
edition in travelling would be an inducement for them to do 
so, whilst the danger attending the navigation of the rapids 
will be entirely avoided. 

The winter business of the Railroad will, I think, exceed 
that of the summer, inasmuch as the facilities afforded by win- 
ter travel will preclude the necessity of purchasing a six 
months' stock either in the Montreal, New York, Boston, Port- 
land, or British markets. The merchant can likewise, if he 
wishes, order his supply any month throughout the year, there- 
by saving a great deal in his interest account, and enabling 
him to form a more accurate judgment of the actual merits of 
his business, and at the same time carrying on his business 
with one third of the capital. This improvement would have 
a tendency to establish cash markets for the farmers' produce 
at every depot along the line. 

This route was first suggested by Mr. Sheriff Coffin, who is 
one of its ablest advocates. It offers greater facilities and less 
obstacles than any other route hitherto brought before the pub- 
lic. Even the bridges, against which many make objections, 
are of comparatively easy construction, and as it is intended 
to establish tolls in conjunction with them, they will rather be 
a source of profit than otherwise. It has also been proposed 



147 

to construct the whole line by sections. This would be an 
additional advantage, for many of the sections would, even 
before they are connected, do a great deal towards paying the 
interest on the outlay required, and as has been already 
remarket^ property would be raised to its real value. The 
Rev. gentlemen of the Seminary of Montreal will probably lend 
their interest to the furtherance of this great work, and should 
they wish to commute their lods et ventes, they might do so with 
great advantage by becoming Shareholders. Their people, too, 
under judicious management, might do the principal part of 
the work at these points, and as they live on the route they 
-could afford to do the work at a less expense. Other Seignio- 
ries might do the same, and thus a new life would be infused 
•into all these sections. A good market would induce farmers 
to raise more grain and to improve their condition in every 
way. The first section should be commenced where there is 
material, such as timber, &c. This would enable the Railroad 
to do its own work. 

There are wharves and store -houses at Montreal to do four 
times the work that is done, and the trains and cars on the 
Lachine Railroad are equal to all the business to Prescott with 
but little addition. I know that men of enterprise in Montreal 
have effected great things under very unfavorable circum- 
stances, and upon a change of times there can be no difficulty in 
carrying out the contemplated improvement. Montreal, at this 
time can boast of public works, public buildings, churches, 
schools, and of its being noted for one of the cleanest cities in 
America, 

CHAS. P. TREADWELL, 

L'Orignal, Jan. 23, 1849. 



C. — Letter published in the Montreal Herald of 25th January, 
1851, (signed " Earnest") pointing out the claims of the 
Northern Line from Montreal to Caledonia Springs. 

Sir, — For some time past I have watched the progress 
of the subject of the Montreal and Prescott Railroad, as agi- 
tated by the various writers, on the importance of securing the 



148 

road to the country on the northern or southern banks of the 
Ottawa River. The question of the necessity of constructing 
such a Railroad appears clearly to be established in the affirm- 
ative. The driver of the iron horse from the Atlantic, must r 
ere long, on his arrival opposite our city, hear the echo of the 
mighty snort of a similar power about to start from our far- 
famed city, on its way through Prescott, to the fertile regions- 
of the West. Although I am to some extent acquainted with 
the Ottawa River and the business done on it, as well as that 
of the country surrounding it, up to the present time I did not 
deem it expedient to encroach on your valuable columns for 
the purpose of offering my humble opinion on the subject of 
the direction the proposed Railroad should take, to arrive at 
Presco't from this place. 

I am pleased to see our Canadian friends coming into the 
war of pen and ink on this subject ; but would be better pleased 
to see them offering to make the impression indelible, by pro- 
posing to load their arguments with a little more of their hard 
cash. 

I have endeavoured to consider seriously the real merits of 
the two proposed routes, and must say I cannot agree with the 
views of " A Canadian," in yours of the 9th instant. He, it 
appears to me, is personally interested in the southern course, 
and attempts to prop its fading popularity by a variety of ideas 
founded upon no reality. The mind of the public is awake 
on the subject ; u combination," without arguments supported 
by facts, will no longer take effect. The question then arises 
— what statements made in favor of the south are incorrect, 
and what facts can be established of sufficient weight to settle 
the question in favor of the North ? I have not given the mat- 
ter sufficient attention, and cannot devote sufficient time to the 
subject, to enable me to present to your readers very weighty 
considerations in favor of either : such as they are, I humbly 
submit them. 

I beg to correct " A Canadian," when he writes, " with 
only the Ottawa to cross at St. Anns." The Ottawa must be 
crossed at Vaudreuil as well as St. Anns. The bridge at St, 
Anns must be of such a character as to require a very heavy 



149 

sum for its construction. The peculiarities of the place, with 
urrent and channel, are such as to warrant one in saying 
that more than one unsuccessful effort will be made to construct 
a bridge there that will stand, and not obstruct the navigation. 
lie also requires correction when he says, " and there are no 
treeka or rivers to cross, of any consequence." I think he must 
have lost sight of its being the winter season when they are 
all filled with ice and snow. He appears to have lost sight 
i of the pretty stream finding its way from the interior, 
running past his very door step, (if he resides at Rigaud) and 
in the summer season floats on its surface thousands of sawed 
lumber, cut at the distant mills, and hundreds of cords of fire- 
wood from the forest, as well as furnishing the power to turn 
the stones that grind the flour consumed by the country around. 
This stream has lofty tapering banks, and will require an ex- 
pensive bridge. 

I cannot occupy your valuable space, by recapitulating par- 
ticulars of the various gullies on the south side, nor of the 
■■streams of moment driving the various saw and grist mills in 
the different parishes. The surveyors will, no doubt, notice 
them alL 

My friend, " A Canadian," must not take it hard if I arrest 
liim again. He says the distance is lengthened, by the north, 
to the extent of 25 miles on 85 — calling that the distance to 
Caledonia Springs, whereas it is only 73 miles by post road, 
and might be shorter by railroad. I agree with him, when he 
says that a road on the south side would be a great accommo- 
dation to the mercantile business there, and hope to see the 
<lay when he will get one, and be able to make it pay; but 
that is not the question — he may be accommodated at the ex- 
pense of his neighbour, but that will not do. The question is 
— which road will now pay ? The provision of a few extra 
thousand pounds in Stock, to take the road through a country 
that will give an immediate and adequate revenue, is not so 
■difficult as the supporting of one through a country unable to 
furnish business for it. From what I know of the business of 
the south side, I can safely say, and call on the steamboat 
proprietors to bear me out in it, that they could do twice the 



150 

business furnished them just now from it, although there is bu? 
one boat plying regularly from Laehine to Carillon on the Otta- 
wa; and were it not for the business backwards to the North 
and West, and upwards via Grenville, the Caledonia Springs 
and By town,, that boat would not earn enough to pay for the 
wood, tallow, and oil consumed. The small boats, passing up 
to Bytown, rarely stop, excepting to take wood, or put off a 
trifling package or two, for some person not wishing to patron- 
ize railroads or fast steamers, for fear of having to pay an extra 
penny per ewt, The steamer running daily on the Ottawa r 
leaves Laehine every morning, and cannot find business enough 
to make it an object to stop, till she arrives at the Lock of St. 
Anns. The business of the village of Yaudreuil is not worth 
going out of her direct course for, nor is that of Rigaud : con- 
sequently, she stops six miles above one, and five miles below 
the other, and I think would not touch at Point Fortune, but 
for the accommodation of passengers coming from the Springs 
by the south road. And although there are a number of wharves 
on this route, on the south side, many are but rarely touched 
by a steamer, for want of business to induce them to stop. 

The bulk of the settlements by that route lie along the froat, 
or mail road, which is within a stone's throw, or nearly so, of 
the Ottawa, from Laehine to Point Fortune. I will admit there 
are concession roads running up from the Ottawa to the interior 
between these points, but I will not admit, nor could it be 
proved, that business for a single car daily could be furnished 
from the concessions there. In fact, the bulk of the settlers there 
dare not make away with much of their produce by that means ; 
if they did so, the merchants on the front would soon punish 
them for not coming their way, by enforcing payment of old 
accounts which they very much fear. Of course there are 
cases which will be an exception to this. "A Canadian" again 
says what must be corrected, " where there are only in the 
small parish of Rigaud during eight months of the year ten or 
twelve barges continually employed transporting the produce 
of the Parish and neighbouring Townships, &c.,and in return 
takes back quantities of merchandise, which are consumed in 
the interior of the country." In making this statement I fear 



151 

lie does so under the mistaken information, or a desire to mis- 
lead, if by "neighbouring townships," he means the country in 
the immediate neighbourhood, and to the south ofRigaudfrom 
Point Fortune to Vaudreuil, I do not hesitate to question his 
correctness, unless by "produce" he means firewood, and even 
with that constant employment is not given them. I know 
every barge in the habit of running between Lachine andGren- 
ville canal, and how they were employed for the past season, 
from which knowledge I can speak correctly, or nearly so. The 
barges getting anything to do the past season on the south side 
between Point Fortune and^ Saint Ann's, to Lachine and the 
city, numbered seventeen — six of which made but two or three 
trips each there — seven were about half employed there, and 
four were constantly on that route, of which but two carried 
grain in bulk, bringing in all four small cargoes of 1,500 to 
1,800 bushels each, from thence, with about 10 cargoes of 
sawed lumber, and two or three barge loads of hay and straw; 
the rest was firewood, with occasionally a few bags of grain, 
or three or four barrels of ashes amongst it. The barges above 
alluded to procured the balance of their employment, with 
some six or seven others, at St. Andrews, Carillon, Hawkesbury, 
the Grenville Canal, and occasionally a trip to Petite Nation 
or Bytown, for sawed lumber. After the merchandise carried 
up by them to the limits mentioned, that was but trilling, per- 
haps occasionally two or three of the barge owners most fa- 
voured w r ould get some three to six tons each, at 10s to 12s per 
ton, for 50 miles, which they could put out of sight under the 
deck, in the forward or after-part of their barges, as it must be 
remembered the greater number of the barges spoken of are 
of the most inferior description, carrying about 30 cords of 
wood each, at from 3s to 4s 6d per cord, and grain from 
Id to l|d per minot, for 50 miles, when they can get it, and 
would do it for less rather than be idle. 

What Railroad could work less than that ? With the above 
facts in view what inducement is there to fix the first forty or 
fifty miles from Lachine on the South side of the Ottawa. It 
may be said there would be business on the road from the 
banks of the St. Lawrence ; I say not, for there are daily as 



)52 

well as a semi-weekly Steamer stopping at all the wharves 
from the Cascades up ; or it may be said the road will open 
up a fine back country ; admitting that it does, time must be 
given to settle and cultivate it before freight can be had, while 
this is doing if the road runs through St. Anns, the Stockhold- 
ers may make up their minds at their own expense to "accom- 
modate" a few patrons and do no business worth speaking of 
till they reach some fifty miles beyond Lachine. 

It may appear unnecessary that I should have given so many 
detailed statements relating to the first fifty miles of the pro- 
posed southern route, but I do so under the conviction of its 
being necessary that the first 50 miles of any Railroad should 
furnish a large portion of the business to enable it to pay, and 
I question that side of the Ottawa on that account. It will 
not do to have that portion — the half from Prescott down, sup- 
porting the half from Montreal up ; each must bear their part, 
or as nearly as possible. If the proposing stockholders and 
projectors of the Road give the matter their serious considera- 
tion, I feel assured they will be with me in saying the North 
for the first 50 miles must be adopted. The population of the 
South for 50 miles above Montreal I hope will, at a day not 
very far distant, come forward and form a branch to the leading 
road by assisting in making it and supporting it when made ; 
the former they will not do now, and the latter they cannot do 
for some years to come. 

When a merchant is commencing business, he will carefully 
consider whether it is better to invest £10,000 in a doubtful 
project or to invest £12,000 in one which may be calculated 
upon with safety ; in the first project he is liable to employ 
himself to no purpose and lose his Capital ; in the other he 
embarks feeling assured of at least preserving what he invested 
with a prospect of profit ; so it is with the two routes in ques- 
tion — will 20 per cent, more stock be taken to secure a paying 
route for the first 50 miles, or will less stock be taken and a 
shorter road be made with a certainty of loss on the business 
of the first 50 miles ? Without a doubt the extra stock will 
be taken to make the road on a route that will pay. 



153 

Jt may be said that what I am writing is all one sided, had 
I the time to write and the space in your valuable paper at my 
service, I might say much in favour of the other side and the 
business to be done on it; I feel I have already encroached too 
far, but I cannot drop the subject without begging you will 
allow me a little mare space to name a few of the wants of 
the North and the advantages they are and would be to the 
projected Railroad. Starting from Lachine, striking through 
the Country, touching as nearly as possible the best settled 
spots and Villages, to St. Eustache, from thence again ap- 
proaching some and passing the other Villages to St. Andrews 
— from thence passing through Chatham to the place of cross- 
ing the Ottawa, which could be done at many points between 
Carillon and Grenville without interfering with the navigation 
— and from thence in as direct a course as is consistent with 
the necessily of touching the towns and villages and settle- 
ments likely to furnish business worth) of note, and on to 
Prescott. 

I travel frequently by land on both sides of the Ottawa, and 
from my knowledge of the country I can safely say the paying 
prospects of this route as far as Chatham, in preference to the 
same distance the other side, is without a doubt, and can be 
accounted for by the total want of water communication from 
the interior to the City — the fertility of the soil, the extent of 
the back Country settled and rapidly settling — the thriving 
condition of the population, the want of good land conveyance 
— the quantity of grain, Ashes, Pork, Butter, Cheese, Poultry 
&c. produced there, all of which can be increased, trie carry- 
ing of which to the City personally with their productions 
would furnish the Road with a large business from every set- 
tlement and village. 

From Chatham or Grenville to Prescott there does not appear 
to be a doubt of the road paying, therefore I have left that sub- 
ject untouched ; the Saw Mills alone, with the hundreds of 
puncheons of Caledonia and far-famed Plantagenet Mineral 
Waters would, with the Prescott and intervening trade, furnish 
a very large and profitable business. 



154 

I cannot drop my pen without referring to the principle car- 
ried out in all paying roads in the neighbouring States, which 
is to cut through rocky hills of great height, or cross streams 
of magnitude for the purpose of getting at a Town, Village 
or settlement that will furnish business — all their Railroads 
run as near villages as possible and make it pay rather than 
take the short cut at a loss*. Therefore, I say, let all who can 
say or do anything in favour of it, labour to bring the Road to 
the North, where it must pay by approaching the Villages, 
rather than give it to the South and lose money. The South 
side will get a road when they are ready for it, but that is not 
at present ; the other side is ready and waiting and will fur- 
nish solid assistance and support immediately. 

I do not invite those interested to headstrong combinations, 
that are supported only by selfishness with the view of carrying 
out pet views: but I do invite them to serious, honest and 
above-board considerations which I know to be the only ones 
that will be to their own as well as to the public advantage. 

I feel assured upon consideration, the people of Prescott and 
from thence 50 to GO miles downwards have no idea of assist- 
ing, and when they look into* it, will not assist in sending the 
road by the South, where they must support a road for the con- 
venience of the country below them, which can contribute but 
little towards its business, while, on the other hand in facilita- 
ting the establishment of the Road by the North, each portion 
will be able to bear its own expense, thereby making the ex- 
pense of freight and travel, on the whole, lighter and the profit 
more certain. 

Hoping my friend " A Canadian," and other writers on the 
opposite side, will not consider that anything is said but in 
the best spirit and with the best of motives, and offering you 
my most sincere thanks for your indulgence, 

I am, Dear Sir, 
Yours Vfcry truly, 

EARNEST. 
Montreal, Jan. 21, 1851. 



155 

. — Letter from Mr. D. Sinclair, of Point Fortune, on the 
subject of Ibe proposed Railroad from Montreal to Preseott. 



TO THE INHABITANTS OF THE COUNTY OF TWO MOUNTAINS. 

Permit one who feels an interest, in common with most of 
you, in the promotion of every enterprise calculated to benefit 
the Province, and more especially this large and populous 
County, abounding as it does in material wealth, in my opinion 
second to none in Lower Canada, except the County of Mon- 
treal, to address you on the much discussed subject, of the 
Montreal and Prescott Railroad, whilst the settling of the route 
is an open question, with the view of bringing it under the 
notice and securing the co-operation of those who can do much 
towards securing the Railroad on ihe northern route. 

In expressing my views on the subject, I shall endeavour 
briefly to shew — 

1st. Some of the advantages of a Railroad to the section of 
country through which it passes. 

2nd. The facilities you possess of taking stock in the Rail- 
road, through your Municipal Council. 

3rd. The probable amount of traffic contributed by this 
County, and the profits resulting from it. 

4th. The extent of country and amount of population that 
would supply way business to the Railroad by constructing a 
branch from the most suitable point on the main line to Bytown, 
" the City of the Ottawa." 

5th. The advantages of the northern route, both to the County 
and to the Stockholders, over the southern route. 

1st. A Railroad would, no doubt, be attended with the same 
ificial results in this County as in other parts: it would 
raise the value of land very considerably. It would bring every 
r "sident near the line of the road within a few minutes of 
Montreal ; it would furnish the farmer with a cheap and speedy 
his of conveying his products to market. Let us suppose 
that there will be a depot at St. Eustache, Belle Riviere, 
Argenteuil, Chatham, and Grenville ; and when the St. Law- 
rence shall have been bridged at Montreal, then there will be 



156 

an uninterrupted highway from your doors to the Atlantic Cities 
of the United States, which will furnish a market for every 
thing which you can offer for sale, from the barn yard fowl to 
the bulky hay stack. In conversing with a person residing 
near Prescott a few days ago, I learnt that there were some 
farmers of that place who had availed themselves of the 
Ogdensburg Railroad to send to the Eastern markets, hay, 
potatoes, and other articles, to the value of two hundred pounds 
currency. Without this means oi transport those things would 
have been unsaleable. Similar results might be expected from 
the making of a Railroad through this section of the country. 

2nd. The meeting held at St. Andrews, C. E., on the 2(Tlh 
ult., recommended that the Municipal Council take stock in 
the Railroad, should it pass through the county, to the amount 
of £30,000. Upon reflection manypersons have thought this too 
small a sum for the County of Two Mountains to take, When its 
resources, and the importance of the object to be attained, are 
considered. The Municipal Councils are authorized by the 
Railroad Act to take stock, and by the amendment to the 
Municipal Act of last session, they are allowed to assess a rate 
of one halfpenny to the pound on all rateable property for 
general purposes. I find by the returns in the hands of the 
Secretary-Treasurer that the rateable property of the County 
amounts to £607,761, but this must be regarded as far below 
the actual value of the County, — for the Township of Chatham, 
with which I am intimately acquainted, has been as correctly 
valued, if not more so, than any other Parish of the County, 
which valuation is fifty per cent, below the most moderate sell- 
ing price : hence, by adding one half of the foregoing sum, we 
shall have £913,641 as the value of the County, and as many 
halfpence would be, £1900, which would be, at 6 per cent, the 
annual interest of £35,500. The aforesaid amended Muni- 
cipal Act authorizes the Municipal Councils to cause a new- 
valuation to be made whenever it was deemed expedient, and 
appoint their valuators from another County, therefore we see 
that the Councils are invested with sufficient power to provide 
for the interest of the sum named, at the meeting alluded to. 






cai 

D 

pa 

t 



157 

)n\ I think we should make as early an application as practi- 
ble to the Legislature during the forthcoming Session, to 
xtend the powers of the Municipal Councils to th> levying of 
ne penny in the pound on all rateable property, when the rate 
vers should wish to take stock in the Railway passing 
hrough their Municipality. One penny in the pound, or at the 
ate of one pound for a farm worth two hundred and forty 
pounds, on all the property in the County of Two Mountains, 
will pay the interest of £17,000. 

3rd. Many persons may be ready to say that we are not in 
possession of sufficient data to enable us to arrive at an 
approximate calculation of the amount of traffic from the 
County, or the returns to be expected from it. Although this 
will be admitted as partly correct, yet I think 1 shall succeed 
in shewing it to be not only a safe but a profitable investment 
for either individuals or the Municipality. 

I have ascertained that upwards of 20,000 cords of wood 
have been prepared for the market in the Township of Chatham 
during one season. This wood cost about 7s. 6d. a cord in 
being taken to Montreal in boats or barges ; but the above 
quantity might be doubled for many years, were a ready sale 
to be found, such as a Railway would be the means of creat- 
ing. As it is, though, the wood can be carried from Grenville to 
Chatham at 5s. the cord. The hilly region in Chatham, the 
rear of Argenteuil and St. Columban, abound in excellent 
hard wood, to bring out which, and the transporting of it to the 
city, would, I am persuaded, form a large and profitable busi- 
ness both to the back settler and the Railway Company, and 
furnish the citizens of Montreal with firewood, cheaper than 
they get it now. I have consulted several persons, who think 
the quantities I have set opposite to the following places, lower 
than may be expected, viz : 

Chatham 30,000] 

* T &Tf *•• • • • • ' 5 ' 00 ° \ at 5s. a cord, £10,000 

St. Scliolastique and 

St. Columban 5,000 J 



158 

For the travel and carting from the County, let us take the 
tolls as a basis for our calculation : 

s d 
St. Eustache Bridge, horse and cart. ... 5 

Lachapelle's 5 

Toll Gate 4 

Toll- inward or outward 1 2 

Or both ways 2 4 

The amount of tolls collected 

at the St. Eustache Bridge 

during the summer season. . £550 
Lachapelle's Bridge the same 500 
The Toll Gate 440 

Tolls for summer travel £1540 

As the Winter business is much 
the greater, we will be quite 
safe in doubling the above 
sum for the whole year £3080 

If the Railway will take a man and the load 
that his horse will carry, at 4s. 8d., which 
is quadruple the inward toll, or double both 
tolls — save him at least one day, and more 
frequently two days — besides keeping his 
horse, and save the wear and tear of the 
animal — I think that it will be an incalcu- 
lable benefit to the traveller, and to the man 
that does his own carting, and yield to the 
Railroad Company £12,320 



County of Two Mountains £22,320 

It is confidently stated by parties whose opi- 
nions are entitled to respect, that the busi- 
ness of the Hawkesbury Mills (yearly) will 
amount to £5,000 



£27,320 



159 

Those who are opposed (o our route, or who regard the enter- 
prise with indifference, and others who do not inform them- 
selves of what Railroads are doing for other plaees in the way 
of increasing business, and creating a desire for travel, will 
say that my calculations are based on the assumption that all 
the present business will be done by Railroads, whereas such 
a thing need not be expected. In reply, I shall ask if it is 
likely that any man residing in Chatham, Argenteuil, or St. 
Scholastique, would take his horse, if he can go by steam for 
4s. 8d., which is just double his present tolls, exclusive of 5s, 
for the keeping of one horse, and two days at hard work? I 
have not the least doubt but the business to be done by the 
Railroad, if it should go into operation, in four items, in which 
nothing is done from this section at present, would equal all 
that is now expected from the County, viz., milk and hay for 
the Montreal market, and live stock and potatoes, for the 
Southern cities. 

The number of neat cattle in the County is 32,000, at least 
ten per cent, of which, 3,200, could be spared annually, if we 
could find a market for them, such as a Railroad would give us. 

4th. If the Montreal and Prescott Railway be carried through 
the County of Two Mountains, the United Counties of Prescott 
and Russell, part of Dundas, and a branch be made from some 
convenient points on the main line to Bytown, it must be appa- 
rent that there will be a greater extent of country, a larger 
population, and an infinitely greater number of interests thus 
combined by the route just marked out, than can possibly be 
gained by any other. 

The population of the County of Two Mountains is about 
31,000. It is stated that there are 125,000 inhabitants depend- 
ent upon the trade of Bytowm, that is to say, import their 
goods, and export their products through it, besides 25,000 men 
employed in the lumbering establishments on the Ottawa and 
its tributaries, whose consumption of the necessaries of life is 
equal to that of Montreal. 

The importance of the Ottawa country and its trade, may, 
perhaps, be more readily understood by noticing the single fact, 
that out of "9,310,2 56 dollars, which were the exports of the 



160 

Province for the year 18 49, about 3,000,000 dollars of that sum 
were of the Ottawa timber, being nearly 28 per cent, on the 
Provincial exports. A great deal more might be said than I 
have time or inclination at present to state, on the importance 
of the Ottawa country and Its trade, all which is, and must 
continue to be carried through By town : but it requires to be 
visited to be rightly understood. 

Let a person suppose himself at a point on the bank of a 
mighty stream, which diverges, and towards which converges, 
the trade of fifteen tributaries, whose united lengths are 2075 
miles, having 370 miles of that distance already settled, and 
rapidly progressing, and it will give him some idea of the 
commercial position of Bytown. 

5th, I have now come to the last part of this subject, viz., 
the comparative advantages of the northern and southern routes. 
The route that pays best is the best for shareholders, and 
from what has been already stated I think that it will be appa- 
rent to every candid person that the County of Two Mountains, 
with its thirteen parishes on the northern route, is much more 
than a match for the County of Vaudreuil, with its four seig- 
niories and one small township on the southern route. 

On the Upper Canada section of the Railway, if it goes the 
northern route, the whole of the County of Dundas, as I am 
informed, will support it, — half of the County of Stormont, and 
perhaps two Townships in Glengarry, to which add Bytown 
and the. Ottawa trade ; but go the southern route and you will 
have only seventeen parishes, instead of twenty-nine parishes 
and the upper Ottawa on the other. Go the northern route and 
there is not the most distant prospect of there being another 
parallel railway. But go the southern route, and there is a 
probability of another Railway very soon ; indeed, some parties 
have already given notice of an intention of applying to the 
Legislature for a charter to construct a Railroad from some- 
where near Montreal to Bytown. If such a project should be 
realized it must prove fatal to the prosperity of the southern 
route. Let not any intending shareholders calculate on the 
trade of the Western States, until we have a Railroad reaching 
the Detroit River or Lake Huron. 






161 

II is said, by the advocates of the southern route, that the dis- 
tance by the northern ronte is 26 miles longer, with three 
u tremendous" bridges to be erected, and that the difference of 
cost will be about £200,000. We must confess these aregreat 
figures, and will require something considerable to balance 
them ; but let us examine them a little, and I am sure that 
much of their magnitude will disappear. 

The advocates of the northern route will not admit that there 
is more than 12 miles of difference in the distance, until it be 
measured, — and one bridge. I feel confidentthat this road can 
be made for £3,000 per mile, and the bridge for £25,000, if it 
will be made where it can be cheapest constructed. At this 
estimate it will be — 

12 miles of Road, at £3000 per mile £36,000 

The Bridge 25,000 

The difference between the northern and southern 

routes in cost £61,000 



As a very considerable proportion of the cost of a Railway 
consists in the furnishing of stations and carriages, the same 
expenses in this respect will be required orr the one route as on 
the other ; hence I think that the above figure will be founi 
amply to cover all the difference in cost of construction. If 
the annual business of the Hawkesbury mills be what they 
say, and I have no reason to doubt it, it will more than pay the 
interest of the above mentioned sum of £61,000, which will 
leave the £22,320 estimated for the County of Two Mountains 
to be placed against the County of VaudreuiL 

In concluding, let me urge you to come forward, through 
your Municipal Council, with £60,000, for the road, to meet 
the interest of which will only require a penny in the pound ; 
but when the road shall have been completed, the value of the 
County will be raised to a million and a half, which will 
reduce the interest to something less than two thirds of a 
penny. There is not a farmer in the County who should hesi- 

L 



162 

tate a moment with such an opportunity before him of adding 
60 per cent, to the value of his land, and securing a Railroad 
that will reach the Atlantic Ocean on the one side, and the great 
Lakes on the other. 

Your obedient servant, 

DUNCAN SINCLAIR. 
Point Fortune, Jan. 30, 1851. 



E. — Extract from Montreal Cazette of 12th May, 1851. 

Letter reviewing Mr. Gzowski's Report on the comparative 
merits of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence routes for the pro- 
posed Railroad. 



To the Editor of the Montreal Gazette. 

Sir, — It is some time since the publication of Mr. Gzowski's 
Report on the comparative merits of the Ottawa and St. Law- 
rence routes, at present competing for the advantages of the 
projected Railroad between your City and Kingston. But, 
although that Report" is by many considered to be very far from 
presenting an impartial view of the subject which it discusses, 
and although the interests which are affected by it are acknow- 
ledged to be of the greatest importance, I have been surprised 
that almost no public notice has been taken of its inaccuracies. 
In your paper of the 24th ultimo, indeed, there appeared a com- 
munication from a correspondent, under the signature of u A 
Subscriber," who directed attention to the anomalous circum- 
stance that, while distance was to be made an element in the 
comparison of the two routes, Lachine appeared to be select- 
ed as the common point of departure for both, when a much 
more direct course could have been secured for the route by 
the Ottawa, by taking a departure from the Current of St. 
Mary. He, therefore, called for the publication of the instruc- 
tions under which Mr. Gzowski was directed to act. These 
instructions have never been forthcoming ; and from this or 






163 

some other circumstance, much, as I believe, to the detriment 
of the community, who looked to his first article as furnishing 
the promise of an exposure of the very numerous errors with 
which Mr. Gzowski's Report abounds, your correspondent has 
since that time allowed the discussion to drop. I regret that 
some one more capable than myself of doing the subject justice 
should not have come forward to disabuse the public mind of 
the inference which it might erroneously draw from the general 
silence, that there was on the part of the friends of the northern 
route an acquiescence in the justice of the decision of the 
Montreal Committee, and in the trustworthiness of the Report 
of their Engineer. Such not being the case, however, I beg 
leave, without at all professing, at this late period, to enter into 
a minute examination of the Report, to offer a few remarks on 
some of the points in which it appears to me to be open to 
criticism. 

There are a number of particulars of minor importance, in 
which the author of the document before us appears to me to 
have laid himself open to the charge of, I trust not intentional, 
unfairness ; as, for instance, in his statement of the capabili- 
ties of Carillon as a place of crossing, where he mentions that 
the channel of the river is 400 feet wide and 70 deep ; when, 
as I am informed, it was pointed out to him that at a short dis- 
tance above the place where he took his soundings, the river 8 
passing over a rocky bottom, is so shallow that during low 
water it can almost be forded. The information thus commu- 
nicated he did not take pains to verify, nor has he mentioned 
it in his Report. But as he has thought proper on the whole to 
recommend Grenville as the most eligible place for crossing^ 
and as I am anxious not to occupy your columns with the dis- 
eussion of matters of lesser moment, I pass by all these, and! 
proceed to his general statements in the comparison of the 
routes. 

Having made his exploration of the lines through which 
they both lead, Mr. Gzowski informs us that he found them 
u very similar in the general formation of the country in each,'* 
that, " the surface is very level and easily drained," — there is 
in both an entire absence of engineering difficulties ; the rivers 



164 

are easily bridged ; and the population, in general, dense ; but ? 
unfortunately for ihe Ottawa, thire is a considerable difference 
in the probable cost of construction of a Railroad, " on account 
of the distance, the extent of the bridging, grubbing and clear- 
ing, and the facilities for obtaining material for masonry and 
ballasting." This difference of expense in the construction of 
two lines of road, of which the common termini, by an airline 
drawn from Lachine to Kingston, are only 155 miles apart, and 
of which the shorter is to be constructed at a cost of £817,818, 
he surprises his readers by setting down at the startling figure 
of upwards of £146,000 ! Besides the expense, he has- 
adduced in favor of the St. Lawrence route an argument 
derived from a comparison of the populations, which would be 
u directly interested and benefitted" by the roads ; affirming- 
that, exclusively of the populations of ihe City and Island of 
Montreal^ and of the country beyond Sheaver's Mills, which 
should be added at the extremes to either of the routes, there 
will be found a majority of 15,942 persons in favor of the St, 
Lawrence, the populations being respectively 58,516 and 
42,674. 

As it is admitted on all hands, and we have it on the author- 
ity ol Mr. Gzowski himself, that, in- regard to its general form- 
mation, the country along both rivers is nearly of a uniform 
character, it is evident that the difference of expense, if it 
exists to any considerable part of the extent that is alleged,, 
must depend, as he asserts, on some extraordinary difference 
in regard to distance, extent of bridging, grubbing and clear- 
ing, or facilities for obtaining material, &c. The difference of 
distance is confessedly only 14 J miles, and, as " A Subscriber" 
has reminded us, it might be made less ; but if any import- 
ant interests are to be served by the selection of the Ottawa, 
the difference of distance is so trifling that the reduction is 
scarcely worth the asking. Yet, taken in connexion with an 
extravagant over estimate of the average expense per mile in 
either route, a difference of 14| miles may make an important 
difference in cost, and Mr. Gzowski has shewn that it can do 
so to the amount of £74,118 15s. The grubbing and clear- 
ing in some new Townships, if it involves any additional 



165 

•expense, cannot surely do so to any great amount, when it Is 
Considered that in general the increased cost incurred by open- 
ing np a new country must be more than counterbalanced by 
the increased expense of purchasing land for an equal distance 
in a part of the country which is old and thickly settled. Nor 
can the facilities for obtaining the materials necessary to the 
••construction of the road be greatly wanting, at least for a very 
•considerable part of its extent, when it is well known that 
stone for masonry, and lime in abundance, are to be found at 
all the crossings of the Ottawa, and when, as all who are 
acquainted with the country are aware, half the distance 
between St. Eustache and the western line of Hawkesbury, or 
the Caledonia Flats, is made up of a hard and gravelly bottom,, 
and banks of sand and gravel exist in close proximity to the 
i-oad in the remaining portion. The increased difficulties im- 
posed by " grubbing, ballasting, and masonry," however, arc 
to involve an expenditure which Mr. Gzowski has set down at 
£33,800. An important item of the one hundred and forty- 
six thousand pounds which appears so formidable, is to be 
incurred in bridging. To the subject of bridging I shall pre- 
sently call your attention, but first must be permitted to say a 
few words on the subject of Railroad accommodation to the 
public, from which Mr. Gzowski has derived an argument of 
some plausibility. 

" The Ottawa route passes," says the Chief Engineer of the 
St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad, " through the County of 
^' Two Mountains with a population of about 28,791, also the 
M County of Prescott and Russell with a population of 13,883., 
" making an aggregate population of 42,674 souls." 

The figures being taken apparently from Scofre and Balfour's 
Almanac, may be accepted for the Western section of the Pro- 
vince, but require some modification for the Eastern, in which 
the census has not been taken so recently. But is it not a little 
singular that in marshalling the hosts of those who would 
declare themselves "directly interested and benefited" by an 
Ottawa County Railroad, Mr. Gzowski should have entirely 
left out of his enumeration, the respectable habitans of the po- 
pulous county of Terrebonne, with the not inconsiderable sprinlc- 



166 

ling of Iheir old country neighbours, through a part of whose 
territory it would pass? We shall leave, however, though not 
claimed by the supporters of the other road, a part of the po- 
pulation of the county, as residing chiefly on the Isle Jesus, to* 
counterbalance with their brethren on the Island of Montreal, 
an equal or less number residing on the southern route until it 
reaches St. Annes, and content ourselves with claiming only 
half the population, or those residing in the north-western por- 
tion. The County of Terrebonne, with its present increase^ 
must contain 24,858 inhabitants. The half of this will give 
us 12,429. To these add the population of the County of Two 
Mountains, not as represented by Mr. Gzowski's figures, but 
as it should be, at least 32,290. Taking in a population- of 
3,500, in the lower end of the County of Ottawa, who would 
make use of the Railroad at Grenville, and admitting Mr. 
Gzowski's figure for the United Counties of Prescott and Rus- 
sell, we shall now find that our numbers stand as follows : 

Part of Terrebonne 12,429 

County of Two Mountains .* 32,290* 

Part of Ottawa 3,500* 

United Counties of Prescott and Russell 13,S8& 

Total... 62,10£ 

As we have added to the population of the Counties of 
Terrebonne and Two Mountains, to make it correspond with 
the increase since last census, it is only fair that a similar addi- 
tion should be made to that of Vaudreuil, by the application of 
the same rule as that by which we have ascertained the pre- 
sent population of the others. Thus corrected, instead of T8,- 
271, it would stand at 19,673, which, with the 40,245 of the* 
United Counties of Glengarry, Stormont and Dundas, would 
give the St. Lawrence route a population of 59,918, or 2,184 
less than that of the Ottawa. 

But it is to be observed that, in including the whole of the 
inhabitants of the United Counties of Glengarry, Stormont and 
Dundas, among the population interested in the southern route, 
the advocates of this route do injustice not only to the northern,, 



167 

but to the inhabitants of the Eastern district themselves, many 
of whom, even in the- county of Stormont, are known to be 
warmly in favour of the route by the Ottawa, and of whom it 
may be said, with reference to the Counties of Stormont and 
Dundas, that the half of the population, amounting to 12,137, 
would be about equally benefited by the Railroad, by whichever 
course it should run. This population, then, ought, in all fair- 
ness, like that of the Islands of Montreal and Jesus, cither to 
be left entirely out of the computation, or, if retained among 
the supporters of the southern scheme, should be added also 
to the friends of the northern, when we should have a prepon- 
derance of population of upwards of 14,000. 

The subject of Railroad accommodation admits of being 
viewed in still a different light. On the two lines there exists 
an aggregate population of upwards of one hundred and 
twenty-two thousand seeking accommodation by a Railroad. 
Of this number, if we add to the population of the Ottawa 
route the half of that of the two counties mentioned, in the 
Eastern District, there will, by the choice of the Ottawa, be 
74,239 persons whom it will be possible to accommodate, while 
only 47,781 will be left unprovided for; and half of these 
reside within five miles of a water communication. On the 
other hand, if the St. Lawrence be chosen, a minority of 59,- 
918 will enjoy the benefits of a Railroad, while 62,102 will 
be deprived of accommodation. 

So much for population. I come now to consider the expen- 
diture incurred by bridging, and my remarks on this subject 
will close the present communication. 

"The extent of bridging on the Ottawa route I estimate," 
says Mr. Gzowski, " at 5,322 feet, including the crossing of 
the Ottawa River, the width of the respective channels being 
at the first crossing near St. Eustache, 2,o22 feet, and at the 
second crossing near Grenville, 2000. 

" The extent of bridging on the St. Lawrence route, includ- 
ing the crossing at St. Annes, which is 1,831 feet, is 2,859 feet, 
shewing a saving in favour of the St. Lawrence route of 2,463 
lineal feet of bridging." 

As 2,322 and 2000 do not make up the 5,322 total feet of 
bridging referred to in the first passage of the above extract 



168 

an inquiry suggests itself at -the outset as to its meaning. There 
are two branches of the Ottawa to be crossed before reaching 
St. Eustache ; one at leaving the Island of Montreal, and the 
other from the Isle Jesus to St. Eustache. Assuming that Mr. 
Gzowski intended to include them both under the common 
designation of "the first crossing," as the phrase is placed in 
opposition to " the second crossing near Grenville," it might 
be imagined that for 2,322, we should read 3,322 as the width 
of the channels in the two branches, a statement which would 
certainly be very wide of the mark ; but, inasmuch as some 
allowance must be made for bridging not connected with the 
main channels, and as the same figures occur in both editions 
of the report, as at first published in the newspapers, and as it 
appears at present thrown broad-cast, in pamphlet form, upon 
the public, we can scarcely suppose that there is a typographi- 
cal error, but must believe that the 1000 feet not accounted for 
are intended to stand for the bridging of the minor streams, 
canals, &c. Under this interpretation, I have to regret that I 
have not the same means of judging of the accuracy of the 
statement that the crossing of the two branches near St. 
Eustache, amounts to 2,322 feet, as parties might have who 
reside s nearor to the spot. It is to be observed, that while the 
bridging required on the St. Lawrence route is spoken of 
apparently with greater certainty, as if from actual measure- 
ment, that of the Ottawa appears to be rather conjectural. 
" The extent of bridging, I estimate," &c. The degree of 
credit to be attached to the estimates throughout, may be judged 
of by their accuracy in a part. Mr. Gzowski has estimated 
the width of the channel at the u second crossing near Gren- 
ville," and has stated it at two thousand feet. I am in a posi- 
tion to know the exact point from which he examined the river 
near Grenville, and am enabled to state on the authority of a 
Provincial Surveyor, who ascertained its breadth by trigono- 
metrical measurement, that from the brushwood on the North 
bank to the lower end of the great pier on the Hawkesbury 
side of the river, where the landing is excellent, the distance 
is only 12S7 feet instead of 2,000, a difference of more than a 
third less ! and at low water mark it is only 1119 feet. It is 






169 

a pily lhat the lest of actual measurement could not in like 
manner be applied to the assumed width of the crossings at 
the lower part of the river. As it is, we shall be obliged to 
deal with them in some other way, and perhaps the fairest is 
by a proportion; the question resolving itself into an arithme- 
tical calculation which any schoolboy may dispose of by the 
Rule of Three. It will stand thus : 

2,000: 1,287: 2,322: 1,494. 

Or, as 2,000 feet, which is Mr. Czowski's estimate at Crcn- 
ville, are to 1287 feet, the distance found by accurate measure- 
ment, so arc 2322 feet, the estimated distance of Mr. Gzowski 
in the lower crossings, to 1494, which would probably be the 
more correct statement. 

Corrected in a similar manner by a proportion, we should 
find that the whole amount of bridging on the Ottawa route 
would Le brought down from 5322 feet to 3425; thus reducing 
the difference of bridging in favour of the St. Lawrence to 566 
feet instead of 2463 ! 

There are other points which I should like to discuss, but 
am presented from doing so by the length to which this article 
has already extended. I shall, therefore, Mr.Editor, solicit your 
indulgence while I endeavour to consider them in a future 
number. In the meanwhile, 

I remain, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

OTTAWA. 

Argenteuil, April 23, 1851. 



Portland Place, 
Montreal, 3rd May, 1851. 
Sir, — I enclose the report of Mr. Fleming, Civil Engineer, 
on the northern route of Railway from Montreal to Kingston 
via Bytown and Perth, and also a letter from Sheriff Treadwell, 
who accompanied him on the cursory survey, and I have to 
request that you will be pleased to give them an insertion in 
the next number of the Gazette. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

CHAS. A. LOW. 
To J. M. Ferres, Esq , Editor and Proprietor of the Montreal 
Gazette. 



170 

Report upon a proposed Trunk Line of Railway, from the 
City of Monlrcal to the City of Kingston by By town and 
Perth, by P. Fleming, Civil Engineer. 



In view of a Railway being constructed from Montreal to 
Kingston, I have examined the intervening country for the 
route, and I am of the opinion, that the line after leaving 
Montreal, should pass through, or near the village of St. 
Therese, which may be easily reached, by bridging the 
branches of the Ottawa at that place, and without any extraor- 
dinary expense beyond what is common to such works. The 
line should thence pass to the village of St Andrew, in nearly 
one straight line, over an almost perfectly level country, and 
passing the village of St. Eustache, at a small distance on the 
north side. From St. Andrew, it may proceed either through 
the village of Carillon, at which it would meet the steam 
navigation of the Lake of Two Mountains, or by the rear of 
that village, and thence across the Ottawa River, by Struther's 
(now Watson's) Island. Here the river on both sides of the 
island, presents no difficulty to bridging — and the bridges at 
this place would be less liable to be injured by ice than 
they would be above or below. From this point, on the Upper 
Canada side, on the right bank of the river, the Railway 
would be almost on one level, by Hawkesbury Mills, L'Orig- 
nal, to the Caledonia Springs. At L'Orignal, the Railway 
would meet the steam navigation of the Ottawa from Bytown. 
From the Springs, it would be continued by Jessup's Falls of 
the South Petite Nation River, and thence in a very level and 
direct line to Bytown. 

Throughout the whole of the above route, the Railway would 
pass over a generally smooth and uniform surface, and be with- 
out any special impediment whatever to its construction, which 
might be made at a minimum expense, compared to any other 
line of the same length — for throughout, there is abundance of 
the materials requisite for Railway formation, namely, stone, 
gravel, sand, and timber. 

From Bytown to Perth, the route would vary very little from 
a straight line, and be almost on a continued level — along 



171 

which, small excavations or embankings would only be 
required in its formation, an 1 some en! verts or small bridges. 

From some miles above Perth to Kingston, the country alters 
Considerably, by becoming much broken in several parts of ihe 
distances by Craywauke rocky hills and ridges, with interven- 
ing hollows and levels; but in consequence of the melting of 
the snows and ice, while I was on this journey, I found it 
impracticable to follow any particular line through this seeticn. 
As far, however, as I could judge from the inspection I made, 
and from the information given to me by those professedly well 
acquainted with this neighbourhood, I think that the line might 
pass near to West Port, on the Rideau Lake, or otherwise by 
the Narrows, and thence to Kingston. But to decide upon the 
best route, and the least expensive, a special and skilful 
survey will be required. 

Upon the whole, I am of the opinion that, as regards the 
expense of construction, With the exception of the difference 
that there might be in bridging the Ottawa, at the Isle Jesus 
and Watson's Island ; and of the same at Vaudreuil, (the 
expense of the former of which would not exceed double that 
of the latter), a Railway by the route I have indicated, would 
cost less by ten per cent, per mile than by any southern route ; 
and its grades, from the levelness of the country, be much less. 

As regards the distance between the extreme points, from 
the absence, on the northern line, of many local windings and 
curves, which there must be if a more southern one be taken, 
as this latter must pass over a more undulating country ; so 
that while apparently more direct, it would not be much shorter. 

The distances by the above route will stand nearly as fol- 
lows : — 

Montreal to St. Therese 15 miles. 

St. Therese to St. Andrews 30 " 

St. Andrews to Longueuil 17 \ " 

Longueuil to Bytown 46 u 

Bytovvn to Perth 44 " 

Perth to Kingston 47 1 " 

200 miles. 



172 

OF THE PRESENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS OF 
THE ABOVE PROPOSED NORTHERN ROUTE. 

It is now twenty years since the writer of this, in three let- 
ters to the Editor of the Montreal Herald, proposed the con- 
struction of a Railway from the city of Montreal to Goderich, 
on Lake Huron. The first of these letters was in December 
1830. The view the writer then took of this Railroad was, to 
form a great Trunk Line of communication between the port 
of Montreal and the Great Western Lakes, with branches to 
the different navigable reaches on the St. Lawrence, and to the 
cities and towns on the borders of the Lakes ; and, also to 
Bytown, and such other settlements as might require them on 
the north of the Trunk Line ; but particularly to Lake Simcoe 
and the Georgian Bay, and the settlements on Lake Huron. 
Such a Main Trunk Railway, the writer apprehended at that 
time, should leave the island of Montreal by St. Ann to Vau- 
dreuil, and thence be carried through the country at nearly equal 
distances between the St. Lawrence and Bytown, thus dividing 
the country between the St. Lawrence and the rear settle- 
ments, and thereby forming a common line of communication 
to the whole of Upper Canada'in its then state. Another view 
was, jointly with the Rideau canal, to have superseded the 
necessity of the construction of the St- Lawrence canals, which 
it was proposed to make at that lime. The St. Lawrence was 
then, as it now is, the great channel of the descending naviga- 
tion in summer from the Great Lakes, and by a suitable 
enlargement of some parts of the Rideau canal would have 
given an ascending navigation from Montreal to Kingston ; for 
which the St. Lawrence canals are at present only useful. At 
the same time such a proposed Railway would have afforded 
a direct traffic in all seasons between Montreal and every point 
required in the interior, and the shores of the Great Lakes. 

The above is stated merely to show the views the writer 
then had of procuring a great improvement of inland commu- 
nication for the whole of Upper Canada with Montreal. This 
line would have given a stimulus to farther settlement of the 
country, which would consequently have taken place, by thus 



173 

Lffordingan immediate outlet to its products, and ready inter- 
course in all seasons with Montreal, But time changes cir- 
cumstances. At that f me By town had only commenced to be 
\ settlement, and a town ; and so of Perth, and other rear set- 
cements, which are now the centres, and considerable markets, 
of their respective and productive districts. Along the banks 
oi the Ottawa for many miles above By town, productive 
settlements have been since formed, where formerly the lum- 
ber fade had to be furnished with supplies from below; but 
which now supply this trade and have a surplus of produce to 
carry down to that market from which they were formerly 
supplied, and they now possess a local steam navigation on 
the Ottawa. 

Seeing the rapid progress and settlement of this new country, 
and contemplating what the effect of such a general line of 
communication as that now proposed would produce, if car- 
ried to the extreme points of Upper Canada, or only first to the 
City of Kingston, the question naturally arises, through what 
part of the intermediate country should it traverse? The 
answer may be properly resolved into two considerations — one 
is, what route would be most beneficial towards the future and 
farther settlement of the country, and afford the widest field 
for extending farther communication — another is, which would 
afford more early remuneration to the Stockholders furnishing 
the means for its construction. 

The desirable object that is naturally suggested by the first 
of these considerations, will be obtained by adopting the route 
that will open up the widest tract of country to the port of 
Montreal, the head of ocean navigation. This would be 
accomplished by taking the By town and Perth route, thus mak- 
ing Bytown a central point for the products and travelling of 
the upper Ottawa, extending to hundreds of miles above that 
city, now partially settled ; and which settlements would in 
consequence rapidly augment in population and production, 
and soon require a Railway through them, which would make 
an important tributary line. 

Again, the Railway from Bytown to Perth would open up 
the productive settlements of Richmond, Drummond, Lanark, 



174 

&c., without any diversion of traffic between Perth and Mont- 
real, whereas by any other route, such as from Montreal to 
Kingston by Prescott, &c, the portion of the line above Pres- 
eolt, and part of it below this point, would only be an exten- 
sion of the Ogdensburgh Railroad, and consequently be a 
feeder to it — besides it would open up no new country, nor 
much augment or promote new settlement. 

As a travelling roule between Kingston and Montreal, the 
Northern line would be the more interesting, by passing through 
the prosperous town of Perth, and the romantically situaled 
town of Bytown, and along the picturesque banks of the Ot- 
tawa, through the Caledonia Springs, L'Orignal, Hawkesbury 
Mills, Carillon, St. Andrew, Si. Eustache, and St. Thertse, &c. 

Further, if we compare the Northern Line by Bytown, with 
the more southern line by Prescott, in parts, at equal distances 
from Montreal, say first to Vaudreuil on the southern, to St 
Eustache on the northern, the latter would not at all events 
yield less revenue than the former. Next, compare the traffic 
below Alexandria, on the southern line, to a point of the 
same distance on the line from MontreaMo Bytown, below 
Bytown; we certainly would allow the greater to the latter. — 
Or if we take a point on the southern route, equally distant 
from Kingston, say as far as Perth, we must evidently esti- 
mate, that the greater revenue would be to the northern line 
on this distance. The comparison in point of revenue must he 
admitted to be correct ; for it must be conceded that a consi- 
derable diversion of the southern line trade, both below and 
above Prescott, from this side of the St. Lawrence, would be 
made through the latter town to the Ogdensburgh Railway. 
In proof of this, below Prescott, it may be stated at the pre- 
sent time, that most of the surplus produce of Glengarry, Lan- 
caster, &c, is carried up the Salmon River to Fort Covington, 
in New York State, and exclusive of the duty (the purchaser 
paying this,) this market is. found better than Montreal would 
be — while that part of the line above Prescott could only be 
considered as the Ogdensburgh Railroad continued to Kingston. 
But, thence afterwards, if extended from Kingston to Georgian 
Bay, it would complete a trunk line from the cities of New 
York and Boston to the nearest point of Lake Huron, and 



175 

thereby totally leave out, or cut off, the port of Montreal, and 
the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railway, from tho descending 
trade of the West. 

. We may further consider that the productions of industry, 
on both sides of the Ottawa " throughout," to its farthest extre- 
mity, would be collected by the Northern line ; while with 
that below Perth, the traffic would remain unbroken to Mon- 
treal ; — and besides, should it be contemplated, as here pro- 
posed, hereafter to unite the Georgian B;iy by a branch from 
Perth, this would be a more immediate and shorter line to 
Montreal than any other more southern route, and which would 
draw to it the trade of Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior ; 
thus forming ultimately two great branches of inland commu-' 
nication, the one extending to the extremity of settlement on 
the Ottawa, and the other to Georgian Bay. 

Again, if from the Georgian Bay the line is carried to Wind- 
sor, then it would traverse a great extent of fertile country ; 
at the same time touching the southern points of Lake Huron, 
Goderich, and Lake St. Clair. 

It will now appear evident, that by the northern route as 
above indicated, extensive new fields for settlement and enter- 
prise would be opened within the Canadas. It would termi- 
nate on one side of the greatest inland navigable waters in the 
world, and on the other at Montreal, the port of the Atlantic. 
It would be the shortest line which can be obtained for inland 
carriage, connecting the shoitest lake navigation from the 
States of Illinois, Wisconsin, and of the far West, with the 
ocean. 

The length of the above trunk line will be nearly as fol- 
lows : — 

Montreal to Perth, 153 miles. 

Penh to Giorgun Bay, 147 " 

Montreal to Georgian B;iy, 300 " 

Georgian Bay to VYindsor, 245 " 

Montreal to Windsor, , 545 " 

PETER FLEMING, Civil Engineer. 

To C. P. Treadwell, Esquire, 
L'Orignal, C. W. 
April, 1851. 



176 

Letter from Mr. Treailwell, conimhnicct'ng the abwj Rrport 
to C. A. Low, Esq. 

Hall's Ottawa Hotel, 

Montreal, May 2, 1851. 
My Dear Sir, — I have the pleasure of enclosing for your 
perusal the report of Mr. Fleming, Civil Engineer, of the 
Northern Trunk line of Railway from Montreal to Kingston, 
viti Bytown and Perth, which that gentleman has just com- 
pleted, together with his map of a part of North America, on 
which he has lai i down his route, and defined also its proba- 
ble extension. Mr. Fleming was induced to establish himself 
in this country by His Excellency Sir James Kemp, who was 
competent to judge of the qualifications necessary to consti- 
tute an Engineer. Mr. Fleming has handed me one of Sir 
James' letters, which I enclose for your perusal. Having se- 
cured Mr. Fleming's service, we left Montreal en route for 
Kingston, on Monday, the 24th March. As the lateness of the 
season required immediate action, and the delay of appointing 
a Committee at the time must have prevented our being able 
to bring out a report for the public for some months, it was 
therefore deemed advisable to proceed without loss of time. 
On our route we were received in the most satisfactory man- 
ner, but the attention of our friends must be acknowledged in 
a subsequent communication ; still I beg to notice briefly our 
reception at Perth. We were received by all parties in a man- 
ner peculiarly gratifying to us. On reaching Kingston, the 
Mayor, Francis M. Hill, Esq., was pleased to call a meeting 
of the Railroad Committee of the Corporation, before whom 
Mr. Fleming stated in a brief and clear manner the result of 
his examination of the Northern route from Montreal to Kings- 
ton, via the Ottawa, Bytown, and Perth, and his perfect con- 
fidence in the practicability of its construction ; stating, at the 
same time that, owing to the lateness of the season, the route 
between Perth and Kingston had not been fully explored, so as 
to enable him to determine its precise location, but that he felt 
confident of making out a route. In my remarks before the 
Committee, I endeavoured to point out the advantages of the 
Northern over the Southern route. 



m 

Firstly : — In a pecuniary point of view, as this route would 
comma rid a much larger amount of way business than the 
other, by passing through a better settled country in many sec- 
tions, and by accommodating the Ottawa, which at this moment 
comprises a very important and interesting section of Canada, 
and by having the constant support of this immense section of 
country, the Railway will be enabled to do the through business 
much cheaper than a line dependant on through business alone. 

Secondly : —It would afford to the merchant, the agricultu- 
rist, the lumber-man and the mechanic, facilities to enable 
them to pursue their different branches of business with an 
increased success. 

Thirdly :— It would protect a splendid canal from destruction. 

Fourthly: — It would secure to the Empire a safe and speedy 
communication from a fortified to a garrisoned town in case of 
war. The State of New York, to which belong all the great 
lines of canals, the successful operations of which has placed 
her in the enviable position of being called the Empire State, 
and entitled her justly to command it, — has carefully pro- 
tected her canals from being destroyed by imposing canal dues 
on all freights carried by Railways constructed along their 
banks during the season of open water navigation. The State 
of Pennsylvania, by adopting a different course with some of 
the canals, has destroyed them. I hope that no untoward act 
of our Legislature will destroy our magnificent public works, 
and leave us to pay a debt of nearly four millions and a half, 
incurred in their construction, when the works shall have been 
annihilated or rendered useless, and probably compel the Pro- 
vince to resort to direct taxation to pay a very considerable part 
of this large amount. It must be obvious to any candid mind 
that the Rideau Canal has been destroyed in this manner. From 
Kingston 1 proceeded to Toronto, to lay before the different 
members of the Executive Government the result of the exam- 
ination of the Northern Line, and to consult with gentlemen of 
experience and influence as to the proper measures to be pur- 
sued, to secure the success of the enterprize, 

M 



178 

I think it must be highly gratifying to the inhabitants of the 
Ottawa, to find such a general expression of opinion in favour 
of the Northern route from Quebec to Kingston, and for the 
very respectable support which their route has received, even in 
the City of Montreal where the rival route has originated, and 
to convince their friends that it only requires active and perse- 
vering exertions to ensure success. 

May it not be a matter of grave consideration for the inhabi- 
tants of the towns that are situated on the St. Lawrence, care- 
fully to consider what will be the effect of laying a Railway a 
distance of from ten to fifteen miles in their rear. May it not 
wither their energies and destroy the beauty and business of 
these towns. My firm conviction is, that such would be the 
case. Let those who are interested in this matter look well to 
it, and carefully examine what has been the result in other new 
countries. By adopting the opposite course, and constructing 
a Railway by the Northern route, the whole country lying be- 
tween these two grand communications, comprising a belt of 
from thirty to fifty miles, will at once be settled ; that is, every 
lot that is susceptible of cultivation — and a third front on the 
Northern side of the Railway at once opened to the country. I 
have heard fears expressed, that if the direct route, as 
it is claimed to be, is not immediately adopted, but the 
Northern line be first laid down, the other line would 
soon be made, which would take all the business from 
Kingston to Montreal. I have considered this matter well, 
and I am wholly at a loss to ascertain from what premises 
such conclusions can be drawn. It certainly cannot be from a 
superabundance of capital in this country, that seeks invest- 
ment in Railway undertaking. It cannot be from the high price 
that the Stock Exchange shews that Railway shares command. 
It cannot be from the great profit that has already arisen to ca- 
pitalists, who, from patriotic motives, have already invested 
large sums of money for the improvement of the Province. At 
the same time I would congratulate them on the improvement 
of their stock within the last twelve months ; and I hope that 
another year will still shew a more favourable state of things. 



179 

I fear, that the conclusion is drawn, from comparing Canada in 
its present infant state with Great Britain, containing within 
herself the arts and sciences, carried to the highest state of 
perfection, and an accumulation of wealth that is seeking an 
investment in every clime. 

In our present state it is contrast and not comparison that 
should be drawn between us and Britain. At the same time I 
claim for Canada as great a state of advancement as can be 
shewn in any other country of the same age. If I am wrong 
in this opinion, I hope that the day is not far distant when we 
can make this claim without contradiction. My great anxiety 
is, that our present splendid public works may be protected, 
that our future improvements may be located with judgment, 
and carried forward to completion with energy, and produce a 
profitable return to the capitalist when completed. Should the 
northern line be adopted no canal dues will be required, and 
an immense country will be brought into immediate contact 
with Montreal. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

CHARLES P. TREAD WELL. 
Chas. A. Low, Esq., Portland Place, 

Montreal. '„ ' \ 



Statistics connected with the tract of country through which 
the proposed northern line would pass: — 

To the Editor of the Montreal Gazette. 

Sir, — I beg to inclose the following statistical information, 
relative to the northern route of the Railway to Kingston. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. P. TREADWELL. 

May 8, 1851. 



180 

KINGSTON AND MONTREAL RAILROAD. 

The following statistics of Population were taken some years 
since, and have since considerably increased : — 

Year. No. of In. 

City of Montreal, 1848. . . .55,146 

County of Montreal, 1848 13,893 

County of Terrebonne, 1850 25,064 

County of Two Mountains, 1848 .... 27,849 

County of Ottawa, 1848 17,870 

Counties of Prescott and Russell, . . . 1850 1 1,333 

County of Carleton, 1848 18,500 

Bytown, 1848. . . . 7,000 

Counties of Lanark and Renfrew,. . . 1848. . . .29,448 

•County of Frontenac, 1838 17,311 

City of Kingston, 1848 8,369 



233,782 



Although an attempt has been made to get statistical returns 
from every municipality, from the shortness of the time I have 
had to do so, I have not yet received the information required. 
I feel, nevertheless, much indebted to J. J. Girouard, Esquire, 
and Dr. Dumouchel, of the County of Two Mountains, for the 
interest they have manifested in this route generally ; and par- 
ticularly for the statistics and information which they 
have furnished me. Mr. McDonald, Clerk of the Peace 
for the United Counties of Prescott and Russell, and a corres- 
pondent from Bytown have been pleased to furnish me with 
some general statements with reference to the trade and busi- 
ness in those places ; and the Bathurst Courier has been 
pleased to furnish an amount of information respecting the im- 
proved state of that section of the Province, that must surprise 
every one not intimately acquainted with the wealth and pros- 
perity that abound along this projected line of Railway. I 
must also tender my thanks to Alexander Gorrie, Esq.," of St. 
There se, for his exertions and assistance in this undertaking. 






181 



CITY OF MONTREAL. 

Population in 1848 55,146 

Assessments on rental in 1851, (about one-half of 

the general revenue,) £1457 9 9 

COUNTY OF MONTREAL. 

Population in 1S48, 15,893 

COUNTY OF TERREBONNE. 

Population in 1850, 25,064 

COUNTY OF TWO MOUNTAINS. 



Gore and Wentworth, ...... 

St. Andrews, 

Chatham, .... 

Grenville and Augmentation, 
St. Jerusalem, of Argent, . . , 

St. Hermas, 

St. Eustache, 

St. Scholastique, 

St. Augustin, 

St. Raphael, of Isle Bizard, . , 

St. Colomban, 

St. Benoit, , 



Total, 



Population. 


Evaluatior 


I. 


1,291 


£3,928 10 





2,672 


113,268 5 





2,989 


59,391 10 





2,075 


16,374 





1,645 


45,815 





1,676 


41,616 10 





3,025 


76,262 





4,109 


89,923 





2,600 


56,674 





1,200 


10,006 13 





1,000 


8,980 3 





3,568 


86,522 





27,849 


£608,761 11 






25 Churches and Chapels, 
16 Grist Mills, 
7 Barley Mills, 

7 Oatmeal Mills, 
25 Saw Mills, 

6 Fulling Mills, 

8 Carding Mills, 
52 Thrashing Mills, 

9 Tanneries, 

79 Pot and Pearl Ashes Manufactories, 
2 Breweries and two Distilleries, 
50 Store-keepers or Merchants, 



182 



OTTAWA COUNTY. 

(As benefited by this Line.) 
Population in 1848., 17,870 

UNITED COUNTIES OE PRESCOTT AND RUSSELL. 





TOWNSHIPS. 


Valuation of Pro- 
perty on Assess- 
ment Rolls, 
Year 1850. 


c 
.2 

13 

PL, 


in 


1 
o 


Stores. 


1. East Hawkesbury 

2. West Hawkesbury 

3. Caledonia 


£ s. d. 

26,762 

32,448 7 

9,428 7 8 

29,836 

9,860 

17,488 

10,118 

3,619 8 

9,967 17 

1,555 12 

4,813 12 8 


2517 

2643 
956 

1345 
411 

1111 
503 
381 
915 
162 
389 


8 
5 
3 

1 

1 

i 
l 

3 


1 

2 
1 

1 

2 


2 

8 
3 


4. Longueuil 

5. Alfred 

6. North Flantagenet 

7. South i'lantagenet 


2 
2 


9. Cumberland 

10. Cambridge 




11. Russell 


3 




£155,897 3 8 


11,333 I 24 


8 


20 



TOWN OF BYTOWN. 



Population about 7,000. 

Valuation of Property, about £700,000. 

Sawed Lumber manufactured per annum, about 20,000,000 
feet. 

Government tax on Lumber per annum, about £25,000. 

(These latter facts are taken from a January number of the 
Packet.) 

Statistics of the United Counties of Lanark and Renfrew. 

By the census taken last year it appears that with the ex- 
ception of four Townships not included in the return, the po- 
pulation of these Counties was 29,996 

The four Townships, viz : — Pembroke, Horton, Ross 

and Levant may be safely set down at 3,000 



Making in all a population 32,99f> 

By the Returns in the Clerk of the Peace's Office, it appears 



183 

that daring the year 1850 there was land under cultivation, 
113,715 acres, and the following produce was raised on it and 
forwarded to market : — 

Wheat, bushels 215,528 

Oats, do . 204,680 

Potatoes do 4G3,075 

Maple Sugar lbs 221,876 

Butter, do 305,343 

Pot Ashes, cwt 7,048 

The population of the Townships through which the pro- 
posed Railroad may possibly pass, is — 

Beckwith 2,435 

Drummond 3,797 

N. Elmsley 1,713 

Bathurst 2,560 

Burgess 950 

The quantity of produce sent to market from each during 

1850, was — 

Beckwith. ...Wheat, bushels 11,237 

Oats, do 16,812 

Potatoes, do 47,037 

Butter, lbs . 28,280 

M. Sugar do 9,856 

Pot Ashes, cwt 1,546 

Wheat, bushels 20,655 

Drummond . . Flour, bbls 5,000 

Oats, bushels 20,475 

Potatoes, do 38,501 

Butter, lbs 34,678 

M. Sugar, do 11,447 

N. Elmsley.. Wheat, bushels 6,414 

Oats, do 6,596 

Potatoes, do 16,993 

Butter, lbs 17,282 

M. Sugar, do 6,145 

Pot Ashes, cwt 1,180 



184 

Bathurst Wheat, bu&hels ....... 20, To i 

Oats, do 18,236 

Potatoes, do 29,667 

M. Sugar, lbs 11,920 

Butter, do . 37,661 

Pot Ashes, cwt ... 1 18- 

Burgess Wheat, bushels 4,835 

Oats, do 6,164 

Potatoes, do 12,602 

M. Sugar, lbs 9,083 

Butter, do . . 7,330 

Pot Ashes, cwt 81 

The valuation of real property within the Town of Perth, 
according to the new Assessment Law, is placed at £120,000. 
We understand that two of our merchants shipped, each about 
600 bbls. Potashes during the past season. A large quantity 
of Potashes is made by squatters that is not included in the 
aggregate return given above. These facts and figures will aid 
in their calculations, those who have not yet entered with 
heart and soul into the Northern Railroad project, but are still 
counting the costs. It should be borne in mind that if a Rail- 
road pass through the Townships enumerated, the figures 
would be largely increased — possibly three times what they 
appear, owing to the stimulus that would be given to enter- 
prise and industry. 

The Lumber Trade and its operations are not taken into the 
account at all, which is no small branch of our trade. 

All the statistics that it is convenient to secure should be got 
and published, so that the claims of the Northern route may 
appear in their true light before the public, and not meet with 
a blind condemnation. Let it be judged of according to its 
merits. 

The Railroad Committee met on Friday afternoon last and 
was duly organized by the appointment of the Hon. R. Mathe- 
son, Chairman, and Jas. Thompson, Secretary. Dr. J. S. Nicol, 
and W. O. Buell and J. Deacon, Esquires, were added to the 



185 

Committee. Some preliminary steps, preparatory to an ex- 
ploration of the route between this and Kingston, by Lo- 
borough, were taken when the Committee adjourned. — Bathurst 
Courier. 



Remarks upon the extent and resources of the Ottawa 

Country. 

(From the Bytown Packet.) 

The great basin or region drained by the Ottawa and its 
tributaries lies in the heart of the United Province of Canada, 
and occupies nearly one quarter of its whole extent, having an 
area of 80,000 superficial miles, exclusive of the Island of Mon- 
treal, which is situated between the mouths of the Ottawa. It 
is called the Ottawa Country from the head of that island up- 
wards. 

Although the Country is the chief seat of the Lumber Trade, 
and contributes very largely to the supply of the principal 
staple of Canadian exports, and notwithstanding its commercial 
importance, it is but little known in Canada, and is almost 
wholly unnoticed even in the recent Geographical and Sta- 
tistical works published in Great Britain. 

That it should be so is not very surprising, when we consider 
that the current of imigration does not pass this way, and that 
of this vast region one-eighth part only has been surveyed 
and organized into Townships and Seigniories, which are yet 
very thinly settled, and that another eighth added to that would 
include all the extent over which lumbering operations are 
carried on, leaving three-fourths wholly unoccupied, except by 
a few hundred families of the aboriginal inhabitants; and of this 
there is an extent equal to all England, which is quite unknown, 
except to the solitary agents of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

The chief object of interest in the country we ha e to de- 
scribe is the great river from which it derives its name and its 
importance. 

The circuit of the water shed of the Ottawa is a little over a 
thousand miles, and its utmost length of course, probably seven 



186 

hundred and eighty, about fifty miles shorter than the Rhine. 
From its source, which is supposed to be a little above lat. 49° 
N., and nearly 76° W. long., it winds in a generally south- 
west course through a country almost unknown ; and after 
receiving several tributaries from the height of land which 
separates its waters from those of the Hudson Bay, and passing 
through several lakes — one of which is said to be eighty miles 
in length, at upwards of three hundred miles from its source, 
and four hundred and thirty from its mouth at Bout de l'Isle, 
below Montreal — it enters the long narrow lake Temiscameng, 
which, turning at a right angle, extends sixty-seven miles S. 
byE. 

From its entrance into Lake Temiscameng downwards, the 
course of the Ottawa has been surveyed and is well known. 
At the head of the Lake the Blanche falls in, coming about 
ninety miles from the north. Thirty-four miles farther down 
the lake, it receives the Montreal River, coming one hundred 
and twenty miles from the north-west ; the latter is the canoe 
route from the Ottawa to Hudson's Bay. Six miles lower, on 
the east side, it receives the Keepawa, a river of great size, 
passing through an unknown country, and coming from a lake 
said to be fifty miles long. The Keepawa exceeds in volume 
the largest Rivers in Great Britain, and in its descent to Lake 
Temiscameng, presents a magnificent cascade, a hundred and 
twenty feet in height. Though the middle course of this river 
is unknown, its commencement, if such it can be called, has 
been surveyed, and it is extraordinary in its nature. Ninety 
miles above its mouth, it was found flowing slowly, but very 
deep, and nearly three hundred feet wide, and issuing from 
the west side of Lake Keepawa. Out of the southern extre- 
mity of that large lake, the River Dumoine, which enters the 
Ottawa a hundred miles below the Keepawa, was also found 
flowing swiftly, and very deep, and a hundred and fifty feet 
in width ; thus presenting a phenomenon similar to the con- 
nection of the Rio Negro and the Orinoco. 

From the Long Sault, at the foot of Lake Temiscameng, 233 
miles above Bytown (which is 130 from the mouth of the 



187 

Ottawa, below Montreal), down from Jeux Joachim Rapids at 
the Head of Deep River — that is, for eighty-nine miles — the 
Ottawa, with the exception of seventeen miles below the Long 
Sault, and some other intervals, is rapid and unnavigable, 
except for canoes. Besides other tributaries, in the interval, 
at 197 miles from By town, it receives on the west side the 
Matawa, which is the highway for canoes going to Lake 
Huron by Lake Nipissing. From the Matawa the Ottawa 
flows east by south to the head of Deep River reach, nine miles 
above where it receives the River Dumoine from the north. 

From the head of Deep River, as this part of the Ottawa is 
called, to the foot of Upper Allumette Lake — two miles below 
the village of Pembroke — is an uninterrupted reach of navigable 
water, forty three miles in length. The general direction of 
the River in this distance is South-east. The mountains along 
the North side of Deep River, upwards of a thousand feet in 
height, and the many wooded islands of Alkimette's Lake, 
render the scenery of this part of the Ottawa magnificent and 
exceedingly picturesque — far surpassing the celebrated Lake 
of the Thousand Islands on the St, Lawrence. 

Passing the short Rapid of Allumette, and turning North- 
ward round the lower end of Allumette Island, which is four- 
teen miles long, and eight at greatest width, and turning down 
south-east through Cologne Lake, and passing behind the 
nearly similar Islands of Calumet, to the head of the Calumet 
Falls, presents, with the exception of one slight rapid, a reach 
of fifty miles of navigable water. The mountains on the north 
side of Cologne Lake, which rise apparently to the eleva- 
tion of fifteen hundred feet, add a degree of grandeur to the 
scenery, which is otherwise beautiful and varied. 

In Ihe Upper Allumette Lake, at 115 miles from Bytown, the 
Ottawa receives from the west the Petewawa, one of its largest 
tributaries, about 140 miles in length, draining an area of 2200 
square miles ; and at Pembroke, nine miles lower on the same 
side, the Indian River, an inferior stream. 

At the head of Lake Cologne, 79 miles from Bytown, it re- 
ceives from the north the Black River, 130 miles in length, 



188 

draining an area of 1120 square miles; and at nine miles lower, 
on the same side, the River Cologne, which is probably 1G0 
miles in length, with a valley of 1800 square miles. 

From the head of the Calumet Falls to Portage du Fort, the 
head of the steamboat navigation, eight miles, there are impass- 
able rapids. At fifty miles above Bytown, the Ottawa receives 
on the west the Boucherre, 110 miles in length, draining an 
area of 980 miles. At 1 1 miles lower, it receives the Mada- 
waska, one of its great feeders, 210 miles in length, and drain- 
ing 4100 square miles. At 26 miles from Bytown it receives 
the Mississippi, 101 miles long, draining a valley of 1120 square 
miles. 

At 37 miles above Bytown there is an interruption in the 
navigation of three miles of rapids and falls, to pass which a 
railroad has been made. At the foot of the rapids, the Ottawa 
divides among islands into numerous channels, presenting a 
most imposing array of separate falls. 

At six miles above Bytown begin the rapids terminating in 
the Chaudiere Falls, which, though inferior in impressive mag- 
nitude to the Falls of Niagara, are perhaps more permanently 
interesting, as presenting greater variety. 

4 

The greatest height of the Chaudiere Falls is about forty 
feet. Arrayed in every imaginable variety of form — in vast 
dark masses, in graceful cascades, or in tumbling spray, they 
have been well described as a hundred rivers struggling for a 
passage. Not the least interesting feature they present is the 
Lost Chaudiere, where a body of water, greater in volume than 
the Thames at London, is quietly sucked down, and disappears 
under ground. 

At Bytown the Ottawa receives the Rideau from the west, 
with a course of 116 miles, and draining an area of 1350 square 
miles. 

A mile lower it receives from the north its greatest tributary, 
the Gatineau, which, with a course probably 420 miles, drains 
an area of 12,000 square miles. For about 200 miles the up- 
per coarse of the River is in the unknown northern country. 



189 

At the farthest point surveyed, 217 miles from its mouth, it is 
still a noble stream, a thousand feet wide — diminished in depth 
but not in width. 

At eighteen miles lower, the Riviere du Lievre enters from 
the north, about 260 miles in length, draining an area of 4100 
square miles. Fifteen miles below it, the Ottawa receives the 
North and South Nation Rivers on either side — the former 95, 
and the latter 100 miles in length. Twenty two miles further, 
the River Rouge, 90 miles long, enters from the north. 

At twenty one miles lower the River du Nord, one hundred 
and sixty miles in length, comes in on the same side; and 
lastly, just above its mouth, it receives the River Assumption, 
which has a course of 130 miles. 

From Bytown the River is navigable to Grenville, fifty eight 
miles, where the Rapids that occur in a distance of twelve 
miles are avoided by a succession of canals. At twenty three 
miles lower at one of the mouths of the Ottawa a single lock, 
to avoid a slight Rapid; gives a passage into Lake St. Louis on 
the St. Lawrence above Montreal. 

The remaining half of the Ottawa's waters find their way 
to the St. Lawrence by passing in two channels belling the Is- 
land of Montreal and the Isle Jesus by a course of thirty one 
miles. They are interrupted with rapids ; still it is by one of 
them that all the Ottawa lumber passes to market. At Bout 
de PIsle, therefore, the Ottawa is finally merged in the St. 
Lawrence at one hundred and thirty miles below Bytown. 

The most prominent characteristic of the Ottawa is its great 
volume. Even above Bytown, where it has to receive tribu- 
taries equal to the Hudson, the Shannon, the Thames, the 
Tweed, the Spey, and the Clyde, — it displays, where uncon- 
fined, a width of half a mile of strong boiling rapid ; and when 
at the highest, while the north waters are passing, the volume, 
by calculated approximation, is fully equal to that passing Ni- 
agara, — that is, double the common volume of the Ganges. 

Taking a bird's eye view of the valley of the Ottawa, we 
see spread out before us a country equal to eight times the ex- 



190 

tent of the State of Vermont, or ten times that of Massachu- 
setts ; with its great artery, the Ottawa curving through it, 
resembling the Rhine in length of course, and the Danube in 
magnitude. 

This immense region overlines a variety of geological form- 
ations, and presents all their characteristic features, from the 
level uniform surface of the silurian system, which prevails 
along a great extent of the south shore of the Ottawa, to the 
rugged and romantic ridges in the metamorphic and primitive 
formations, which stretch far away to the north and north- 
west. 

As far as our knowledge of the country extends, we find 
the greater part of it covered with a luxuriant growth of Red 
and White Pine timber, making the most valuable timber 
forests in the world, abundantly intersected with large rivers, 
fitted to convey the timber to market when manufactured. 

The remaining portion of it, if not so valuably wooded, 
presents a very extensive and advantageous field for settlement. 
Apart from the numerous townships already surveyed, and 
partly settled, and the large tracts of good land interspersed 
throughout the timber country, the great region on the upper 
course of. the western tributaries of the Ottawa, behind the 
Red Pine- country, exceeds the State of New Hampshire in 
extent, with an equal climate and superior soil. It is general- 
ly a beautiful undulating country, wooded with a rich growth 
of maple, beech, birch, elm, &c, and watered with a lake 
and stream, affording numerous mill-sites, and abounding in 
fish. Flanking the lumbering country on the one side, which 
presents an excellent market for produce, and adjoining Lake 
Huron on the other, the situation, though comparatively inland, 
is highly advantageous. 

In the diversity of resources, the Ottawa country presents 
unusual inducements alike to agricultural industry and com- 
mercial enterprise. The operations of the lumberers give an 
unusual value to the produce of the most distant settlers, by 
the great demand they create on the spot, while the profits of 
lumbering yield those engaged in it a command of wealth 
which otherwise could not be had in the country. 



101 

The value of the resources of their forests to the inhabitants 
of the Ottawa country will be evident, on comparing the value 
of their exports with those of other countries. Take, for instance, 
the State of Maine, (as American enterprise is so much talked 
of,) with all its commercial advantages, and the enterprising 
character of its people. When their population was upwards of 
five hundred thousand, the exports amounted in value to 
§1,078,633 ; while the value of the exports of the Ottawa coun- 
try amounts to double that sum, with less than one-third the 
population. 

If such be the case now, how much more will it be so when, 
in addition to the more extensive prosecution of agriculture, 
the unlimited water power which the Ottawa and its tributa- 
ries afford, if even partially applied to general manufactures, 
as well as to that of deals. It would be impossible to conceive 
an unlimited power presented in a more available form than 
that which the Ottawa offers in its many divided falls ; while 
she lavishes invitingly unparalleled power to manufacture them, 
she offers her broad bosom to bring the cotton of the South and 
the timber of the North together. 

Nor are the mineral resources of the Ottawa country to be 
overlooked. And here the Gatineau offers its services, with an 
unlimited supply of excellent iron, and within a mile of its 
navigable water, close to its lowest falls, affording unlimited 
water power, and abundance of timber for fuel ; and there are 
equal advantages for its works on other parts of the Ottawa. 
The Plumbago, Lead, and Copper, the Marble, and the Ochres 
of the Ottawa country will yet become of commercial import- 
ance. 

To judge of the importance of the Ottawa country, we 
should consider the population which her varied agricultural 
and commercial resources may ultimately support. Taking 
the present condition of New Hampshire as data, without no- 
ticing its great importance in commercial advantages, the Ot- 
tawa country, when equally advanced, w r hich is not much to 
say, should maintain three millions of inhabitants. But taking 
Scotland as our data, which the Ottawa country surely equals 



192 

in soil, and night with its peculiar advantages resemble in 
commerce and manufactures, the valley of the Ottawa should 
ultimately maintain a population of 8,000,000 of souls. 



F. — Extract from Montreal Gazette of 9th June, 1851. 
To the Editor of the Montreal Gazette. 

Sir, — 1 think that in my last I shewed conclusively that the 
argument from population tells entirely in favour of the Ottawa. 
I ttiink also that from the fact which 1 pointed out on incon- 
testable evidence, that Mr. Gzowski committed a mistake of 
713 feet in estimating an actual breadth of 1237 feet, in the 
channel of the river at Grenville, your readers will have 
come to view with suspicion his estimates with reference to 
the other crossings, and his calculations with regard to bridg- 
ing generally. It remains for me, in fulfilment of my promise, 
to take notice of some other points which were either not re- 
ferred to, or were made the subject of only a passing allusion. 

And first, with regard to the excess of distance of 14} 
miles, — it is instructive to observe how ingeniously this has 
been made by the Engineer to tell against the interests of the 
Ottawa. Not satisfied with a large allowance for other items, 
Mr. Gzowski has made use of the motive power and equip- 
ments to swell the expenses of the northern route. Having 
added the cost of these to the estimated expense per mile of 
the southern route, he has multiplied this whole sum, without 
abatement, by the additional number of miles by which the 
Ottawa route exceeds it. Does any one suppose that if a cer- 
tain number of locomotives, tenders, and cars, are required 
for a road of the length of about 162^ miles, the number will 
require to be increased, if a slight deviation should be made 
from a direct course, by which its length should be extended a 
further distance of 14J miles ? — Does Mr. Gzowski for a mo- 
ment entertain the idea ? If he does not, however uninten- 



193 

tionally, he has allowed himself to publish a mis-statemeat 
which has had the effect of adding materially to the apparent 
expenses of the Ottawa route ; and he must be content that 
this should take a place in the list of the inaccuracies of his 
Report. 

In passing, I may remark on the singular precision with 
which Mr. Gzowski calculates his distances ; a precision the 
effect of which, on those who are unacquainted with the im- 
perfections of the maps from the scale measurements of which 
such data must be taken, must be to invest his calculations 
with an air of great authority. To those who know, in the 
first place that maps are defective ; in the second, that, how- 
ever exact the course may be by an air line, the road must be 
exposed to numberless deviations, slight it may be, but in the 
aggregate amounting to a distance of miles — the pretension 
to minuteness is simply amusing. " From St. Polycarpe, in 
the Seigniory of New Longueuil to Sheaver's Mills, in Moun- 
tain, a distance of upwards of 57| miles, the road will be lo- 
cated in one straight line !" Fifty-eight miles would have 
made it too much — 57| is too little — it is somewhere between 
the two : " upwards of 57| miles." From Sheaver's Mills, a- 
gain, it goes in a straight line " to Furnace Falls, in the 
Township of Lansdown, making another tangent of 42 f 
miles." 

Allusion was made to the nature of the country on the Ot- 
tawa, along which a Railroad would pass, and to the facili- 
ties afforded for obtaining the materials necessary to its con- 
struction. As Mr. Gzowski has stated that there is a deficiency 
of such material, which either does not exist, or would require 
to be " hauled " a considerable distance ; it is proper to con- 
sider this part of the subject a little more at length. 

Commencing with the limestone vicinity of Montreal, with 
its own quarries at hand, and those of the Isle Bizard and 
other places, I suppose it will be admitted, that no great 
difficulty would be experienced in finding the necessary mate- 
rial for bridges at the Bord a Plouffe and St. Eustache. As 
to advantages of this kind, these crossings would be on an 



194 

equality with those of St. Annes and the Isle Perrot. From St. 
Eustache to Belle Riviere, the road would lie for the greater 
part over a hard and gravelly soil, which would furnish the 
material necessary for its construction ; and from the latter 
place to where it would enter the Seigniory of Argenteuil, it 
would pass near a sand and gravel bank, not more than a mile 
distant from it in any place, and in some places not more than 
half a mile. Excepting some short intervals in Argenteuil, 
the soil would become dry and gravelly as it passed into Chat- 
ham, a Township abounding with the best quality of limestone ; 
or if it should cross at Carillon, the front of Hawk^sbury 
would be found equally favourable. If it should cross at Wat- 
son's Island, it would be within a mile of the quarry from 
which stone was taken for the construction of the locks at Ca- 
rillon; and if it should cross at Grenville, Mr. Gzowski would 
find abundance of gravel, on both sides of the river, and a 
lime-kiln burning on the Grenville side,, within a stone's 
throw of the place where the end of his bridge would rest. 
The deficiency of material and the difficulty of " hauling" 
cannot, therefore, in this part be very great. 

From L'Orignal to S heaver's Mills, a distance of about 60 
miles, the country is, as Mr. Gzowski has stated, for the most 
part uncleared, and probably in other respects agrees with his 
description of it. But because it is mostly uncleared he would 
have us to believe that the extra expense of putting it in order 
will cost £33,000, even after his large allowance of £5425 per 
mile. No intimation is given of the possibility of finding a 
set off to this expense of clearing in the difference of the value 
of land in an old country and a new. What are the precise 
mysteries that may be included under the technical terms of 
" Clearing and Grubbing," your readers will probably not care 
about stopping too minutely to inquire ; but if by the phrase 
be meant principally the operation of clearing in the ordinary 
acceptation of the term, I believe there is no one who is 
acquainted with the subject, who will not bear me out in say- 
ing, that there is no part of the route from L'Orignal to Kings- 
ton on which it would not be easy to find persons who would 



195 

clear a road 100 feet wide at £60 a mile. Allow the term, 
however, a larger signification, and we may put down clearing 
and grabbing at the estimate of Judge Brown, given in at a 
public meeting at Bytown, in reference to the contemplated 
Railroad from that town to Prescott — namely, £75 a mile. 
As I shall have again to refer to Judge Brown, I shall at present 
say nothing more respecting him than that the estimate referred 
to was intended for the country in a direct course from Bytown 
to Prescott, being one of the routes since explored by Mr. 
Stanley, and reported by him to consist three fourths of it of 
woodlands, — u for the most part cedar and tamarac swamps," 
— a description of timber and soil the least favourable for 
economical clearing. Judge Brown's estimate of £75 a mile 
at 60 miles gives £4,500 for clearing and grubbing — a sum 
which looks a little less considerable, it will be admitted, than 
the £33,800 of Mr. Gzowski, even though in the latter sum be 
included some charges for ballasting and masonry, which 
however as they apply not more to this than to other parts of 
the road on which I have shown that there is no deficiency of 
facilities, cannot be very great. On the whole I think, if we 
are so moderate as not to claim a balance in favour of our route 
on account of the cheaper purchase of land, it may at least be 
allowed to us to throw this item of " Additional cost of Grubb- 
ing, Ballasting, and Maronry" entirely overboard. 

But it is time to inquire whether in putting the average 
expense per mile at £5026, Mr. Gzowski has not overrated the 
cost even of his favorite route by the St. Lawrence. Cannot a 
Railroad in Canada of the length required between Montreal 
and Kingston, be constructed for a less sum than the amount 
named ? Those who wonld answer us in the negative quote in 
support of their views, the experience of the United States. 
But the United States no more furnish a criterion for Canada 
than the experience of English Railways does for those of the 
United States. It is one thing to travel over the even surface 
of a Canadian landscape with scarcely a declivity to break the 
general level, and in no place between Montreal and Kingston, 
according to Mr. Gzowski, requiring a greater grade than 30 



196 

feet to the mile, — and another to climb the ridges, embank the 
precipices and encounter generally the obstacles thrown by- 
Nature in the way of Art in the Green Mountain State, — or 
the equally formidable hills and gorges, and ledges of opposing 
rocks, which require to be tunnelled and excavated in the 
Granite State. It is one thing to employ labour in a country 
where the average remuneration of the unskilled workman is 
a dollar a day, and another to employ it in a country where it 
maybe obtained for two-and-sixpence or three shillings. It is 
one thing to have to purchase land along the track of a Rail- 
road in a country where real estate is acknowledged to be 
high, and another to purchase it in Canada where from the 
peculiar habits of a portion of the population, and the draw- 
backs arising from Seigniorial Tenure, its worth is depreciated 
below a natural standard, or where it has never risen to a value 
corresponding with that of property across the Lines, on account 
of the greater youth of the country. It is one thing to pay for 
imported iron where it is subject to the exactions of an outra- 
geous tariff, and another to purchase it in a country where it 
comes in at only a nominal duty, The difference of time also 
deserves to be considered, as well as that of place. Iron is 
now, and has been for a short time past, lower in the English 
market than it has been for many years. Public works which 
require a large consumption of iron will be more economically 
supplied : indeed the difference of cost between the past and 
present in this one article would make a difference in the cost 
of Railway construction of some hundreds of pounds per mile. 
And, reduced as it is at the present time to consumers in both 
countries, yet, on account of the impositions of their tariff, 
Americans, for any new work which they may undertake, would 
even now have to pay £9 or £10 a ton for iron, while in Canada 
it can be furnished for £7. Nor is the article of lumber an 
unimportant one to be taken into consideration in estimating 
the cost of constructing a Railway. Coals are cheap in New- 
castle, and lumber must certainly be expected to be obtained 
in Canada, (especially on an Ottawa route !) at a much lower 
rate than among the Americans, who import it from us to a 



197 

large extent, notwithstanding an almost prohibiting duly. The 
superior advantages then afforded by a level country — the facili- 
ties connected with the price of labour — the comparatively 
reduced value of land, and consequently more limited outlay on 
account of " kind damages'' — the low price of lumber — our 
unrestricted access to the English market for iron, and the 
favourable circumstances of the present moment for purchas- 
ing, — all unite in pointing out the fact demonstrably that a 
Railroad can be constructed in Canada at a much cheaper rate 
than the average of similar works constructed or in the course 
of construction in the United States. 

If it should be asked who is the writer, and what reason he 
has to expect that his opinion will be taken by the public in 
opposition to that of an Engineer, I answer, that I have 
advanced nothing but what it is easy to sustain by the authority 
of persons who are competent to judge of such matters, includ- 
ing gentlemen of Mr. Gzowski's own profession. The first 
witness I shall bring forward is the Hon. A. C. Brown of 
Ogdensburgh, who, speaking at a public meeting at Prescott, 
held on the 2Sth of last December, in reference to the Bytown 
and Prescott Railroad, — a Railroad not offering, except in the 
matter of bridging, superior facilities for cheap construction to 
our own, — stated it as his conviction that the work could be 
accomplished for £3000 per mile. " He had no doubt" that 
the road " could be made for £3000 per mile, about one hail 
what the Ogdensburgh road had cost, and that it would be 
found to pay as well." The principal item of expense was 
the grading ; " but," said he, " nature has done the most of 
the grading for you." At a subsequent meeting in the Town 
Hall at Bytown, on the 22nd January, Judge Brown gave an 
estimate of the probable cost of the Bytown and Prescott Rail- 
road, C: which," says he "from the experience I have had in 
such matters, I may safely say cannot be far from the real 
figure." 
" The cost of clearing and grubbing the track of 

the Railroad per mile £75 

Excavating Road-bed and culverts ............ 750 



198 

Masonry and bridging 100 

Timber for superstructure 125 

Iron, per mile 750 

Laying down the Railroad Track 43 

Engineering 62 

Incidental expenses 50 

For land damages, for station building, and fur- 
niture sufficient to commence operations per 

mile 1043 





















15 





10 












In all per mile £3000 



Say 50 miles of road will make £150,000 0" 

Similar in its character is the testimony of a writer who, in 
an able article in the Packet newspaper of Nov. 30, signs 
himself " An engineer." After enumerating the facilities for 
cheap construction which we possess in this country y beyond 
what are enjoyed in the United States, the writer goes on to 
say : — 

" It argues nothing that the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Road 
has been contracted for at £6550 a mile exclusive of Engineer- 
ing, Rolling Stock, and Stations; it merely shows that an enor- 
mous discount was expected on the paper which the Contractors 
received in payment. Under such an arrangement the cost of 
that Road may be set down in round numbers at £8000 a mile, 
and as the Government furnishes one half the capital, and 
holds a lien on the whole Road for six per cent, of the divi- 
dends to pay the interest, and three per cent, more as a sinking 
fund to pay off the debt, the stockholders may look upon their 
shares as valueless — the contract for building the Road being 
about double the cash cost." 

" Though all are satisfied as to the vast importance of Rail- 
ways to the community, few," he says, " will be willing, at the 
risk of their individual interests, to invest their money under 
such circumstances ; but the people of Canada have the expe- 
rience of many other countries to guide them, and they will 
yet learn that Railways can be constructed for £3000 to £4000 



199 

a mile. We have two or three examples to establish this fact; 
and if capitalists in other parts of the country would come 
forward with the amount necessary for the completion of their 
own roads, without calling on foreign aid, they would not, as 
many have hitherto done, sacrifice their money for the public 
good." 

Low as these estimates of Judge Brown and " an Engineer" 
may appear when compared with the expense of some existing 
roads, they are borne out by a reference to the actual cost of 
many Railroads even in the United States. But it is needless 
to go abroad for examples. In our own Provinces I believe 
that I am correct in saying that there are at present two Rail- 
roads, the St. Andrews and Woodstock, and the St. Johns and 
Rouse's Point Roads, under contract at about £3000,Jper mile. 

That the requirements of our own Road will not much ex- 
ceed the standard of an economical expenditure, will appear 
from the following estimate of some of the principal items of 
expense, as furnished with special reference to the Northern 
or Oltawa route, by a gentleman who is a contractor on one of 
the Canadian Railroads at present in the course of construction : 

Timber, 2200 ties per mile, at a shilling each. . £110 

Grading per mile 250 

Ballasting 150 

Fencing 75 

Iron 750 

Right of way' per mile 90 

£1,425 

To the foregoing would have to be added a considerable sum 
for masonry and bridging, making culverts, the crossings to 
farms, engineering, incidental expenses, &c. 

We are now prepared for an approximate estimate of the 
real difference of cost between the routes of the St. Lawrence 
and Ottawa. If Mr. GzowskPs estimate of £5025 per mile is 
too high, it will appear that a Railroad on the northern route 
could probably be constructed at a cost very much within the 
sum which he allows for the southern ; it will be evident that 



200 

the extra expense incurred in the former on account of the ad- 
ditional 14| miles of length will be less ; it will also be evident 
that, whatever may be its positive amount, it will be less sen- 
sibly felt upon the capital of the country. Leaving, however, 
the question for how much less a sum than Mr. Gzowski lias 
named, the whole length of either route could be constructed, 
our inquiry shall at present be directed to the difference of cost 
between the two ; and for this reason I shall allow the first line 
of Mr. Gzowski's summary to stand, which, multiplying 162f 
by £5025, puts the cost of the southern route at £817,818 15s. 
Assuming this sum for the southern route, how much more 
will be the northern ? Mr. Gzowski says £146,549 15s. It is 
evident, however, from what is gone before, that from the items 
which go to constitute this sum there must be made some con- 
siderable deductions. The first, as we have seen, is in the cost 
of the additional 14 J miles of length, which Mr. Gzowski has 
multiplied by his general average of 5025. As rolling stock 
and equipments are included in Judge Brown's estimate of 
£3000, I shall not, I think, err on the side of being too low in 
assuming that, exclusive of rolling stock, &c, the additional 
14 J miles of the northern route cannot at the utmost cost more 
than £3,600 per mile, especially as extra bridging, and all 
other supposed items of additional expense, are provided for 
elsewhere. This would give us £52,200. Next comes a charge 
for " clearing and grubbing," to which however we have al- 
ready objected in toto. In estimating the value of the bridging 
it might be expected, in the absence of more certain data, that 
we might make use of the 566 feet, which we found by a pro- 
portion drawn from the detected mistake at Grenville, to be 
probably near the true excess of bridging on the northern route; 
an amount which, if multiplied by £15-6845, Mr. Gzowski's 
allowance per foot, as obtained by a comparison of his distan- 
ces and expense, would give us, as the additional cost of bridg- 
ing on the Ottawa, £8,877 8s 6|d. From the loose manner 
in which the estimate of the breadth of the channel was made 
at Grenville, involving as it did, an error of 713 feet in an ac- 
tual breadth of 1287 feet, there is every reason to suppose, 



20 i 

whether to a proportional extent or not, that a similar vague- 
ness obtains in respect to the other estimates, and we should 
be quite justified in proceeding with our calculations on this 
assumption. But we shall adopt a more magnanimous course, 
and shall, we hope, be allowed credit for our generosity, if, 
giving Mr. Gzowski all the advantage of any uncertainty that 
may exist, as to the exact amount of error, we resign our 
claims with respect to the other crossings, and, permitting him 
to put on his own estimate of the cost of the work per foot, 
content ourselves with claiming an abatement of £11,183, on 
account of the 713 feet proved by the measurement of a Pro- 
vincial Surveyor, to have been taken above the proper width 
of the channel at Grenville. £1 1,183, deducted from his large 
estimate of £38,631, leaves for this item, £27,448. 

Comparing our results, the amount of Mr. Gzowski's over 
estimate of the difference of expense between the two routes, 
will appear in a tabular form as follows : 
Mr. Gzowski's difference of expense between 

the two routes £146,549 15 

14 J miles at our estimate 'of 

£3,600 per mile £52,200 

Additional cost of Bridging, 

being Mr. Gzowski's own 

amount, deducting only the 

over estimate at Grenville, 27,448 

79,648 



Mr. Gzowski's over estimate of difference be- 
tween the two routes £66,901 16 

In the comparison given above, I have allowed it to be assum- 
ed that, whatever the cost per mile, both roads could be con- 
structed for a given distance, at an equal expense; an assump- 
tion, however, which the friends of the northern route have 
never been disposed to admit, believing, as they have always 
done firmly, that, in every thing but bridging, any difference 
that exists is in favour of the Ottawa. The report of Mr. 
Fleming, just published, gives the weight of professional 



202 

authority to the general opinion in this part of the country. 
This gentleman states it as his conviction that, with the excep- 
tion of some difference of bridging, a road running through 
the valley of the Ottawa would cost ten per cent, less per mile 
than one could be made fcr on any southern route ; and also, 
that the grades would be much less in the one case than in the 
other. But were it not so — were the difference in favour of 
the St. Lawrence, and to the extent exhibited in the foregoing 
figures, — will the public, under the apprehension of an increase 
of expense, which, with every addition that can be made to it, 
can, at the very outside, only amount to £79,648, consent that 
a route shall be taken, which (even if a shorter course than by 
Lachine could not be obtained for the Ottawa) is to secure a 
saving of 14 J miles at the expense of a large population, and 
of a way business immeasurably exceeding any that would be 
enjoyed by the St. Lawrence. Why, the surplus of a year's 
successful business on the Ottawa would more than counter- 
balance this difference. Will Stockholders consent to the cer- 
tain risk to which the adoption of the St. Lawrence route will 
expose them, that a rival railroad, such as is required by the 
boundless expanse and the magnificent resources of the Ottawa 
country, shall start into existence, with the prospect of indefi- 
nite extension, so as to meet the gigantic commerce of the 
West and North on the shores of Lake Huron ? What is the 
advantage of half an hour gained in the transit of a through 
business, if it is to be met with the loss of way business. What 
the disadvantage of running over an additional 14| miles of 
Railroad, if the way traffic secured by it is sufficient not only 
to return a handsome dividend to the Shareholder, but so to 
reduce the general expenses of the road, as to lower the charge 
on the through business ? In regard even to speed, if the 
grades are less on a northern route, the difference would be in 
its favour, though purchased by an increase of distance. Con- 
flicting interests and disunion may for a while retard the execu- 
tion of a work on which the inland commerce of an important 
section of the country is dependent for an outlet, and some men 
of capital may be so blinded to their true interests, as for a time 



203 
• 
to keep up a division the effect of which must be to prevent 
the completion of both roads; but the enterprise which the 
friends of the Ottawa have undertaken is too important' to 
suffer more than a temporary suspension. It will triumph over 
every difficulty ; and men of capital, who might have promoted 
their individual interests by identifying them with its further- 
ance, but have chosen rather to lend their influence in an oppo- 
site direction, may in the end find the impolicy of their pro- 
ceedings in the ill success of their speculations. 
I am, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

OTTAWA. 



To the Editor of the Montreal Gazette. 
Sir, — In the Engineer's Report on the northern line of Rail- 
way, from Montreal to Kingston, via the Ottawa, Bytown and 
Perth, no notice has been taken of the branches or trains men- 
tioned in the application to Parliament for a charter, neither 
have I adverted to it in my letter to Mr. Lowe. This omission 
requires an explanation : the lateness of the season was such, 
that it was impossible for Mr. Fleming to have examined them 
in time to bring them under the notice of the public, in his 
first report, and the inhabitants of the localities particularly 
interested, will have one year from the granting of the charter, 
to make an accurate survey and diagram of their respective 
branches, to be filed in the proper offices. Nevertheless, I 
would remark, that in my opinion, the branch leaving the Main 
Trunk at St. Eustache, St. Thereseor Isle Jesus, and extending 
to Terrebonne, and continuing northward to the extent of forty 
miles, if constructed on the same plan as the Rawdon Rail- 
way would pay a better interest on the capital invested in its 
construction, than that expended on the main line: at the same 
time it would assist in supplying the Montreal market with 
wood, vegetables and poultry, much more plentifully than at 
present, and would add to the business of the line, from two 
to four per cent. The same remark will apply, in reference to 
the branch leaving the main line at the Caledonia Springs, 



204 

and extending up the valley of the Nation River. In reference 
to the investment of capital, the increased distance which pas- 
sengers and produce from this section of country, must occupy 
the main line, will increase the business from five to ten per 
cent., and the amount of service rendered to that section of the 
country will be incalculable. The two great questions to be 
decided, are the proper location of the road, and the gauge to 
be adopted which shall prove most beneflcia 1 . In reference to 
the former, let any engineer of eminence, either from Britain 
or the United States, be introduced merely to decide the route, 
and if the local business, and the advancement of the country 
shall form elements in the estimate of deciding on the proper 
line, as the different municipalities and the Province pay the 
greater part for its construction, there can be no doubt, but 
that the northern route will be adopted. In reference to the 
second question, the width of gauge, a thorough inquiry should 
be immediately instituted on the part of the Government, and 
the experience of the United States, Great. Britain, France, 
Germany and Belgium should be brought to bear on the sub- 
ject, and a uniform system established, that should not inter- 
fere with our intercourse with our neighbours. 
I am, Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

C. P. TREADWELL. 
Montreal, 31st May, 1851. 



G. — Copy of the notice inserted in the Canada Gazette of 
the application to Parliament in favour of the northerly or 
Ottawa line, with the names of the applicants. 

Notice. — We, the undersigned, give notice that we will peti- 
tion the Provincial Legislature, at its next Session, for the in- 
corporation of a Company to construct a Railroad with the usual 
privileges from some point at or near the City of Montreal or La- 
chine across Isle Jesus by St. Therese or St. Eustache and St. 
Andrews, with the privilege of bridging the different streams ; 
recrossing the Ottawa River at some point between Carillon 



205 

and Grenville, by bridging the same with or without the usual 
privileges of a Toll Bridge ; thence, through Hawkesbury, 
L'Orignal and Caledonia Swings, to Bytown ; thence in the 
direction of Richmond and Perth, to Kingston ; with the privi- 
lege of constructing a Branch or Tram Road from St. Eustache, 
St. Therese or Isle Jesus, in a northern direction to the dis- 
tance of forty miles ; also, from Caledonia Springs, up the 
valley of the Petite Nation River, through the Township of 
Mountain, in the County of Dundas. 

Montreal. — Chas. A. Low, Benjamin Lyman, David Tor- 
rance, Robert Cross, William Carter, William Cowan, N. S. 
Whitney, H. Seymour, Alex. Bryson, John Smith, Hy. Mul- 
holland, J. H. Joseph, John Frothingham, H. B. Smith, George 
Benl, C. Dorwin, James P. Cowan, S. P. Tilton, John G. Din- 
ning, Walter MacFarlane, W. Easton, A. Hall, M. D., Joseph 
Knapp, J. A. Perkins, D. Busteed, J. H. Abbott, Edwin Atwa- 
ter, J. A. Berthelot, Alfred Morson, M. D., Wm. Rodden, 
Henry Thomas, J. Torrance, J. Carter, Benj. Brewster, John 
Molgon, M. Hays, Hector Russell, A. M. Delisle, R. B. John- 
son, Made. Masson, Wm. Parker, Geo. Weekes, J. T. Badgley, 
J. W. A. R. Masson, H. L. Routh, H. H. Whitney, M. H. Sey- 
mour, par J. B. Raby. 

Terrebonne. — J. O. Alfred Turgeon, Mayor County of Terre- 
bonne, J. B. Turgeon, L. C. ; G. Raby, A. McKenzie, John 
McKenzie, G. M. Prevost, P. Marier. 

St. Martin. — Chas. Smallwood, M. D. 

St. Eustache.— J. L. DeBellefeuille, W. H. Scott, M. P. P., 
F. E. Globensky. 

St. Therese. — Alpheus Kimpton, John Oswald, David Morris. 

St. Benoit. — James Watts, Mayor County of Two Mountains, 
J. J. Girouard, Dr. L. Demouchel, F. H. Lemaire, H. De- 
mouchel. 

Belle River. — W. Morrin. 

St. Andrews. — Robert Simpson, Frank Farish, Nelson Davis, 
Charles Wales, Duncan Dewar, Duncan Sinclair. 
Carillon.— C. J. Forbes, J. P., Stanfeld Forbes. 



206 

Chatham. — L. Cushing, Ranaldo Fuller. 
Grenville. — Thomas Kains, George Kains. 

Hawkesbury Mills. — Geo. Hamilton, John Hamilton, Thos. 
Higginson. 

Hawkesbury. — Charles Hersey, H. B. Wyman, C. M. Eve- 
ritt, H. W. McCann, John Watson. 

VankleeWs Hill. — James Stirling, M. D., Niel Stewart, James 
P. Wells. 

L'Orignal.—Ch. Johnson, Warden P. & R,, Chs. P, Tread- 
well, William Colfin. 

Caledonia Springs.^ — J. L. Wilkinson, James Brock, Alexr. 
McPhee. 

Caledonia. — William Bradley, Reeve. 

Planta genet. — John Kearnes. 

Clarence. — James McCaul. 

Petite Nation.— W. M. Dole, W. J. Kay. 

Cumberland. — William Wilson, Reeve, Archibald Petrie, 
G. G. Dunning. 

Neiv Edinburgh. — Thos. McKay, John McKinnon. 

Bytown. — Chas. Sparrow, Mayor ; Alex. Workman, Reeve ; 
R. W. Scott, Deputy Reeve, N. Sparks, Edward McGilvery, 
Hamnett Hill, Joseph Aumond, J. B. Lewis, Edward Griffin, 
William Stewart, J. Durie, Richard Stethem, Clements Brade- 
ly, George Dyett, Daniel O'Connor, J. Barreille, John Thomson. 

Gatineau. — Thos. McGoey. 

Lanark. — Gerrard McCrea. 

Aylmer. — John Egan, M. P. P., Charles Symms, James 
Thompson, Robert Conroy, Peter Aylen. 

Merrickville. — W. Merrick. 

Carlelon. — Hamnett Pinhey, Warden. 

Perth. — R. Matheson, Thomas M. Thomson, John P. Grant, 
W. A. Buell, F. G. Hall, M. McDonall, Warden U. C. L. & R., 
Alexander Bane, James M. Erskine, W. & F. Mair, James 
Shaw & Sons, John C. Malloch, Robt. Douglass, James Bell, 



207 

J. Deacon, Jr., C. H. Bell, James Wilson, John Haggerty, 
James Thompson, John McKay, W. R. F. Berford, C P., A. 
Fraser, George Cox. 

BathursL — Josiah Ritchie, Reeve, Joshua Adams, James 
Allan. 

Burgess. — John Doran, Reeve ; Robert Elliott, Councillor. 

Crosby. — John Kilburn. 

Kingston. — F. M. Hill, Mayor; Thomas Kirkpatrick, Alder- 
man ; K. Mackenzie, Alderman ; J. O'Riely, Alderman ; A. 
Campbell, Alderman; Robert Jackson, Alderman; Archibald J. 
Macdonell, Alderman; Joseph Milner, Councillor; John Counter, 
Thomas A. Corbett, Sheriff; John Watkins, Samuel Muckle- 
ston, A. Cameron, Thomas Deykes, Donald Mcintosh, James 
A. McDowall, Robert Stewart, M. W. Strange, Robert L. In- 
nes, C. E. ; Wm. Anglen, City Chamberlain ; Robert McCor- 
mick, John Breden, Thos. Wilson, F. D. Ferris, William Fer- 
guson, County Treasurer ; George Davidson, Councillor ; Wm. 
Ford, Jr., Alderman ; John R. Forsyth. 

Quebec. — John Thomson, Robert Hamilton, R. Roberts, Jas. 
Gibb, A. D. Bell, B. B. Bell, Wm. Petry, Henry Atkinson, J. 
Porter, David D. Young, George Beswick, Robert Mitchell, 
Robt. Cassels, Wm. Gunn, A. Laurie, P. R. Poitras, Chas. A. 
Holt, Wm. Walker, Jr.; J. M. Muckle, J. R. Young, M. 
Stevenson, Wm. Stevenson, D. Fraser, Joseph Parke, D. Bur- 
net, J. M. Fraser, R. Peniston, Duncan Patton, John Smith, 
John Ross, James Turnbull, Edmond Sewell, Greaves Clap- 
ham, Wm. Price, A. John Maxham, D. R. Steuart, Alexander 
Borrowman, Alexander Provan, Thos. Gibb, C. H. Ross, Dun- 
can McPherson, H. Lemesurier, R. V. Cassels, Jas. Ross, P. 
Shephard, Henry Burstall, Jas. Gillespie, J. B. Forsyth, James 
Dean, Junr., Hugh Murray, Andrew Patterson, Robert Shaw, 
J. B. Renaud, W. K. Baird, Henry W. Welch, D. McPherson, 
Benson Ben net, J. H. Clint, Wm. G. Wurtele, Jas. J. Wilson 
Junr., Archibald Campbell, H. J. Noad, William Stubbs, E. 
Chinic, Geo. H. Simard, Adam Burns, Yves Tessier, Julien 
Chouinard, A. Hamel and Brothers, J. Thibodeau, E. A. 



208 

Frechette, A. Cote, P. Boisseau, P. E. Deblois, L. Tetu, L. 
Bilodeau,W. S. Henderson, L. G. Baillairge, James Henry, 
John Munn, E. J. Horan, Ptre.; J. Z. Nault. 
Montreal, 4th March, 1851. 

In addition to the above the following names were appended 
to the notice published in the Montreal Gazette. 

Perth.— C. Rice, Wm. Bel], Wm. Bain, J. H. McDonagh, 
A, M. ; H. Harris, A. M.; T. Mansfield, Alex. Fraser, M. Mc- 
Pherson, M. Stanley, Jas, Kerr, J. Davies, W. M. Shaw, J. 
Adams, Jun.; D. Kerr, T. McCafTry, D. MacMartin, T. M. 
Radenhurst, A. Leslie, J. P. ; R. Kellock, J. Nichol, M. D ; 
J. G. Malloch, Judge ; A. Dickson, Sheriff; J. Bell, Registrar; 
R. Douglas, Councillor; Geo. Cox, do.; J. McDougall, do. 



No. 8. 
OBSERVATIONS 

V P O N THE CONSTRUCTION OF 

A RAILROAD 

FROM 

LAKE SUPERIOR TO THE PACIFIC, 

BY ALLAN MACDONELL, TORONTO. 



To shorten, by a Western passage, the route to the Indies, 
which is now conducted around the fearful barriers of Cape 
Horn and Southern Africa, is a design tnat has long occupied 
the attention, and aroused the exertion of all maritime nations. 
England's exploring expeditions to both the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts, have pryed into every sinuosity of the shore, from lat. 80°, 
South, to the borders of the Frigid Zone, and in the defeat of 
her exertions, projects have been forming to pierce the Conti- 
nent within the limits of a foreign country, and where England 
would be placed at the mercy of her rivals. Whilst France, 
Mexico, the United States, and other Powers, meditate the 
separation of the Continent at the Isthmus of Panama, let Eng- 
land at least enquire whether she has not, within her own ter- 
ritories, superior facilities for accomplishing the same grand 
purpose which impel them. 

Within this past year, three works have been published in 
England, emanating from different sources, urging the neces- 
sity and advantages of a Railway connection between the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, such Railway to be constructed 
through the British Possessions. My present object is not to 
canvas the schemes proposed by any of these several parties 
or projectors, whereby they would seek to carry out their views, 
but, if possible, to direct the attention of the Canadian public 
to the existence of such a project, and the incalculable advan- 

o 



210 

tages which must result to this and the Mother Country, could 
such a connection be accomplished. In one of the pamphlets 
referred to by Major Smith, the plan proposed by him is to 
construct such road by convict labour ; the others, one by a Mr, 
Wilson, (who, I believe, was at one time in the employment 
of the Hudson Bay Company,) and the other by Lieutenant 
Synge, of the Royal Engineers, I have not met with. That 
the construction of such a road is feasible and practicable, I have 
every reason to believe, and will propose to build it upon a 
plan similar to that proposed by Mr. Whitney, for constructing 
alike Railway communication through the United Slates, — 
which plan is so peculiarly adapted to our country, that it can 
not fail of finding as favorable a reception here as it did there. 
The scheme of building a Railway for hundreds of miles 
through a country which at present is a wilderness, seems at 
first sight absurdly extravagant, as well as utterly impractica- 
ble ; and so it would be if the plan contemplated was one to 
be fully carried out within any short period of time. It must 
be borne in mind that under the most favorable circumstances,, 
some years would be required for the construction of such a 
work ; with its progress, population must keep in advance, or 
accompany its advancement. 

In determining, therefore, upon the wisdom or practicability 
of constructing such a road, the whole matter is to be looked 
at prospectively,— the question is not how far the present con- 
dition of the country and its interests warrant the undertakings 
but whether such a state of things will be likely to exist, as 
will justify it when it shall have been accomplished. As to 
the expediency or advantage of constructing such road, I ima- 
gine there cannot be a diversity of opinion, if it shall be found 
to be practicable. 

Our portion of the Continent of North America lies directly 
in the way of the commerce passing between Europe and India 
— with a ship canal of six hundred and thirty-eight yards around 
the falls (twenty-one feet in all,) of the Sault de Ste. Marie, 
we have through our own territories the most magnificent 
inland navigation in the world, carrying us one half-way across 



211 

i|his Continent. By means of a Railway to the Pacific from 
♦he head of this navigation, a rapid and safe communication 
would be formed, by which the commerce of the world would 
ikndergo an entire change ; every one must perceive at a 
glance, that such a road would stand unrivalled in the world. 
iN"ot only are the United States, but the whole of Europe aroused 
i.o the importance of securing the immense trade of China and 
[he East Indies — even in the days of Hernando Cortez it was 
jhought possible and expedient to unite the two oceans by a ship 
Banal across the Isthmus of Panama, and since that time almost 
[every nation has talked of doing so; nor is the project at the 
(present time abated or suspended. Even in the early history 
j)f this country, the French perseveringly and anxiously sought 
for a supposed water communication from the Lawrence to the 
Pacific ; with a view to secure, if possible, that important trade 
which has from the earliest history enriched, beyond calcula- 
tion, every nation that held it, while each in its turn has fallen 
ifrom power and affluence as it lost or surrendered it. Without 
adverting to its effects on other nations, it is sufficient to look to 
England ; she owes more of her grandeur and her power to her 
bommeree with the East Indies, than to almost any other source 
whatever. At the present time, she is to commerce, what the 
principle of gravitation is to the material world — that which 
f-egulates and upholds all. And yet, should the United States 
Construct a Railway through their territories, she might too 
boon feel how precarious is her tenure of the sceptre of the seas 
— it would be wrested from her by her active and energetic 
jival ; she would be driven from her position, and her Indian 
fleets as effectively forced from the bosom of the ocean, as have 
been the caravans which formerly carried across the deserts the 
^vealth of India; or, as England snatched from Holland the 
East Indian trade, so in her turn she may be deprived of it by 
j,he United States : such would be — such some day may be — 
the effect produced by a Railroad through the territories of this 
(latter power. It is therefore incumbent upon England, for her 
own sake, and it becomes her duty and her interest, to inquire 
into the practicability of constructing such road through British 



212 

dominions, whereby our active and enterprising rival will 
cease to be regarded as such ; and a British people will 
have no competitor for maritime supremacy among nations. 
If it be practicable to connect the Pacific with the head waters 
of our inland navigation, it ought not to be delayed. Every 
facility should be offered for carrying it into effect. It would 
not only be the means of settling all the lands capable of sus- 
taining population in those regions, but the commercial rela- 
tions of the world would be altered ; the great West would be 
penetrated — the stream of commerce would be changed from 
boisterous seas and stormy capes, to flow to our shores upon 
the Pacific, and through the depths of our Western wilds. 
With the power of steam through an accessible region and over 
a peaceful sea, England would be placed at one-fourth of the 
distance at which she has hitherto stood from the treasures of the 
East ; her merchants would be able to undersell, in their own 
ports, all the nations of the world. In other words, she would 
render commerce tributary to them, and Canada would be the 
great toll-gate through which this enormous traffic must pass. 
No other route across the Continent of America could compete 
with this, as will be shown hereafter; at present, I shall sim- 
ply point out the route proposed : — 

Liverpool to St. Lawrence, (miles) 2,800 

St. Lawrence to British boundary, Lake Superior .. 1,150 
Lake Superior to Fuca's Straits » 1,500 

5,450 

The distance from Fuca's Straits to Japan is about 4,000 
miles; to Shanghae about 5,000. Vancouver's Island com- 
mands the Straits, and abounds with excellent harbours ; coal 
of a superior quality is found there ; the Indians mine it and 
deliver it on board the Hudson Bay Steamers at a mere nomi- 
nal charge. No part of the Pacific coast affords such capabil- 
ities as does this for controlling the whole trade and traffic of 
the Pacific. 

It might be assumed as a certainty, that a cargo from Shang- 
hae, borne by a modern ocean steamer over this placid sea ? 



213 

coukl be unloaded in fifteen or twenty days, at some one of the 
harbours at Fuca's Straits, and in from three to five days more, 
placed for sale or transportation on the banks of Lake Supe- 
rior. The construction of snch a road, in the direction of Fuca's 
S Ira its, would shorten the distance to England from China, 
&c. by sixty or seventy days, and place before us a mart of six 
hundred millions of people, and enable us geographically to 
command them. Leaving it to the guidance of commercial 
interests, who shall tell what may not be the commercial des- 
tiny of this country ? 

This scheme may excite only the curiosity of those who can 
hardly contemplate it as anything else than an hallucination 
to amuse for a moment, and then vanish. Nevertheless, snch a 
work will some day be achieved, — -if not by a British people, 
by our neighbours. And let it be remembered, that it is no 
difficult matter to open a new channel for a new trade, but it 
is very difficult to change one that is already established. 

There is something startling in the proposition of a Railroad 
to connect the Atlantic and Pacific, and much that will strike 
the hasty observer as chimerical, but when we have seen stu- 
pendous pyramids raised by the hand of man in the midst of a 
desert of shifting sands ; when we know that despite the ob- 
stacles of nature and the rudeness of art, a semi-barbarous peo- 
ple, centuries before the Christian era, erected around their 
empire a solid barrier of wall, carrying it over the most formi- 
dable mountains, and across rivers on arches, and through the 
declensions and sinuosities of valleys to the distance of fifteen 
hundred miles, let us not insult the enterprize of this enlight- 
ened age by denouncing as visionary and impracticable the 
plan of a simple line of rails over a surface of no greater extent 
without one half the natural obstacles to overcome. To do so 
would evince a forgetfulness of the vast achievments of this 
age. As to its feasibility, I am aware many will object to it 
on that ground. Nevertheless, from all the information ob- 
tained, I believe that it is practicable and easy of accomplish- 
ment, and that it can be accomplished by individual enter- 
prize ; by connecting the sale and the settlement of the lands 



214 

on its line with the building of the road, population must keep 
pace with the work and be interested in it, and the labour of 
grading, &c, must pay in part for the land and make homes 
for the settlers. The plan or mode of operation by which it is 
proposed to carry out this great work, is that the Government 
shall sell, to a chartered company, sixty miles wide of the lands 
from the Lake to the Pacific, at a reduced rate, or at such a rate 
as the Goverment shall pay for obtaining the surrender to the 
Crown, from the various bands of Indians now possessing it. 
At present it is a wilderness, and although, to a great extent, 
it is capable of sustaining a large population, yet it must lie 
waste and unprofitable, whilst thousands of our fellow coun- 
trymen are starving and destitute ; and so it must remain, with- 
out value, and impossible of settlement, unless some move be 
made which shall create facilities which will afford the means 
of settling these lands, and thus make them a source of wealth 
and power to the country. Immediately after such surrender 
to the Crown, of one hundred or two hundred miles or more, 
the route upon it would be surveyed and located, preparations 
made for grading, &c., and proceeding with the work, a large 
body of workmen" or settlers at once placed upon it ; when ten 
miles of the road shall have been completed, in the most substan- 
tial and approved manner, and to the satisfaction of a Commis- 
sioner appointed by Government, a patent shall issue to ihe 
Company for the first half of the road or five miles, or pa- 
tents to the settlers who may have purchased upon the line, 
as may be deemed most advisable ; the Government thus hold- 
ing still one-half of the road. Now, if the sale of land could 
not be made to produce a sufficient amount to return the money 
expended on the ten miles of road, then the experiment is the 
loss of the Company, and the Government would not have lost 
one shilling, but on the contrary, the five miles of road held by 
it, must be enhanced in value ; if, upon the contrary, the land 
is raised from beyond its present value to an amount exceed- 
ing the outlay, then the half held by .Government would have 
imparted to it an equal increase in value from the same causes, 
and this ought to be a sufficient security for the due perform- 



215 

ance of the work. Such should be the proceeding throughout 
:ood or available lands upon the route ; but as the road for 
an immense distance may pass through poor and barren lands 
— in such case, as much of the nearest good lands beyond the 
finished as may cover the outlay upon such line or section, 
may be sold by the Company, and patents issued; and when 
shall have been completed, the title of the road should vest 
in the Company, subject to the control of Government, in regu- 
lating and fixing tolls, &c. Should the plan fail, Government 
can lose nothing, because the lands still remain, and their value 
will have been added to, even by the failure. Thus it is pro- 
posed to establish an entirely new system of settlement, on 
which the hopes for success are based, and on which all de- 
pend. The settler on the line of road would, so soon as his 
house or cabin was up and a crop in, find employment upon 
the road; when his crop would have ripened, there would be 
a market at his door, created by those in the same situation as 
his was the season before, and if he had in the first instance 
paid for his land, the money would go back to him, either di- 
rectly or indirectly, for labor and materials furnished for the 
work, so in one year the settler would have his home, with set- 
tlement and civilization surrounding him, a demand for his la- 
bor, a market at his door, and, for any surplus of his produce, a 
Railroad to communicate with other markets. The settler who 
might not have the means to purchase land even at the lowest 
price, say 3s. 9d. per acre, would obtain those means by his 
labor on the road and a first crop — he too in one year would 
have his home, with the same advantages and be as equally 
independent. 

Settlers under any other circumstances, placed in a wilder- 
ness, remote from civilization, would have no benefit from the 
sum paid, beyond his title to the land, — his house built and 
<;rop in, he finds no demand for his labour, because all around 
him are in the same condition as himself; when his crop is 
grown he has no market ; his labor, it is true, produces food 
from the earth, but he cannot exchange it for other different 
products of industry. A proper and systematic course adopt- 



216 

ed for inducing immigration from the Mother Country, would 
relieve her of a surplus population ; open the greatest possible 
extent of wilderness, otherwise forever useless, to settlement 
and production ; making it the means of benefitting and carry- 
ing comfort and happiness to thousands of our fellow-subjects 
in the Mother Country, suffering the worst of evils, caused by 
a too dense population, whilst at the same time such immigra- 
tion will benefit this country to an illimitable extent. Perhaps 
it may be thought that the Government of the country should 
undertake this work, and dispose of the lands as proposed. 
Private enterprize far exceeds any operations of the Govern- 
ment in celerity, and is much more economical and effective. 
If the Government undertook it, the sale of the lands would 
never meet the disbursement, and the difficulties to be en- 
countered by delays in the transaction of the business at the 
Seat of Government, would alone retard the work and cause it 
to linger until it perished. Such a work by Government would 
absorb the entire legislation of the country, and being subject 
to changes of management and direction at each session, its 
progress would be utterly defeated ; the management of such 
a great work, and the amount of money which this plan would 
place as a stake to be carried off by the successful party in the 
struggle, would lead to every species of political corruption 
and bargaining to secure so vast a prize, which of itself would 
preclude the selection of the men of the character requisite to 
carry out the plan ; each administration would appoint its own 
partizans as directors, who would exert all the influence that 
their position, and the immense means at their command would 
give them, to sustain in power those on whom their offices 
depended. The only true way of carrying out this work is by- 
private enterprize connected with the sale of the lands, under 
the protection of Government ; or else it must be accomplished 
by the Imperial Government alone. 

The commencement of this work would make it a point of 
attraction to the whole population of Europe, daily flocking to 
American shores ; most of these are generally without means, 
nevertheless their labor is the capital which would grade the 



217 

road, and pay in part for the laud. Tiiey would not only be 
interested in the road as a means for their daily bread, but 
would be sure that its results would benefit their condition, 
and elevate themselves and families to affluence. Civilization, 
with all its influences, would march, step by step, with the 
road, and would draw to it, after the first two years, 100,000 
souls annually. Cities, towns and villages would spring up 
like magic, because the road — the cheap means for the transit 
of the products of man's labor to a market — would leave a rich 
reward for that labor, and as it proceeded produce the further 
means for the completion of all. The Government, in exchange 
for the substratum of a suffering population of indigent emi- 
grants of the Mother Country would find its broad and fertile 
western territory sprinkled with hamlets and possessing a class 
of intelligent and happy husbandmen, the best pride and boast 
of a free country. 

It will be at once perceived, that the plan proposed is based 
upon the assumption that a great portion of the country through 
which such Railway might pass, is capable of sustaining a 
large population, and also of furnishing the means of carrying 
the work over such portions of the line as should be found bar- 
ren or unfitted for the abode of civilized man. 

I propose now to show that such a description of favorable 
country exists to an almost unlimited extent, and that westward 
we have a vast wilderness of land which only requires the ap- 
plication of the labor of the now destitute, to produce abundant 
means for achieving this great work, richly reward that labor, 
and open out almost a new world as the inheritance of a Bri- 
tish people. I might speculate upon the future, and predict 
what would be the vast, the mighty results by the accomplish- 
ment of this work, but it is my object to give a plain statement, 
which I believe to be based on facts, of the features of the coun- 
try. There are two points upon Lake Superior from which 
such Railway might be commenced, each line striking the 
same point at the Lac La Pluie, a distance of about 125 miles, 
thence to the Lake of the Woods. The one starting at Pigeon 
River, perhaps, is a more direct route, and I believe in many 



218 

respects the better one ; the other starts from the Kaminista- 
quoia, at the mouth of which stands the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's Establishment — Fort William. I will suppose that this 
latter route is followed, because, without merely asserting my 
own views and opinions as to its capability of sustaining an 
agricultural population, I can quote from the published work of 
another, showing the description and character of country 
through which I propose to pass, proving that at the moment of 
leaving the shores of Lake Superior we enter a country capable 
of providing for men all those necessaries and comforis which 
civilization requires. The Kaministaquoia is a large and fine 
river, but at the distance of about thirty muVs up, navigation 
is obstructed by the Kakabeka Falls, a fall of about 140 feet; 
the banks of the river are clothed with elm, birch and maple ; 
above the falls the river is again navigable, to the height of 
land which is reached in little over a day's travel by canoes. 

The valley of this river is described by Sir George Simpson 
in his overland journey, and he says : — 

" One cannot pass through this fair valley without feeling 
that it is destined sooner or later to become the happy home of 
civilized men, with their bleating flocks and lowing herds, 
with their schools and churches, with their full garners and 
their social hearths. At the time of our visit, the great obsta- 
cle in the way of so blessed a consummation, was the hopeless 
wilderness to the eastward, which seemed to bar forever the 
march of settlement and cultivation. But that very wilderness, 
now that it is to yield up its long hidden stores, bids fair to re- 
move the very impediments which hitherto it has itself pre- 
sented. The mines of Lake Superior, besides establishing a 
continuity of route between the east and west, will find their 
nearest and cheapest supply of agricultural produce in the 
Valley of the Kaministaquoia." 

Through the valley to the height of land, there exist no ob- 
structions which cannot be readily overcome — from this height 
of land descending to the level of the beautiful Lake of the 
Thousand Islands, thence to Lac La Pluie and the Lake of the 
Woods. In reference to this portion, Sir George Simpson says : 



219 

" The river which empties Lac La Pluic into the Lake of the 
Woods, is decidedly the finest stream on the whole route in 
more than one respect: from Fort Francis (situated on Lac La 
Plnie) downward a stretch of nearly a hundred miles, it is not 
interrupted by a single impediment, while yet the current is 
not strong enough to retard an ascending traveller, nor are the 
banks less favorable to agriculture than the waters, themselves 
to navigation ; resembling the Thames near Richmond — from 
the very bank of the river there rises a gentle slope of green 
sward, crowned in jnany places with a plentiful growth of 
birch, poplar, beech, elm, and oak ; is it too much for the 
eye of philanthropy to discern through the vista of. futurity 
this noble stream, connecting as it does, the fertile shores of 
two spacious lakes, with crowded steamboats on its bosom, 
and populous towns upon its borders ? The shores of this latter 
lake are not less fertile than the other, producing rice in abun- 
dance and bring maze to perfection." The Lake of the Woods 
is connected again by a magnificent river 300 miles in length 
(the Winipeg) with the lake of that name lying to the north- 
west of the Lake of the Woods — these lakes, with others, being 
wholly within oar own boundaries — the Lake of the Woods is 
about 80 miles long by 40 broad ; Lake Winipeg is 280 long 
and 100 broad. The country in which these lakes are situated 
is called the Assiniboin, across which flows the Red River, 
emptying into Lake Winipeg; upon this river is established the 
Colony founded by Lord Selkirk. From the western side of the 
Lake of the Woods, the Winipeg River or Lake Winipeg, com- 
prising a distance of near 300 miles, any point may be taken, 
and running directly west, not a single obstruction offers for 
carrying a Railroad to the very foot of the Rocky Mountains, a 
distance of 800 miles, carrying us through this magnificent 
country — the Assinboin, watered by the river of its own name, 
and by the Red River, each flowing for hundreds of miles ; fur- 
ther westward still w r e pass through the Saskatchewan coun- 
try, through which flows the river of that name for 600 miles, 
navigable for large boats, &c. 

Loaded carts traverse this immense country in every direc- 
tion, and as a proof of how easily all this is accomplished. Sir 



220 

George Simpson travelled over 600 miles of these plains in 13 
days, with 50 horses and loaded carts, and frequently caravans 
of 200 and 300 carts are traversing these plains, bearing the 
hunters with their families and equipages, in pursuit of the 
buffalo, thousands of which animals are destroyed merely for 
their hides. Sir George Simpson says he has seen ten thou- 
sand carcases lying putrid and infecting the air for miles 
around, in one bed of the valley of the Saskatchewan. The 
valley of that river alone is equal to the extent of all England ; 
it abounds in mineral, and, above all the~blessings and advan- 
tages that can be conferred upon a country like this, is, that coal 
is abundant and easily obtained ; it crops out in various parts of 
the valley. Speaking of some portions of this country, through 
which he was travelling, he says : — " The scenery of the day 
had been generally a perfect level ; on the east, north and 
south, there was not a mound or tree to vary the vast expanse 
of green sward, whilst, to the west were the gleaming bays of 
the winding Assiniboin, separated from each other by wooded 
points of considerable depth." Again — " The rankness of the 
vegetation savoured rather of the torrid zone, with its perennial 
spring, than of the northern wilds, brushing the luxuriant grass 
w r ith our knees, and the hard ground of the surface was beauti- 
fully diversified with a variety of flowers, such as the rose, 
hyacinth, and tiger lily.*" Of the Red River settlement ijn the 
Assiniboin country) he says : " The soil is a black mould, pro- 
ducing extraordinary crops, the wheat produced is plump and 
heavy ; the soil frequently producing 40 bushels to the acre — 
grain of all kinds is raised in abundance ; beef, mutton, pork, 
butter, cheese and wool, are productions which likewise 
abound, thus showing that to the foot of the Rocky Mountains, 
lies a country capable of being rendered the happy homes of 
millions of inhabitants, when facilities of communication shall 
be offered which can lead to it." To these statements of Sir 
George Simpson, might be added those of many others, in 
corroboration, were it necessary. 

That the Rocky Mountains will present a formidable barrier 
to the construction of a Railway to the Pacific, cannot be 



221 

denied ; nevertheless I imagine that at the present day, there 
can scarcely be found any one so bold or rash as to assert, that 
obstructions will be found to exist which neither the science, 
skill, nor energy of man can overcome. Let immigration once 
reach the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, and speedily 
would vanish all the most formidable obstacles which may 
now appear to present themselves. 

Even now, there are several passes known through those 
mountains, whereby it may be practicable to carry steam to 
the western side. The goods and merchandize required by 
the Hudson Bay Company for carrying on their trade in the 
interior, often being landed on the shores of the Pacific, are 
transported through some of these passes to the eastern side. 
In his overland journey, Sir George Simpson ascended from 
the eastern, crossed, and descended to the Columbia river upon 
the western side, with forty-five pack-horses, in six or seven 
days, some days making forty miles a day. 

Sir Alexander McKenzie, (at a pass further north ) ascended 
the principal water of the McKenzie river to its head, which 
he found to be a small lake ; he crossed a beaten track leading 
over a low ridge of eight hundred and seventeen paces in 
length to another lake ; this was the head water of Fraser's 
river, which he followed, down to where it discharges itself in 
the Georgian Gulf or Fuca Straits at 49°, thus showing that a 
communication between the east and west is open to us. In 
lat. 52 J°, is also a pass affording facility of communication by 
the head waters of the Columbia and the north branches of 
the Saskatchewan ; up to this point, boats ascend from Fort 
Colville, which is in latitude about 48J°. 

Wherever the head waters of the rivers on the east and west 
sides of the Rocky Mountains approach each other, there have 
been found passes through them. 

The Rocky Mountains have been crossed by waggons at 
various points to the Columbia River, and to the Saptin or 
southern branch of that river and to the Wallawulla. Thomas 
P. Farnham, in 1840, crossed to the mouth of the Columbia, 
and found a waggon which had been run to the Saptin by an 



2-2-2 

American missionary from Connecticut, and left there under 
the impression that it could be carried no further th rough the 
mountains ; but very soon after that, emigrants going out to 
Oregon, in 1843, crossed the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia 
with fifty loaded waggons, performing the journey without any 
loss or injury save the bursting of one waggon tire ; and that 
ought to be sufficient to convince the most sceptical, that a 
Railroad to, and through the Rocky Mountains, is practicable 
beyond a doubt, and affording reason to believe that, upon a 
careful preparatory survey, which must be instituted, new 
passes through these mountains may be found adapted to the 
work within our own limits, and on a more direct line with 
the commodious harbours upon Fuca Straits. 

One of the projected lines of Railway communication through 
the United States was proposed should terminate at Puget 
Sound. Colonel Fremont, one of the most scientific men in 
the United States, was directed to examine and report upon 
the feasibility of crossing the Rocky Mountains to such termi- 
nus. 48-J ° N. lat. he examined, and reported its feasibility, 
stating that " impracticability is not to be named with the sub- 
ject," either at that point, or even to carry it to San Francisco : 
" that difficulties from snow would be confined to short spaces, 
and these inconsiderable." 

With reference to the country upon the western side of the 
mountains, within our boundaries, none perhaps is so well 
situated for communicating with all the countries and ports 
washed by the waters of the Pacific. Fuca Straits and the 
Georgian Sound abound with excellent harbours, without ob- 
struction to ingress or egress at any season of the year ; are 
unsurpassed for salubrity of climate, and for advantages are 
equal to any other country, whether considered under the head 
ol agriculture, commerce, or even the capabilities of becoming 
a manufacturing one. It holds that position with regard to the 
Pacific and its islands, which must make it a ruler of its com- 
merce ; and when a direct communication shall have been 
opened from the eastern side of the continent, it must receive 
the aid of capital and immigration, and rise speedily to an 
importance scarcely to be paralleled. 



223 

The Rev. C. G. Nicolay says of this country : — " The growth 
of timber of all sorts, in the neighbourhood of the De Fuca 
Straits, adds much to its value as a naval station. Coal is 
found in the whole western district, but principally shows itself 
above the surface on the north side of Vancouver's Island. To 
these sources of commercial wealth, must be added the 
minerals — iron, lead, tin, &c; and limestone is plentiful in the 
north, ft will be found to fall short of few countries, either in 
salubrity of climate, fertility of soil and consequent luxuriance 
of vegetation and utility of productions ; or in the picturesque 
character of the country." 

Thus far, I have endeavoured to show the feasibility and 
expediency of constructing a Railway to the Pacific, through 
British territories. 1 may have failed in interesting readers in 
it sufficiently to excite the feeling to exert an influence on the 
accomplishment of so great a work. Our geographical position 
gives us advantages and facilities for carrying it out, which 
no other country possesses. We are placed so far north, that 
the climate would protect animal and vegetable productions 
from injury and destruction, and where the soil, for nearly the 
entire route, would be capable of sustaining population ; thereby 
opening to settlement and production, the greatest possible 
extent of wilderness, otherwise forever useless. It is a subject 
of wide national interest ; one of universal benevolence, opening 
to mankind the now uncultivated portions of an immense 
country, to the superabundant population of the Old World, 
building cities upon the silent shores of the Pacific, and grow- 
ing corn upon the untrodden slopes of the Rocky Mountains. 
I am aware that many will be found, who will urge the im- 
possibility, and unhesitatingly assert that such a work is im- 
practicable. There never yet was any great work projected, 
which did not meet with its cavillers or opponents. To such 
I would reply, there is no work, no enterprise, too vast, too 
magnificent, if dependent alone upon the labor of man for its 
accomplishment, aided by the science and skill of the present 
day. 

Within but a short time, we have seen a body of 20,000 
Mormons traverse a wilderness of 1200 miles, and, seating 



224 

themselves at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, in one year 
place themselves in a most prosperous and flourishing con- 
dition : building up cities, and, in fact, acquiring the position 
of an independent State ; who shall tell us, then, that an ex- 
tensive and eystematic immigration to the fertile lands west of 
Lake Superior, cannot become equally flourishing, prosperous 
and happy ? If in the plan proposed there is any merit, it is 
to beascribed to Mr. Whitney, of New York. It originated 
witlrfcm, and has become the foundation for many to build 
upon. In the United States, no less than six or seven different 
projects were brought forward, giving rise to sectional preju- 
dices, and creating diverse interests, which has chiefly been 
the cause that none of the projected railways have been com- 
menced, unless the one at Panama. Setting aside the advan- 
tages to be derived by this country in opening to immigration 
our western wilds, it will be well to consider whether it is 
possible, and if possible, whether some one of the projected 
routes through the United States be likely to be commenced or 
built, which would be the means of rendering one through our 
territories useless, for the purposes of controlling the trade of 
India, &c. I propose to show that not even a ship canal across 
the Isthmus of Panama, can compete with a communication 
by the head waters of Lake Superior and the Pacific. 

The various routes advocated in the United States, for the 
construction of a Railway communication connecting the At- 
lantic and Pacific, are : — 

1st. That termed the northern route, from Lake Michigan, 
terminating at Puget Sound. 

2nd. A route from some point upon the Missouri, terminating 
at the mouth of the Columbia. 

•3rd. A route from St. Louis, terminating at San Francisco. 

4th. A route from St. Louis, by way of the Gila, terminating 
at San Diego. 

5th. A route from New Orleans across Texas. 

6th. Over the Isthmus of Panama, by railroad. 

7th. By Tehuantepec or Nicaragua, by ship canal. 

The first or northern route is that projected by Mr. Whitney, 
who explored and examined the country westward of the Lakes 



225 

Michigan and Superior, for a distance of 800 miles, and com- 
pared with the other lines, it has been found to possess the 
greatest advantages : it pursued a course along 48 J degrees of 
north latitude, until it terminated at Puget Sound. It was 
found that thus keeping so far to the north, better lands were 
offered suitable for agriculture, timber more readily obtained, 
less difficulty in surmounting the hills, and all the large rivers 
in a measure avoided, inasmuch as only the head waters of 
these would be crossed ; besides, the distance by this route, 
1S00 miles, being from 300 to 500 shorter than the others, and 
the fact that at Puget Sound there always could be obtained 
supplies of coal from the adjoining British possesssions at Fuca 
Straits. That this or no other particular route has been decided 
upon by the United States is, I believe, to be solely attributed 
to the sectional jealousies which the other proposed routes have 
created, the interests of those advocating the others, requiring 
a more southerly route, all being actuated by a fear that their 
section of their country would not secure its full benefits certain 
to follow from it. In as great a degree as this proposed northern 
route has advantages over all the others, so would one through 
British possessions possess advantages over it. 

The more southern lines are all alike liable to the same or 
similar objections. They would cross a much greater extent 
of country, where the altitude of the mountains is much greater, 
and large rivers must be crossed, as well as immense tracts of 
sterile lands which cannot be inhabited ; and the want of coal 
or fuel throughout a very large portion of the line, and at the 
terminus upon the Pacific, must preclude anything like com- 
petition with one through British territories where the distance 
is so very much shortened, where there are less difficulties to 
overcome, and where the line would pass through some of the 
best lands in the western country, possessing a fine and healthful 
climate, and the greater part of which country may be densely 
populated. 

The great barriers upon the American routes, are upon the 
one proposed through British possessions, modified or made 
clear by nature, and above all through the Valley of the 

P 



226 

Sas/fatchewan, and at the terminus at Fuca Straits abundance 
of coal is at hand. 

A canal across the Isthmus of Panama, at Nicaragua or 
Tehuantepec, has been mooted for near 200 years ; surveys 
and explorations have been made, but it all rests where it 
commenced. It is true that this Isthmus forms but a narrow 
barrier between the two great oceans of the world, nevertheless 
there are innumerable obstacles in the way of its becoming the 
best, cheapest, or quickest route between Europe and Asia. 

It is far from being among the most serious objections that 
the Isthmus of Panama is without harbours upon either side, 
with shoals and shallow waters difficult of access from either 
ocean, situated in the latitude subject to calms, squalls, and 
tornados ; the climate unhealthy in the extreme, nine months 
in the year subject to excessive torrents of rain, and the 
thermometer ranging from 82° to 88°, and the other three 
months from 90° to 95°, a temperature and climate certain to 
destroy all animal and vegetable production, and also to injure 
greatly all manufactured goods. 

In a transportation by Railway across the Isthmus of Panama 
steam must be used ; depots of coal must become necessary, 
transported from an immense distance upon the Atlantic side, 
consequently the rate of freights must be so great as to preclude 
the transmission of merchandise. Upon the Pacific side depots 
of coal would become necessary at the Sandwich Islands or at 
the Marquesas or Society Islands ; the distance from Panama 
to China, being over 9,000 miles, what steamer could carry 
freight in addition to her necessary fuel ? For such route the 
cost of the quantity of fuel to be placed at such depots (a large 
portion, if not all of it, would most likely be brought from Fuca 
Straits,) would render the undertaking so unprofitable that it 
ould not compete with the old route around the Cape. Again, 
he route across the Pacific from Panama, offers many difficul- 
ties to sailing vessels in the prevailing winds, calms, &c, so 
much so that even a vessel might pass round the Cape to China 
in a shorter space of time than from Panama. 

If these objections were not sufficient of themselves to settle 
the question as to the advantages of the routes across the Isthmus 



227 

of Panama, the distance gained by a route from the head of 
Lake Superior to Fuca Straits will. 

Many, perhaps, who have not reflected upon our position 
with regard to China, will be surprised to know that here, in 
Toronto, we are upwards of two thousand miles nearer Canton, 
than is the Isthmus of Panama to that place ; consequently^ 
that through Canada, England can reach the great marts of Asia 
by a much shorter route than by any other. 

Supposing that a ship canal was completed across the Isthmus 
of Panama, thereby obviating the necessary delays and heavy 
expenses of transhipment and transit upon a railway, &c, and 
the steamers passing through that canal of sufficient capacity 
to carry the fuel required for 9,000 miles, still neither distance 
nor time can be diminished. Let any one take the map of the 
worll, he will see upon one side of us Europe at a distance of 
some 3,000 miles, upon the other, Asia, at a distance of some 
5,000 miles. A line drawn from the great European to 
the Asiatic marts, passes through our great lakes and across 
Canada ; as we are thus placed in the centre, so may we become 
the thoroughfare of both. 

From London to Panama, 81° of longitude 
and 42° of latitude must be overcome, 
which in a straight line, would vary little 

from 5,868 miles. 

From Panama to Canton, 170° of longitude 
is to be overcome, measuring 60 miles to 
a degree 10)200 « 

16,068 « 
London to Quebec 2 800 

Quebec to Pigeon River, Lake Superior 1,150 

Pigeon River to Fuca Straits 1,500 • 

Fuca Straits to Canton 5 400 

10,850 « 

Difference in favour of route through Canada 5,2 18 " 
This, most likely, will strike one as incredible, nevertheless 
it will be found not very far wrong ; and even a much greater 



228 

difference in favour of Fuca Straits will be found to exist when 
actual sailing distance is compared, ships often being obliged 
to run down far to the south or keep up far to the north to catch 
the winds. 

It will be seen that in crossing the globe within the tropics, 
the degree of longitude measures full 60 miles, where on a 
course of 30° on a line to 60° latitude, measures but 47 miles 
to the degree. 

Miles. Miles . 

Panama to Japan. . . . 7,600 Fuca Straits to Japan. . 4,000 
Panama to Shangee. . 10,600 Fuca Straits to Shangee 5,000 
Panama to Singapore. 10,600 Fuca Straits to Singapore 7,000 
Panama to the Sand- Fuca Straits to the Sand- 
wich Islands 3,400 wich Islands 2,400 

Panama to Australia. . 6,460 Fuca Straits to Australia 6,000 
As to the advantages of the respective routes, comments are 
"unnecessary, figures and facts settle the question; looking 
again to the terminus at Fuca Straits, we find advantages as to 
harbours, Climate and position, in a degree commensurate to 
the disadvantages of Panama, and for steamers abundance of 
coal ; the islands of Japan also abound in coal, where supplies 
can be had, and if necessary, depots might be made upon the 
Aleutian Isles ; no sea is so remarkably adapted to steam navi- 
gation as the Pacific, its tranquil surface is scarcely ever agi- 
tated by a storm. For sailing vessels, Fuca Straits is equally 
advantageous, easy of access at all seasons of the year, being 
out of the latitudes of the prevailing calms ; the passage could 
be made out and back with the trades ; the course to the great 
commercial marts of Asia would be west of south, and the 
north-east trade winds blow almost uninterruptedly, returning 
by a more northerly route, advantage would be taken of the 
polar currents %hich set northward towards Bhering Straits, 
and also of the more variable winds in higher latitudes. 

I have thus endeavoured to compare with each other, the 
different routes proposed for this great highway of the world, 
to explain the plan by which it is proposed to accomplish it, 
and to show that the very route which circumstances force us 
to take, is the only route suitable for the accomplishment of 



229 



such a magnificent work. British capitalists, it appears, are 
ready to give their aid towards the construction of a similar 
communication across the Isthmus of Panama, where must be 
incurred a much greater expenditure of money than would 
serve to build the Railway within our own territories, and 
even then, unless nature herself can be overcome, they cannot 
attain their object; whilst here, nature invites the enterprise, 
and where they have no favors to ask of foreign nations, 
where they will have security that the way shall never be closed 
to the enterprise of the British merchant, and whereby her 
possessions upon the Pacific will be secured to Britain for all 
time to come, and be an additional guarantee for the perpe- 
tuity of her dominion upon this continent, jx would create a 
union among all her people which could not be dissolved, with 
the trade of the world her own forever ; cemented by the af- 
fections and undivided interests of her subjects in Europe and 
in Asia, by means of her Canadian Empire, bound together 
with sinews of iron. 

The view that this opens upon the mind, independent of its 
internal benefits, staggers speculation with its immensity, and 
stretches beyond all ordinary rules of calculation. The riches 
of the most unlimited market in the world would be thrown 
open to it ; and obeying the new impulse thus imparted to it, 
England's commerce would increase until every billow be- 
tween us and China bore her meteor flag. By the superior 
facilities conferred upon us, by our position to control the whole 
Pacific, and the route through our own country, we would be- 
come the common carrier of the world. 

Again : Vast countries still lie in the fairy regions of the 
East, the productions and resources of which are scarcely 
known to us, and only await the civilis'ng influence of such a 
scheme as this, to throw down the barriers of prejudice and 
superstition. Of this nature and character is the opulent empire 
of Japan. Though second but to China itself, it holds no inter- 
course with foreigners, and only permits one nation to land upon 
its dominions (the Dutch). Ought it to be too much to hope 
that thus being brought so near to us, some diplomacy or com- 



230 

mercial interests would throw its rich markets open to our enter- 
prise. 

The cost of the work, even though it should amount to a 
hundred millions, is no argument to urge against the undertaking 
which would render every nation on the globe our commercial 
tributaries. But this is a most extravagant estimate. It would 
scarcely amount to eight millions, less, indeed, than would be 
required to cut a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, as is 
proposed, entailing, perhaps, upon England, some future war, to 
maintain the rights of her subjects in using such canal, the 
expenses of which would build a dozen railways ; a war that 
might leave England enfeebled, exhausted, and depressed. The 
completion of the proposed Railway through British possessions, 
would find her* regenerated with new life, her impulses re- 
awakened, her energies strengthened, and advancing with a 
rapidity and vigor that would astonish Destiny herself. 

The distance from the head of Lake Superior to the Pacific 
being about 1,500 miles, then allow for detours and crossing the 
Rocky Mountains, say 250 miles, making in all 1750. 

To construct such a road would cost about £5,000 per mile, 
making a total of £8,750,000. 

From the point where it might start upon Lake Superior 
to Lac la Pluie, would be the most expensive portion upon (his 
side of the Rocky Mountains ; from Lac la Pluie onward, the 
land is of the best quality for the production of food for man, 
well watered, covered with rich grass, &c. The farmer wants 
but the plough, the seed, the scythe and the sickle ; at the above 
rate, ten miles of railway would cost £50,000. Five miles by 
sixty contain 192,000 acres, the whole of this sold at say 5s. per 
acre, would not produce the sum required for the bare expense 
of building, thereby showing that the request made for 60 miles 
is not unreasonable. 

Without directing attention to the trade carried on through- 
out the Pacific, by France, by Holland, and other continental 
nations, and also by the United States, let us look only to Eng- 
land, it will afford some idea of the incalculable advantages 
which such a communication would open out through this 
country. 



231 

Imports into Great Britain from the following ports 
From" Bengal, Madras and Bombay, as taken from 
Hunt's Merchant's Magazine for March, 1843, 
including all to Continental Europe, and North 

and South America, annually, £12,000,000 

Less for the amount to France and America, .... 2,489,340 



£ 9,510,600 

From Sumatra and Java (commercial tariff, part 6) 215,216 

The Philippine Isles, 346,692 

New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land (table 

of revenue, part 12, page 474; 1,1 18,088 

Mauritius (table of revenue, part 12) .......... 806,593 

Chili, estimated at - . . 1,500,000 

Peru, estimated at 1,000,000 

£14,497,240 
From China the total amount of various produc- 
tions, teas, silks, &c, / 5,000,000 



£19,497,240 
To which must be added the exports from Great Britain, which 
are sent in exchange for the above productions. The imports 
and exports of the Dutch East Indies and the French East Indies, 
should also be considered, as also the exports and imports of the 
United States ; all would be tributary to such a road. 
The Imperial Government have contracted to pay, 
per annum, for the transmission of a Monthly 

Mail to Chagres,. £250,000 

And from Panama to Callao, for communicating 

with the Navy and Officers in the Pacific, .... 20,000 



£270,000 

Having thus alluded to the importance to be attached to the 

opening of such a communication as proposed with the Pacific, 

and to the comparative advantages, in a strictly commercial 

point of view, between it and the Isthmus of Panama, it may not 



232 

be inappropriate to again advert to it, as regards the effect the 
constructing of a canal at the latter would have upon England's 
maritime supremacy. 

As early as the seventeenth century, a company projected by 
William Patterson, was formed in Scotland, to improve the 
advantages offered by the Isthmus of Darien, £700,000 was 
raised, and 1200 men set sail to found a colony, but being 
denounced by Government, and attacked by a Spanish force, they 
sunk under accumulated misfortunes, and abandoned the enter- 
prise in despair. The project seems to be again revived, and a 
Company is now forming in London to carry out the scheme of 
a ship canal by means of British capital, an almost suicidal act 
to England's supremacy on the seas, for it would thus contribute 
to afford superior facilities and advantages to other nations, and 
particularly to her enterprising rival the United States, from 
whose rapid strides towards maritime equality England has 
much to fear. Through her geographical position the United 
States can more readily avail herself of the benefits to be derived 
from this course than any other nation. Her fleets would steam 
in one unbroken line through the Gulf of Mexico ; her naval 
power would overawe our settlements upon the north-west coasts ^ 
and her influence extend itself throughout all our Indian pos- 
sessions. The Marquesas Islands, in case the project be carried 
into effect, lying directly in the route of the navigation to India, 
would at a step advance into one of the most important maritime 
ports in the world, whilst the Society Islands, also in the posses- 
sion of France, would enhance immensely in their value ; more 
than all, returning back, the vessels of all Europe would ere long 
procure their tropical productions from the newly awakened 
Islands in the Pacific Ocean, in just the degree that their value 
would increase the West India possessions would depreciate. By 
changing the route through the Isthmus of Panama, England 
would voluntarily resign into other hands those commanding 
maritime and naval stations which she has won at the expense 
of so much diplomacy, perseverance and wealth. The power 
and advantages of Saint Helena, Mauritius, Capetown, and the 
Falkland Islands, commanding the passage round Cape Horn, 
would be transferred to New Orleans and other Cities of the 



233 

United States bordering upon the Gulf of Mexico, to Cuba, 
Cfaagres, Panama, and the Marquesas Islands. 

By the present route around the Cape of Good Hope and 
through the Isthmus of Suez, she has a fair start with the best, 
and superior chance over most other nations for the Indies, and 
while her established power and superior marine in that region 
secures a preponderance in trade, better let well alone, unless 
she can gain superior advantage. 

The commerce of India in every age has been the source of 
the opulence and power of every nation that has possessed it ; 
by a silent and almost imperceptible operation, India has been 
through centuries the secret but active source of the advance of 
mankind, and while lying apparently inert in her voluptuous 
clime, has changed the maritime balances of Europe with the 
visit of every people that has sought the riches of her shores. 
Her trade imparted the first great impulse to drowsy and timid 
navigation — it revealed, in the direction of its coasts, region after 
region before unknown. Like the Genii in the fable, it still offers 
the casket and the sceptre to those who, unintimidated by the 
terrors that surround it, are bold enough to adventure to its 
embrace. In turn Phoenicia, Carthage, Greece, Rome, Venice, 
Pisa, Genoa, Portugal, Holland, and lastly England, has won and 
worn this ocean diadem ; Destiny now offers it to us. 



No. 9. 

Returns from the several Rail Road Companies, — shewing the 
names of the Stockholders, and the amount of Stock sub- 
scribed and paid in since the passing of the Act 12 Vict., c. 
29, for affording the Government Guarantee to Rail Roads, 
(excepting that for the Great Western, which embraces the 
whole amount of Stock subscribed.) 



234 



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244 

B. 

Alphabetical List of the Shareholders of the St. Lawrence 
and Atlantic Railroad Company, taken from the Company's 
Share Books, Gth August, 1851. 



Jean Baptiste Allard 

Robert Armour 

Armour & Ramsay 

Allison & Company 

James Adley 

Teavil Applet on 

C. Austin 

Robert Fisher Andrews... 
Francisco Joseph Alves. . 

W. Auld 

Alexander Arthur 

Charles Alexander 

James Armstrong 

James D. Adams 

Willard Ayer 

Gardner Ayer 

Carleton Ayer 

Enos Alger 

A. A. Adams 

Ezra Aldriek 

L. and Ira M. Aldriek 

Thomas C. Allis 

Andrew Armstrong 

Job Adams 

Stephen .Allen 

William Anns , 

Antoine S. Archambault. 

Henry Archbald 

L. Arebambault 

Thomas Bell 

Hon. Joseph Bourret 

Hon. Francis P. Bruneau. 

.lean Bruneau 

Joseph Boulanget ... 

F. X. Brazcau 

F. M. Belinge 

C. A. Braulj 

Jean Baptiste Brousseau., 

A. Burroughs 

F. B. Badeaux 

John Boston 

Tailored Bouthillier 

O. T. Bruneau 

J. TJ. Beaudry 

Carried Forward 





4 
24 

30 
10 
4 
2 
4 
2 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
6 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
4 
2 
4 
2 
4 
4 
10 
10 
4 
6 
4 
4 
12 
4 
2 
10 
10 
4 
8 


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Four 

Two 

Fo-:r 

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Four 

Four 

Two 

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Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

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Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Four 

Two 

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Two 

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Four 

Ten 

Ten 

Four 

Six 

Four 

Four 

Twelve 

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four " 




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232 


Shares. 



245 



Shar s St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continue:/. 



"Brought Forward 

Charles Bowman 


232 
4 
4 
2 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
4 
2 
4 
2 
4 
4 

10 
2 
8 
4 
2 
2 
2 
4 
4 
2 
4 
2 
2 
4 
8 
4 
2 
4 
2 
6 

20 
2 
2 
2 
4 
2 
4 
2 

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10 

2 

10 


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Two 

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Eight 

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Four 

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Six 

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Two 

Two 

Four 

Two 

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Two 

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...Shares. 
it 


Budden & Vennor 


« 


John C. Beeket 

Samuel Benjamin 


tt 


F. Benoit 


a 


Catamis J. Buel 


(< 


Joseph Bertheaume , 


t< 


Louis Joseph Beliveau 


H 


Louis Blaehe 

Thomas Bell.... 

William Phillip Bennett 

G. 11. Brown 


(C 

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tt 


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tf 


Therese Berthelet 


ft 


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J. L. Beau dry 

A. Brault & Co 


tt 


Joseph Beaudry 


a 




ft 


William W. Brown 


c. 




ft 


Loui -• Blanctiard 

William M. Brown 


ft 
U 


Plessis Bellair 


(f 


Louis R. Plessis Bellair 

L. P.Boivin 


t< 

u 




ft 


David Brown 


If. 




u 


William Benjamin 


u 


Joseph Brassard 


ft 


Straohau Bethune.... 


.< 


Joseph Beaubien 


tt 

u 




ti 


Robert Balfour 


tt 




tt 


E. Baird 


tt 


J. Bastien 


tt 


Lambert Bleau 


ft 




t< 


Robert Bennett 


t.< 


George Busbv 


it 


Louis B irsalo 


tt 


William Bristow 


tt 






Carried Forward; 


438 


....Shares. 



246 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued, 



Brought Forward 

Campbell Brvson 

British Amciican Land Company. 

Samuel Brooks 

William Brooks 

Charles Brooks 

Warren Betts 

Peter Bowen 

John C. Burbeek 

G. E. and A. Brown 

John S. Bacon 

llichaid Baldwin.. 

Levi Baldwin 

Ebenezer Bacon 

Azro Bliss 

C. A. Bailey 

John Bellows 

George W. Brooks , 

Lotes Baldwin... , 

Gardner Boynton , 

O. G. Brown 

Martin Bissell 

Joel Baker 

Simon Beat tie 

John Both well 

Nelson Bartlett 

Moses Bamett 

L. C. Ball 

A. P. Ball 

Aaron T. Bangs , 

Chailes B Barton. 

Jesse P. Boynton 

Eli Bangs 

Ebenezer Barry , 

T. C. Butler 

James Bairie 

David Ball 

Henry Beeket 

John W. Baxter 

James Brodie 

Leonard K. Burton 

Maurice Buckley 

Charles Beauregard 

Edward Benoit 

Leonard Boivin 

Alexander Bell 

Black, Wood, & Company 

Carried Forward 



438 




Sh 


ares. 


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4739 


< Seven Hundred 






( & Thirty 


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6441 


lares 



247 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Drought Forward 

Thomas Hell Blyfhe 

Doctor Thomas Uoutillier 


6441 
4 
4 
42 
2 
10 
2 
10 
4 
4 
10 
20 
4 
4 
• 4 
6 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
4 
16 
4 
4 
4 
2 
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2 
2 
2 
2 
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2 
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6789 


Four 

Four 

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Two 

Ten 

Two 

Ten 

Four 

Four 

Ten 

Twenty 

Four 

Four 

Four 

Six 

Four 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Four 

Sixteen 

Four 

Four 

Four 

Two 

Four 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Six 

Twenty 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Four 

Four 

Eighty 

Four 

Four 

Sixteen 

Six 

Two 


....Shares. 


John Brooke 


a 


Hilaire Rcrrner 


<( 


C. S. Chert ier 


u 


C. J. Coursoil 

George E Cartier 


(C 

a 


Doctor James Crawford 

Andrew Cowan 


a 

41 


W. F. Coffin 


a 


Carter, Cowan, & Company 


«( 


Cowan & Cross 


i< 


R. Campbell 


a 


Francis Clarke 


a 


S. and YV. Charles 


<< 




a 


C. Cormier 


« 


K. C. Chevalier 


<( 


James Clark 


« 




it 


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K 




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t< 


II. and H. Corse 


4< 


Alexander Cro*s 


(( 


John Caverliill 


a 


Moses Carter 


a 


James ClafFey 

Abraham Clement dit Lariviere 


M 




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(( 


Louis Catis 


[( 


Madame Catis 


(1 


James Cooper 


(« 


John Chester 


( 


'William Connelly 


M 




it 


Joseph Cheney 

William Christie. .. 


U 

a 


Rev. M. Charbonel 


u 




u 


Thomas Edmond Campbell 


u 




u 


W. C. H. Coffin 


(( 


Lewis Comte 


a 


C. B. Cleveland 


(C 




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Shares. 



248 



S i ( holders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Brought Forward.... 

Charles Comstock 

David Conn ell 

Joseph C. Chase 

Squire Colby 

Jonathan Cutting 

Luke Chadduck 

John C. Cooke 

Bingham Caswell 

Levi Cleveland ... 

William Cleveland 

Norman Cleveland 

Samuel Cleveland 

Asaph Converse 

E. Clarke 

Jonathan Converse 

Ezra Caswel 

Aaron Corby 

Halsey CK-veland 

Edmund Cox 

C. B. Cleveland, jun. ... 

John Chillas 

M. T. Cushing 

M. F. Colby 

W. G. Cook 

Nehcmiah Clarke 

Cushman Clarke 

IT. Cuitis 

Norman Cleveland 

Caroline Cherrier .. ... 
Francois Charon.. 

F. Cadoret 

Antoine Ccte 

F. V. Cadicux...., 

E. Cartier 

Chadsell& Brother 

Margaret S. Charlebois 

Walter Colqnhoun 

Etienne A. Dubois 

Magloire Dennoyer ... 

N. Dumas 

Alplionse Damon 

L. A, Desaulles 

George Desbanvts 

Benjamin Delisle 

A. M. Delisle 

A. A. Dorion 

John Dunlop 

William Dunlop 

Carried Forward...... 



6789 
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2 
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249 



Ihareholders Si. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Go. — Continue-?. 



Brought Forward 

K. B Desmarleau 


7039 

8 
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2 
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10 
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4 
6 

10 

2 

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2 

2 

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10 

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2 

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40 

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Eight 
Two 
Two 
Two 
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Forty 
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Eight 
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..Shares. 

u 


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u 


John J. Day c 


l< 


A. Desmarais 

C. M. Dclisle 


a 


James Dooelan 


(( 


H. Dickenson 


u 


Hugh Darraugh 

John Dods 


•< 

(« 


L. T. Drummond 

William Don 


(( 
u 


Doctor Dorion 

lYter Warren Dease 


a 
u 


Jedn Bap list e Dubue 


a 




u 


Jacques Desautcl 


it 

It 


M. Durand 

D. Davidson 

S. A. Poherty 

Thomas L. Pou'.ney 


(i 

tl 
a 
a 
l( 


J he lion. S. De Leaujeu ... 


it 


Aaron H. David 

L. B. Derrick 


a. 


Ebenezer Damon 


a 


James Doak 

Simon M. Deunison 


a 
a 


V. illiam Delancy 


n 


John Druramond 

Lucius Doolittle 

Matthew Dixon 


u 
u 
M 


Hiram David 


is 


Dudley Davis 


a 


Madame IXetbontenack 

Laurent Dufresne 


a 
a 


Boucher De la Bruyere 


a 


James H. Douglas 


K 


Davignon & Prefontaine 


u 


Kenneth Dowde 

James l)<>w r ie 


« 


William Dow 


I. 


Dow Si Company 


n 


Solicitor General Thomas Evans 

William E.im on stone 


a 
a 


Robert Eastoo 


a 


John Llenry Evans 


a 


Pierre E!ie 


u 






Carried Foiward 


7485 


. Shares. 



250 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



B ought Forward 

Hercules Ellis 

llobrrt Elliott 

Andrew Elliott 

Robert Elliott 

John Elliott 

Hiram Ed-all 

William EI. Edington 

John Edingtoii 

W . E w a n , 

William Easton , 

Phillip Eail 

Olivier Freehetle 

John Frothingham 

J. B ; Forsyth 

William Forsyth 

W. Footner 

C. R. Fabre ].. 

William Footner 

Olivier Faureau 

Arthur Fisher 

John Follenus 

William Francis, Junior 

James Ferrier. Junior 

George Fellers 

Martin Farley 

William Henry Fleet 

Francois Fournicr 

Thomas Foley 

fame's Foster 

James Fitzpatrick 

John Fraser 

Felix Fortier 

John Feeroi) 

George Fullum 

Charles F. Fowler 

Edward Franklin 

Daniel Forde 

Archibald Ferguson . 

David Ferguson 

Justine Freniere 

John Ford 

W T il!iam Farwell 

Gladden Farwell 

Wenthop Fox 

William Fling 

Hiram French 

Joshua Foss 

George K. Foster 

Carried Forward 



7485 




....Shares. 


2 


Two 


M 


4 


Four 


" 


2 


Two 


II 


4 


Four 


u 


2 


Two 


a 


6 


Six 


it 


20 


Twenty 


l< 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


II 


8 


Eight . 


it 


4 


Four 


II 


10 


Ten 


(1 


50 


Fifty 


u 


20 


Twc nty 


II 


20 


Twenty 


(( 


10 


Ten 


u 


10 


Ten 


t< 


4 


Four 


II 


4 


Four 


II 


4 


Four 


it 


4 


Four 


u 


4 


Four 


it 


10 


Ten 


" 


2 


Two 


II 


2 


Two 


(.<■ 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


i< 


6 


Sx 


II 


2 


Two 


u 


4 


Four 


't 


6 


s; x 


(I 


10 


Ten 


11 


4 


Four 


11 


2 


Two 


if 


2 


Two 


K 


2 


Two 


u 


4 


Four 


(I 


4 


Four 


u 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


(I 


2 


Two 


(1 


2 


Two 


11 


2 


Two 


II 


2 


Two 


I. 


2 


Two 


II 


2 


Two 


(1 


8 


Eight 


It 


— . 






7771 




...Shares. 



o-; 



51 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Brought Forward 

John Farwell 

Moses S. Field 

A. T. Foster 

Jonathan Field & Son 

Alonzo Field 

William L.Felton 

William French and Son 

Joseph Fitehett 

Daniel Fisher 

A'.vin Farwell 

Samuel Gerrard 

Baron Grant 

Benaiah Gibb 

Gillespie Moffttt & Company .... 

J. E. Guiibeault 

John Greig 

Jerome Greiiier 

J. B. Germain 

A. Giard 

Crawford Glen 

T. A. Gibson 

John Gainer 

T. J. Green 

John Gibson 

Francois Gibeault 

William Gutm 

William Graham 

Jean Gariepy 

Galarneau & Rov 

P Goulet '. 

C. Gareau 

Ettiene Guy 

John Glennon 

John George 

Margaret Gibson 

N. H. Goselin 

Charles Garth 

Ge rge Garth 

Joseph Grenier 

Robert Godfroy 

James Goudie 

John Gordon 

Reverend Jean Francois Gagnon, 

Noah Glidden , 

Reuben Green , 

Richard Gunning , 

Jacob Gilson , 

Sawyer Gould , 

Carried Forward , 



7771 




Shares. 


2 


Two 


« 


2 


Two 


(C 


4 


Four 


t( 


12 


Twelve 


u 


2 


Two 


a 


24 


Twenty 


■four " 


2 


Two 


« 


2 


Two 


it 


40 


Forry 


« 


2 


Two 


" 


20 


Twenty 


a 


80 


Eighty 


a 


10 


Ten 


u 


GO 


Sixty 


u 


8 


E-ht 


a 


2 


Two 


« 


4 


Four 


« 


4 


Four 


4' 


2 


Two 


" 


2 


Two 


It 


4 


Four 


u 


2 


Two 


(C 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


a 


2 


Two 


i. 


2 


Two 


•• 


2 


Two 


u 


4 


Four 


c 


4 


Four 


u 


2 


Two 


'• 


4 


Four 


u 


10 


Ten 


a 


10 


Ten 


u 


4 


Four 


•t 


2 


Two 


a 


2 


Two 


K 


2 


Two 


a 


2 


Two 


M 


4 


Four 


a 


2 


Two 


a 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


H 


2 


Two 


M 


2 


Two 


(( 


2 


Two 


(( 


2 


Two 


a 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


.1 


8139 




Shares. 



252 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Brought Forward , 

T. D. Gilbert 

Elisha Gallup 

John Griffith 

John G. Gil man , 

Asa Gaylord 

George F. Gates , 

Alexander T. Gait 

John Gait 

James Grisam 

Joseph Gaouette 

Grant, Hall & Company .... 

Thomas Gainfort 

Noel Guertin 

Michel Gaudctte 

Ephraitn Hudon 

Louis Haldimand 

Henry Harkin 

Benjamin Holmes 

R. A. A. Richard Hubert .. 

George Hall ,... 

George Heron 

William J. Holmes 

Hudon & Lessieur 

John Hutchison 

Bobert Hick 

James Honeyman 

William Hutchison 

Joseph N. Hall 

Howard & Company 

J. W. Herbert & Company 

Lewis J. Harkin 

Edward Ilogan 

A. Button 

John Honey 

E. & V. Hudon 

John Hodges 

Thillip Holland 

Leon Hurteau 

George H arding 

Reverend H. Iludon, V. G. 

Adam Higo 

Levi Elodgkipson 

E. Ha uselman 

Benjamin Hall 

George Hart 

Michel lloule 

Robert Harwood 

John Hilton 

Carried Forward 



8130 




.. Shares. 


2 


Two 


it 


2 


Two 


it 


2 


Two 


it 


4 


Four 


u 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


u 


60 


Fifty 


f. 


8 


Eight 


a 


2 


'1 wo 


u 


2 


Two 


t. 


4 


Four 


u 


4 


Four 


tt 


o 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


u 


4 


Four 


" 


4 


Four 


t. 


2 


Two 


tt 


10 


Ten 


tt 


12 


Twelve 


It 


4 


Four 


t; 


4 


Four 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


4 


Four 


it 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


4 


Foui- 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


4 


Four 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


10 


Ten 


tt 


6 


Six 


tt 


4 


Four 


tt 


4 


Four 


tt 


4 


Four 


tt 


10 


Ten 


tt 


4 


Four 


n 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


«t 


6 


Six 


tt 


2 


Two 


«c 


8 


Eight 


it 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


4 


Four 


tt 


14 


Fourteen 


tt 


8379 




...Shares. 



253 



Shareholders Si. Lawr 



Brought Forward 

Paul Hitchcock 

Lewis P. Unison 

: ; ! Hans- 

Sumner Hitchcock 

Beaumont Hitchcock 

Edward Halo 

Samuel P. Harvey 

Horace Hovey 

C. A. Hodge 

Wells U. Hodge 

E Iward Hitchcock 

Lewis Hai son 

Mecijah Hanson 

. . H. Hill 

Tavlor Hacket 

Henry Hollister 

Phinehas Hubbcrd 

j. M. Hubberd 

Henry Hubbcrd 

Hazen Hazeltine , 

William Honey 

Hogue & Deslandcs 

James Hutton 

Margaret Higy;s , 

y How 

C.Hager 



Richard Harrison .... 

Jesse Joseph 

Joseph Junes 

F. G. Johnson 

t Idler 

Thomas Ireland 

James Johnston 

Pierre Jodoin 

Robert Irwin 

Pierre Jolie 

Henry Jackson 

James Irwin 

Thomas Jenkins 

Jonathan Jordan , 

Reverend C. Jackson. 

Joseph Ives 

Ira Jamicson 

Eli Ives , 

Henry J. F. Jackson 

Helen Jamicson 

Robert Kirk up 



Carried Forward 



c Railroad Co.— 


-Continued. 


i 

8379 1 




Shares. 


4 1 


Four 




•' 


2 I 


Two 




CC 


2 ! 


Two 




it 


2 


Two 




( 


2 


Two 




a 


44 


Forty-four 


u 


6 


Six 




(C 


2 


Two 




(C 


2 


Two 




(( 


2 


Two 




cc 


2 


Two 




cc 


4 


Four 




u 


2 


Two 




a 


2 


Two 




« 


2 


Two 




a 


2 


Two 




« 


10 


Ten 




u 


2 


Two 




(( 


2 


Two 




(C 


2 


Two 




a 


2 


T wo 




c. 


2 


Two 




a 


4 


Four 




cc 


6 


Six 




(l 


6 


Six 




cc 


584 


( Five Hundn 

I ■ \^v \ •■-'our 


d& 

a 


20 


Twenty 




u 


!0 


Ten 




cc 


22 


Twenty 


-two 


ct 


4 


Four 




c. 


10 


Ten 




a 


2 


Two 




<( 


4 


Four 




cc 


10 


Ten 




cc 


2 


Two 




cc 


4 


Four 




cc 


10 


Ten 




(C 


4 


Four 




CC 


2 


Two 




" 


2 


Two 




c; 


10 


Tea 




(C 


2 


Two 




cc 


2 


1 wo 




CC 


2 


Two 




CC 


42 


Forty- two 


cc 


6 


Six 




cc 


12 


Twelve 




.c 


92G3 







. Shares. 



234 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Brought Forward 



Thomas Kay & Company 

William Kelly 

H. Klik patrick 

A. Kierskowski 

A. W. Kendrick 

A. O. Keillum 

Shcrburn Kesar 

Hugh Kennedy 

Ira King 

Simon Kenser 

Edward King 

Ebenezcr Kilborne 

Albert Knight 

Samuel Knight 

Alexander Kilborne 

John Ki iller 

Margaret Krrr 

B. LI. Lenioine 

II. Lionais , 

P. Joseph Laeroix 

J. C. H. Laeroix 

Ovide Leblanc 

P. E Leclere 

James Logan 

W. E. Logan 

Alfred Larocque 

P. Lamothe 

M. Laframboise 

Lemesurier, Routh & Company. 

A. & T. Lesperance , 

Charles Lefebre 

H. Laviolette , 

J. M. Lamothe 

C. Lamontagne , 

F. Leblanc 

John Lovell 

George Lulham 

C. M. Leprohon 

Theodore Lyman 

James Lewis 

J, A. Labadie 

Louis R. Lappare 

Mark Lefevre 

Leandre Lafontaine 

Germain Leblanc 

Thomas Logan 

Jean Gaspard Laviolette 

W. F. Leste 



Carried Forward, 9629 



2G3 


Share 


20 


Twenty " 


2 


Two '• 


4 


Four " 


4 


Four '• 


10 


Ten " 


4 


Four ' 


2 


Two u 


2 


Two " 


2 


Two " 


2 


Two 


2 


Two " 


2 


Two 


10 


Ten 


4 


Four " 


20 


Tw ntv " 


2 


Two 


6 


Six 


4 


Four " 


4 


Four u 


4 


Four " 


4 


Four " 


2 


Two " 


8 


Eight 


82 


Eighty-two " 


40 


Forty " 


42 


Fortv-two " 


2 


Two " 


4 


Four " 


10 


Ten " 


4 


Four " 


2 


Two " 


2 


Two 


2 


Two " 


4 


Four " 


2 


Two * 


2 


'I'wo ** 


4 


Four M 


4 


Four " 


2 


Two •* 


2 


Two " 


4 


Four 


2 


Two 


2 


Two 


2 


Two 


4 


Four 


4 


Four 


10 


Ten 


4 
29 


Four 
Share 



255 



Shareholders St Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Conlimicd, 



Brought Forward 

James II. Lamb 

F. Leelair 

Edward Lamarche 

Benjamin Lyman 

Thomas Little 

The Honorable L. II. Lafoutaine..., 

J. I). Lneroix 

Louis Longpre 

G. D. Lamarche 

Thomas Laing 

Etienne L'Afhcain 

C. P.Ladd 

Henry Lyman 

II. Lappare 

R. Latham 

A. Ltvigre 

Tou-saint Labelle 

Charles E. Levey 

Joseph Lougee 

Benjamin Leberoran 

Z. G. Legendre 

Willis D. Lambkin 

Kros Li bonrveau 

Orson Lindsay 

Adam Loomas 

K. II. Lebanon 

Isaac T. Lyndsay 

Ralph Lindsay 

Galen Lothrop , 

Joshua 1 amb , 

Thomas Lock , 

Edward LoDgmore 

Charles Libbec & William Dresser, 

Edwin Lothrop 

Francis Loomas 

Erastns Lee 

Leon Langmond 

Noah Lawrence 

L. R. Lacoste 

J. M. Lamothe , 

Veuve Leclere , 

John Lowe , 

Et Leclere , 

Isaac Langelier , 

L'Esperance 

F. M. Lemire 

The Honorable A. N. Morin 

Robert Mackay 

Carried Forward 





96-29 




Shares. 




20 


Twenty 


" 




10 


Ten 


ii 




2 


Two 


ii 




10 


Ten 


u 




2 


Two 


II 




20 


Twenty 


II 




8 


Eight 


II 




2 


'I wo 


II 




4 


Four 


It 




4 


Four 


H 




2 


Two 


II 




4 


Four 


(1 




10 


Ten 


" 




2 


Two 


" 




4 


Four 


(1 




2 


Two 


I; 




2 


Two 


11 




100 


One Hundred '* 




8 


Eight 


M 




2 


Two 


11 




4 


Four 


u 




2 


Two 


II 




2 


Two 


II 




2 


Two 


It 




G 


Six 


it 




2 


Two 


II 




4 


Four 


II 




2 


Two 


II 




2 


Two 


(1 




2 


Two 


II 




2 


Two 


(I 




2 


Two 


II 




2 


Two 


M 




2 


Two 


II 




2 


Two 


It 




40 


Forty 


a 




2 


Two 


a 




2 


Two 


M 




2 


Two 


II 




2 


Two 


II 




2 


Two 


II 




•> 


Two 


11 




2 
2 


Two 
Two 


41 




II 




2 
2 


Two 
Two 


(I 




It 




40 


Forty 


11 








40 


Forty 


II 




10025 


.... Shares. 



256 



Shareholders St. Lawrence &, Atlantic Railroad Co. — Ctn'inued. 



Brought Forward , 

P. MaJot 

J. Macfarhne 

The Honorable George ft 

C. S Monk 

S. W. Monk 

The Honorable Peter McGill... 

Doctor M. McCulloch 

Henry Meyer , 

Thomas Mussen 

Henry Mason 

M. Moses 

Leon Malard 

J osep h Mar t e 1 

Edward Mercier 

Joseph II. Mead 

Francis McKey 

A Marion 

Louis Marchand 

J. H. Maitland 

Robert Morton 

George MeNamee 

John E. Mills . 

The Honorable William Morris, 

Michael T. McGrail 

G. Michon 

Archibald Macfarlane 

William Muir, Junior 

George Morton 

John Macrow 

Hugh McCulloch 

F. B. Matthews ..., 

Henry Mtnro 

Neil "Mcintosh 

Patrick Murphy 

Mrs. Major 

John McGregor 

William Murray 

Alexander McDonald 

Jam. s xMorrison 

M. A. Miller 

Robert Morris 

E. & II. Merrill 

William Moodie , 

Henry Mulholland 

Charles Mondelet 

G. H. Mead 

H. J. Meyer 

P. P. Martin 



Carried Forward 103G9 



10:25 




.Shares 


2 


Two 


u 


4 


Four 


" 


40 


Forty 


« 


20 


1 wenty 


tt 


8 


Eight 


ft 


40 


Forty 


" 


40 


Forty 


tl 


4 


Four 


M 


6 


Six 


(< 


4 


Four 


U 


4 


Four 


tt 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


ti 


2 


Two 


M 


6 


Six 


(( 


4 


Four 


(< 


2 


Two 


it 


2 


Two 


if 


4 


Four 


ft 


4 


Four 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


20 


Twenty 


tf 


10 


Ten 


it 


4 


Four 


tt 


4 


Four 


" 


4 


Four 


tt 


2 


1 wo 


tt 


4 


Four 


tt 


4 


Four 


tt 


4 


Four 


" 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


it 


2 


Two 


it 


4 


Four 


tt 


4 


Four 


it 


4 


Four 


tt 


20 


Twenty 


tt 


2 


Two 


it 


2 


Two 


it 


2 


Two 


it 


22 


Twenty-two 


it 


4 


Four 


tt 


2 


Two 


ft 


2 


Two 


h 


2 


Two 


" 


6 


Six 


" 


2 


Two 


it 


2 


Two 


tt 


103G0 


Shares 



2S7 
Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued 



Brought Forward 

George Mclver 

R. D. McPherson 

Pierre Moreau 

J. B. Mcilleur 

A. Macdonald 

John MeDouald 

Francis McNaraee 

Joseph Macnider 

Michael Moses 

George Merti 

A. McNaughten 

Isaac Moffatt, senior 

Charles Meakins 

Michael Menuagh 

M. Moses 

John It. MeLaren 

John MeUonald 

William S. Moss 

Bernard Maguire 

Morley 

Charles McHenry 

The Bishop of Montreal 

George MeDougal 

James Edward Major 

P. B. Merritt 

John Me Bean 

Bennett Mann 

Allen McDonnell 

D. L. McPherson 

Rev. M. Maicotte 

F. N. Malbceuf 

George McDonell 

John Moore 

William Morris 

A. S. Merrill 

Andrew MeCleary 

John Morse •• 

John McCulloch 

Benjamin Martin 

Morey, Hurd and Company 

William Mowles 

John MeConnell 

Daniel Martin 

Marsh Martin 

John N. Martin 

Ozro Morrill 

Hugh H. McGaw 

James McGaw 

Carried Forward .. 

R 



10369 




.. Shares* 


4 


Four 


ft 


2 


Two 


»4 


4 


Four 


<\ 


4 


Four 


H 


2 


Two 


If 


2 


Two 


a 


2 


Two 


h 


4 


Four 


t( 


4 


Four 


u 


2 


Two 


ft 


2 


Two 


ft 


10 


Ten 


«c 


2 


Two 


<« 


2 


Two 


it 


4 


Four 


(l 


2 


Two 


« 


2 


Two 


(C 


2 


Two 


.c 


2 


Two 


(t 


4 


Four 


ft 


6 


Six 


tt 


4 


Four 


it 


2 


Two 


u 


4 


Four 


cc 


20 


Twenty 


u 


20 


Twenty- 


<( 


4 


Four 


tc 


20 


Twenty 


re 


10 


Ten 


(« 


2 


Two 


(i 


2 


Two 


it 


20 


Twenty 


it 


20 


Twenty 


u 


4 


Four 


ft 


2 


Two 


(t 


6 


Six 


It 


2 


Two 


ct 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


M 


4 


Four 


tt 


2 


Two 


li 


2 


Two 


u 


2 


Two 


tt 


4 


Four 


ft 


4 


Four 


tt 


2 


Two 

•• "•••• 


tt 


10607 


....Share*. 



258 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Brought Forward 

D. W. Mack 

Henry M c(»affer 


10607 
4 
2 
6 
2 
2 
4 

20 
208 

10 
2 
2 

66 

10 
2 

24 
6 

14 

20 
2 
4 
4 

40 
2 
4 

10 
4 
2 
2 

10 
2 

10 

20 

10 
4 
8 
4 
8 

50 
2 
6 

10 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
6 
4 


Four 
Two 

Six 

Two 

Two 

Four 

Twenty 

Two huudre 

Ten 

Two 

Two 

Sixtv-six 

Ten" 

Two 

Twenty-four 

Six 

Fourteen 

Twenty 

Two 

Four 

Four 

Forty 

Two 

Four 

Ten 

Four 

Two 

Two 

Ten 

Two 

Ten 

Twenty 

Ten 

Four 

Eight 

Four 

Eight 

Fifty 

Two 

Six 

Ten 

Four 

Four 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Six 

Four 


Shares. 
ii 


Daniel Mansurn 


u 


W. 11. McCullougb 

William McGaffrey 


M 
t* 


D. (t. Morrison 


ll 


Sir D. McDougal 

William Molson 


M 

i & eight 


Edward Maitland, T\lee & Co 


Alexander Mclvor 


ll 
ll 


Thomas Molson 


M 


McLean and Wright 

Eusebe Messier 


l« 

M 


John H. R. Molson 


If. 


Claude McCallam 

D. Lorn Maedougall 


It 

• 1 
U- 


James Norton 


((- 


Doctor W. Nelson...... . 


li- 


Arthur Nicholson ...... 


lt 


Henry E. Nicolls 


it 


William Nunns 


It 


John Orr 

Andre Ouimet 


It- 


Michael O'Meara 


tt 




i. 


William R. Orr 

John Ostell 

Thomas O'Brien 


It 
it 

ci 


Robert O'Brien 


n 


Hubert Pare 


It 


A. Frevost 


it 
tt 


J. F. Pelletier 


tt 


Ferdinand Perrin 


u 


George Piatt 

Charles Phillips 


w 

it 




It 


C. D" Proctor 

D. E. Papineau 


tt 
11 


John Piatt 


ft 


Edward Payne » 


11 


Charles Pigeon 


il 




(t 


Rev. V. Plinquet 


tl 




11 


Edward Goff Penny 


u 






Carried Forward 


11253 


Shares. 



0* 



51) 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Rai 


read Co.— 


-Continued. 


Brought Forward 


11255 

2 

6 
4 
2 
2 

20 
2 
4 
2 
4" 
2 
4 
8 

40 
2 
2 
2 
4 
2 
2 
4 
2 

2 
2 
2 
4 

40 
6 

10 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

10 
4 
4 

40 
2 
4 
4 

10 

10 

10 
4 
2 

11559 


Two 
Six 
Four 
Two 
Two 

Twenty 
Two 
Four 
Two 
Four 
Two 
Four 
Eight 
Forty 
Two 
Two 
I'wo 
Four 
Two 
Two 
Four 
Two 
Two 
Two 
Two 
Four 
Forty 
Six 
Ten 
Two 
Two 
Two 
Two, 
Two 
Two 
Two 
Ten 
Four 
Four 
Forty 
Two 
Four 
Four 
Ten 
Ten 
Ten 
Four 
Two 




Alfred i'revost 


It 


August IYrrault 

O. IYrrault 

Arthur Perry 


II 
tt 
(1 


William Patton 


(( 


AlfVe l Pinsoneault 


tc 


Pierre Paquin 


tf 




It 


Laira Patton 


tt 


Walter Piendergast 


tt 




II 


Richard Philben 


II 




It 


Bonj iiiiin Pomeroy 


II 




II 


Charles PeDDoyer 


II 




It 


Alfred G. Parker 


tt 




It 


John II. Pope 


If 


Caleb Putnay 


11 


Lucius D. Pope 


II 




II 


Andrew Patton 


It. 




II 


James Peasely 


tt 




(( 


Hazen Pomeroy 


II 


Quarters PonrurQy 


it 


Warren Page 


(I 




It 


Joseph Prefontaine 


IC 


■ Papineau 


w 


Joseph Pilotte 


*t 


Charles Picard 


II 


Frederick Ployardt 


ft 


F. A. Quesnel 


It 


Rouer Roy 


It 


A. Rambau 

Robertson, Masson and Company 

Andrew Robertson 


tt 
It 
tt 


Thomas Rattray 


It 




tt. 


Mrs. Colin Russell 


It 


William Rodden 


It 


Elizabeth Robertson 


tt 


W'illiam Robinson 


•t 


L. A. Robitaille 


tt 


Carried Forward 


...Shares. 



2G0 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Brought Forward 

Elizabeth L. Russel 

Joseph Ross 

David Rea 

G. Reinhardt 

Jean Baptiste Kollin 

Alexander Ronald 

Francois Ricard 

George Roy 

Hypolite Raza 

John Riddle 

Louis Renaud 

Jean Baptiste Renaud ., 

Alexander Roy 

Alexander Rea 

^William Ritchie 

George Rea 

Salvin Richardson 

Henry Richardson 

Samuel Richardson .... 

A. 1). Rand 

Simon F. Rankin 

Joseph H. Rankin 

C. P. Reid 

C. A. Richardson 

Lewis E. Rose 

George II. Rose 

Donald Ross 

Pierre Robitaille 

Patrick Roe.. 

Joseph Savage 

Alfred Savage 

Charles E. Shieler 

Andrew Shaw • 

Joseph Shutcr 

Thomas A. Stayner .... 

Fleury St. Joan 

L. V. Sicotte 

The Hon. James Smith. 

H. B.Smith 

Simeon and Terroux .... 

D. Senecal 

J. H. Springle , 

John Smith 

Charles Smith , 

William Snyder 

Rice Sharpley 

D. Savage^ 

Jean Baptiste Sancer... 



Carried Forward 11895 



11559 




Shares. 


2 


Two 


H 


4 


Four 


ti 


4 


Four 


M 


4 


Four 


It 


2 


Two 


ii 


2 


Two 


«( 


2 


Two 


« 


2 


Two 


(i 


2 


Two 


if 


4 


Four 


ft 


4 


Four 


(( 


2 


Two 


ii 


4 


Four 


ft 


10 


Ten 


ti 


4 


Four 


ii 


2 


Two 


it 


2 


Two 


f. 


2 


Two 


ii 


2 


Two 


ti 


2 


Two 


ii 


2 


Two 


'4 


2 


Two 


H 


4 


Four 


ii 


2 


Two 


<( 


50 


Fifty 


ii 


2 


Two 


ti 


2 


Two 


it 


2 


Two 


It 


2 


Two 


it 


8 


Eight 


tt 


4 


Four 


it 


10 


Ten 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


20 


Twenty- 


It 


84 


Eight v-four 


»t 


8 


Eight 


ti 


6 


Six 


it 


20 


Twenty 


li- 


4 


Four 


ft 


4 


Four 


tt 


2 


Two 


it 


10 


Ten 


tt 


10 


Ten 


ft 


2 


Two 


tt 


2 


Two 


tt 


4 


Four 


ft 


2 


Two 


it 


4 


Four 


tt 


11895 


. Shares. 



261 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Brousrht Forward 


11895 

4 

10 

4 

2 

2 

10 

10 

4 

4 

10 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

6 

100 

10 

10 

10 

2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

2 

4 

2 

2 

10 

4 

2 

4 

2 

2 

10 

44 

2 

4 

2 

8 

2 

10 

6 

2 

20 


Four 

Ten 

Four 

Two 

Two 

Teu 

Ten 

Four 

Four 

Ten 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Four 

Six 

One hundre 

Ten 

Ten 

Ten 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Four 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Ten 

Four 

Two 

Four 

Two 

Two 

Ten 

Forty-four 

Two 

Four 

Two 

Eight 

Two 

Ten 

Six 

Two 

Twenty 


.Shares. 


William Smith 

Sims and Column 


u 

(C 


Amable Simard 

S. C.Sewell 


u 


Kusebe Sene 


t« 


A. B. Stewart 


u 


Dugald Stewart 


u 


Jacob Stellcr 


u 


James Smith 

Doctor 11. P. Smith 


M 
cc 


A. Stevenson 


u 


George Stacey 


i( 


Daniel Sutherland 

H. St. Amour 


(( 
(( 


James Scott 


c; 




u 


G. B. Svmes 


d " 




u 


Thomas Steel 


u 




« 


G. G. Stevens 


u 


Sidney Spafford 

Jonathan Snow 


it 




u 


Joseph Smith 


(1 




(( 


J. B. Shirtliff 


tt 


David G. Sloan 


(( 


C. E. Stinson 


« 


Ichabod Smith 

Levi Spalding 


(( 
(( 




u 


William Smith 


(( 


Jean Baptiste St. Denis 


(t 


Pierre Solv 


u 


Robert Smith 


u 


Sir George Simpson 

Executors of William Smith 


i(. 
u 

t( 


C. W. Starnes 


t(. 


Rev. Benjamin Slight 


(1 


James Scott 


(( 


Henry S. Scott, Tutor to Minors Scott 


({ 
(( 




J 2261 









262 



Shareholders St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued, 





12261 

40 

40 

10 

20 

20 

20 

2 

4 

4 

6 

2 

2 

4 

12 

4 

2 

4 

8 

6 

6 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

6 

2 

4 

2 

12 

6 

2 

4 

4 

6 

4 

4 

4 

8 

6 

12575 


Forty 

Forty 

Ten 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Two 

Four 

Four 

Six 

'I'wo 

Two 

Four 

Twelve 

Four 

Two 

Four 

Eight 

Six 

Six 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

1 wo 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Six 

'I'wo 

Four 

Two 

Twelve 

Six 

Two 

Four 

Four 

Six 

Four 

Four 

Four 

Eight 

Six 




John Torrance & Co..... .- 


n 


John Torrance 


il 


John M. Tobin 


CI 


Tait. Fowler & Co 


•• 


Hugh Taylor 


u 


Thomas M. Taylor 


u 


William Thomson 


<( 


Hu"h Thomson 


M 


J. 13. Tison 


It 


Major Taylor 

Ives 'lVssier 


it 
u 


J. B. Thomas , 


It 


Frai.cois Trudeau 


M 


Joseph Tiffin 


It 


John Thompson 


M 


A. Trudeau 


M 


Homer Taylor 


(( 


William Thompson 


u 


A. D. Taylor 


u 


Thomson and Son 


u 


Joel Tilden 


« 


Mitchell Taylor 


it 


Samuel L. Terrill 


u 


Samuel Tuck 


it 


John Thornton 


M 


Robert Trenholm 


{« 




a 


Charles Towle 


u 




it 


Timothy Ta}lor 


K 




K 


Albe Tife 

James Torrance 


a 

u 


J. V. Tetu 


u 




a 




K 


J. T Tetu 


u 




a 




u 


Elizabeth Ure 


K 




In 




K 




n 


The Hon. L. M. Viger 

Joseph Valle e » 






.. Shares. 



263 



Shareholders St- Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Brought Forward 

Rev. J. J. Vinet 

Frederick Veil 


12575 
10 
2 
2 
20 
4 
8 
20 
2 
6 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 
4 
4 
4 
8 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
6 
38 
4 
2 
2 


Ten 
Two 

Two 

Twenty 

Four 

Eight 

Twenty 

Two 

Six 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Four 

Four 

Four 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Four 

Two 

T wo 

Two 

Two 

Four 

Four 

Four 

Eight 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Two 

Six 

Thirty-eight 

Four 

Two 

Two 


.. Shares. 

SI 
K 


Robert Vincent 


ti 


Robert Weir ami Company 


II 


11. 11. Whitney and Company 


u 


Cand G. Wright 

•Miles Williams 


u 
il 


G. L). W.Uson 


M 


Charles Wilson 

George H. Wheeler ~ 

A. Wileott 


U 
U 

u 


Edward Wilson 


u 


John Whit law 


u 


Thomas Wallace 


M 


M. Whiteand Company 


u 


John James White 


K 


George Weeks 


u 


Benjamin Workman 


M 


John Wood and Son 


« 


Thomas Watson 

Charles E. Wurtele 


u 
u 


Luke Wadleigh ...*, 

Chester Woodward . 




Paul Whitcomb 


K 




It 


Sylvester Wheeler 


u 




«l 


John Wadleish 


M 


Joseph S. Walton 


« 


Eli White 


it 




a 


Daniel Way 


u 


David White .' 


<( 


Calvin Wilcox...., 


t( 




u 


Cahiu Wilcox, Junr 


il 


E. D. Whiteber 


u 


F. Whitaker 


it 


Edward Worth 


tl 


John Webster, Junr 


u 


W. W. Wadleigh 


a 


Benjamin Wyman 


u 


William Whiteford 


u 


Arthur C. Webster 


il 


Thomas Watson 


u 


George Young 


u 


David Young 


ti 






Carried Forward 


12787 


Shares. 



264 



Shareholders St Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Brought Forward. 

John Young 

Albert Young 

James Young 

John Zeigler ► 



Shares. 




Shares. 

Forty-four " 

Two 

Two * 

Four 

£ 320,975. 



Twelve thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine Shares of £ 25 each, 
making a total of three hundred and twenty thousand nine hundred and 
seventy-five pounds — all called in. 



Certified. 
Office of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic 
Railroad Company, 

Montreal, 8th August, 1851. 



A. C. WEBSTER. 

Secretary. 



Preferential Shareholders of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic 
Railroad Company. — 6th August, 1851. 



The City of Montreal 



5000 



Five thousand Shares. 



Five thousand Shares of £ 25 each, making a total of one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand pounds — all called in. 

Certified. 
Office of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic 
Railroad Company, 

Montreal, 8th August, 1851. 

A. C. WEBSTER,. 

Secretary.. 



265 



Abstract from the Books of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic 
Railroad Company. — Gth August, 1851. 



Shares subscribed 


12839 

5000 


® £25 each 

• 


£. s. d. 
320975 


Preferential Shares subscribed. 


125000 


Total onniber of Shares ) 
subscribed ) 


17839 















Amounting to £445975 

The whole of which has been called in and paid up 
bv the subscribers respectively, except an aggregate 
Balance of 34884 10 10 



The amount realized by the Company from Shares of 
Stock subscribed and paid.up prior to 6th August, 1851, 
is four hundred and eleven thousand and ninety pounds 
nine shillings and two pence £411090 9 2 



Certified. 
Office of the St, Lawrence and Atlantic 
Railroad Company, 

Montreal, 8th August, 1851. 

A. C. WEBSTER, 

Secretary. 



Shares in the Stock of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad 
Company, subscribed since the 30th May, 1849. 



Black, Wood & Co. 



4739 



Four thousand seven hundred 
and thirty-nine. 



Four thousand seven hundred and thirty-nine Shares at £25 each — all 
called in and paid up ; making a total sum of one hundred and eighteen 
thousand four hundred and seventy-five pounds. 
Certified. 

Office of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic 
Railroad Company, 

Montreal, 19th August, 1851. 

A. C. WEBSTER, 

Secretary, 



266 

Preferential Shares in the Stock of the St. Lawrence & Atlantic 
Railroad Company, subscribed since the 30th May, 1849. 



The City of Montreal 



5000 



Five thousand. 



Five thousand Shares of £ 25 each — all called in, and paid up ; making 
a total sum of one hundred and twenty-five thousaud pounds. 

Certified. 
Office of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic 
Railroad Company, 

Montreal, 19th August, 1851. 

A. C. WEBSTER, 

Secretary. 

J&ofe. — A considerable amount of Stock has been carried to the credit of the 
Contractors for work done since I gave my evidence before the Committee. 

JOHN YOUNG, 

Vice-President, 



6. 

QUEBEC AND RICHMOND RAILWAY. 

—No. 1.— 

RETm\ to an Order of the Standing Committee of the Legis- 
lative Assembly on Railroads and Telegraph Lines, — of the 
names of the Shareholders, and amount of Stoek subscribed 
in this Company. 



Names, 



Anderson and Paradis 
Andrews, Frederick ... 

Andrews, F. H 

Angers, Frs Real 

Armstrong, William ... 

Ardouin, George 

Ardouin, C. J 

Atkinson, He nry 

Auld, Joseph 



Baillairge, P. F. X 

Baldwin, William 

Baril, Etistache 

Bfeaudoin, Andre 

Beaudoin, Charles 

Beaumont, The Rev. P 

Bayne, D 

Benson, W J. Chapman 
j^ Thos. Benson, E 
Executor 

Benn. tt, Benson 

Benjamin, Henry 

Belleau, F. N.... 

Bmray, Daniel 

Biekell. Thomas 

Bissett, (George 

Bilodeau, Louis 

Bosse, J. B 

Bois, Fabu-n 

Borrowman, Alexander 

Boisvert, Joseph , 

Boisvtrt, Joseph 

Bourke, Pierre, dit , 

Briset, Michel , 

Bouchc reau, Moise ..... 

Browne, Sackville 



an,") 



Residence. 



Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Speneer Wood 
Quebec 



do 

do 

Arthabaska 

Somerset 

do 

St. Jean 

Leeds 



New Liverpool 



Quebec 

do 

do 

Leeds 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Warwick 

Drummondville 

Somerset 

do 

do 

Kingsey ,. 



No. of 
Shares 



Carried Forward... 172 



10 
2 
1 

10 
2 
2 
1 

10 

10 

1 
2 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 

80 

1 
5 

1 
1 
2 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
10 
1 
1 
2 



Amount, 



£ 

125 
25 
12 

125 
25 
25 
12 

125 

125 

12 
25 
12 
12 
12 
25 
25 






10 




10 



10 



10 

10 

10 







1000 





12 


10 


62 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


25 





50 





25 





12 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


125 





12 


10 


12 


10 


25 





2150 


10 



268 
Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued. 



Name. 



Brown, Robert 

Bourke, Jean Bpte 

Brown, William 

Brothers, Luke 

Buchanan, A. C 

Burnet, David 

Burroughs, Edward 

Burstall, Edward 

Bignell, William , 

Broekelsby, Henry , 

Blaiklock, George 

Blight, William 

Beswick, George 

Boisvert, Pierre 

Boisvert, Narcisse 

■ Joseph 

Boisvert, P 

Brousseau, J 

Brousseau, L 

Caron, The Hon. Rene E. } 

(President) ) 

Campbell, Archibald, senr.. 
Campbell, Archibald, junr. . 

Campbell, William D 

Campbell, John , 

Cassidy, Brothers , 

Carrier, Francois 

Carrier. Joseph , 

Casey, Thomas , 

Carbonneau, Jean Bpte 

Casault, N , 

Caulfield , 

Chabot, The Hon. J 

Chauveau, J. P. O , 

Cowherd, Samuel 

Chandonnais, Paul 

Chalmers, James 

Chartrain, Olivier 

Chipchase, John , 

Chretien, F 

Cbinic 

Clarke, Peter 

Clarke, Andrew 

Clarke, Charles , 



Residence. 



No. of 
Shares. 



Brought Forward .. 

Quebec 

Somerset 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Warwick 

do 

Somerset 

Stanfold 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Inverness 

Kingsey 

Quebec ., 

do 

do 

Drummondville 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

Barnstop 

Stanfold 

Quebec 

Drummondville 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do ...., 

Commissariat 



Carried Forward ... 309 



172 
1 
1 

1 
1 
2 
4 
10 
10 
2 
2 
2 
1 
10 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

10 

10 
2 
1 

2 
2 
2 

1 
5 
1 
2 
2 
4 
4 
20 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
4 
1 
1 
1 



Amount. 



£ 
2150 
12 
12 
12 
12 
25 
50 

125 

125 
25 
25 
25 
12 

125 
12 
12 
12 
25 
12 
12 

125 

125 
25 
12 
25 
25 
25 
12 
62 
12 
25 
25 
50 
50 

250 
12 
25 
12 
25 
25 
50 
12 
12 
12 



3862 



269 



Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued. 



Name. 



Cleveland, C. B 

Cleveland, C. 13. junr. 

Clint, J. 11 

Cloutier, Michel 

Cole, William 

Cote & Co 

Cook, S 

Colford, John 

Cook, Valentine 

Craig, George 

Cox, Colonel 



Craig, Thomas 

Crawford, Aeheson 
Coughlin, Richard, 
Comptois, Prosper. 
Cremajze, II. ().... 
Chapman, William. 



Residence. 



No. of 

Shares. 



Brought Forward 

Richmond 

Danville 

Quebec 

Somerset 

Quebec 

do 

Leeds 

Quebec 

Drummondville 

Leeds 

Kingsey , 

Quebec 

do 

• do 

Somerset , 

Quebec 

London, England . 



Dalkin, II. S. | Quebec . 

Dalkin, Edward I do 

Dawson, William do 

Dean, James do 

Demers, Modestc Somerset 



Daniels, Samuel 

Dinning, William 

De Foy, Charles 

Dorvai, Alexis 

Dorion and Garneau ... 
Douglas, Dr. James ... 
Douglas, Dr. George ... 

Donnelly, Daniel 

Duchesnay, Antoine J. 

Dumblin, L. B 

Dumas, Germain 

Dorian, Isaac 

Dunn, Timothy H 

Dubord, H 

Dussault, J. T., dit. ... 

Drapeau, Noel 

Drum, William 

Doran, William 

Desicard, S. A 



Eadon, William 

Evaoturelle, F., junr. 



Shipton .. 
Quebec ., 

do .. 

do ., 

do ., 

do . 

do . 

do . 

do . 

do ., 
Somerset 
Quebec . 

do . 

do ., 

do . 
Somerset 
Quebec . 

do . 
Stanfold . 



Quebec 
do 



Amount. 



Carried Forward. 



309 
2 

10 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
4 

20 

4 
4 
2 

5 

1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
5 
8 
1 
5 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 

2 

4 



429 



£ 

3832 
25 
125 
25 
12 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
12 
25 
25 
12 
12 
12 
50 
250 

50 
50 
25 
62 
12 
12 
25 
12 
25 
25 
62 
100 
12 
62 
12 
12 
25 
12 
25 
12 
12 
12 
25 
25 

25 
50 



5362 



2?0 

Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued* 



Name. 



Felton, William L 

Fiset, L 

Flint, B. J 

Flint, Simon 

Flint, Kendall 

Forsey, F. X 

Fraser, John Malcolm 

Fraser, Alexander 

Freehette, J. Bpte 

Freer, Noah 

Foster, George R (Director) 
Forsyth, James Bell, ? 

(Director) i 

Frye, A 

Forsyth, Joseph Bell 

Fitch, George 

Gngne, A 

Gahan, Thomas 

Garneau, Gaspard 

Gauthier, F. () 

Gauvio, Joseph 

Gaffry, Thomas 

Gibb, James 

Giblin, John 

Gillard, William 

Girouard, Joseph, fils 

Goulette, Francois 

Giroux, O. Pierre 

Glover and Fry 

Garnean, Bernard 

Gosselin, Guillaume 

Gowen, Hamond 

Graham, Henry 

Greig, Kobert 

Griffin, Thomas 

Guerard, Louis 

Grondon, Toussant 

Glass, Thomas 

Griffin, William II 

Gauthier, Augustin 

Girouard, Francois 

Groves, John 

Hale, Jeffery 



Residence. 



Brought Forward 

Aseot 

Quebec 

Shiptorj 

do 

do .., 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Richmond 

Quebec 

Windsor 

Quebec 

do 

Etchmin 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

Shipton 

Quebec 

do 

do 

Stanfold 

Arthabaska 

Quebec 

do 

Warwick 

Somerset 

Quebec 

Drummondville ..... 
Quebec 

do 

do 

Somerset 

Inverness 

Quebec 

do 

Stanfold 

Inverness 

Quebec 

Carried Forward., 



No. of 




Shares 


Amou 




£ 


429 


5362 


2 


25 


2 


25 


2 


25 


2 


25 


1 


12 


1 


12 


2 


25 


2 


25 


1 


!2 


5 


62 


10 


125 


10 


125 


1 


12 


1 


12 


1 


12 


2 


25 


5 


62 


1 


12 


1 


12 


1 


12 


1 


12 


10 


125 


1 


12 


1 


12 


2 


25 


1 


12 


2 


25 


5 


62 


2 


25 


10 


125 


4 


50 




12 




12 




12 


2 


25 




12 




12 


2 


25 




12 




12 


2 


25 


5 


62 


539 


6737 i 



10 



an 



Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued. 




Residence, 




Amount. 



Hall, II. G. 

Hatnel, J 

Haute! ami Frere 

Hardy, J B. 



Hargrave, James. 
Harvey, Jol 



Hawkins Alfred 

Healy, William 

Healy, Alexander 

Hebert, Noel 

Herbert, J. Theophile 

llea.lv, John 

Heart), Patrick 

Henderson, W. S 

Henderson, George .. 

Henry, J. \V 

Heroux, Olivier 

Holehouse, William .. 

Hoogs, W. II 

Hould, Isadora 

Hould, Isaac 

Huard, Benjamin 

Hunt, Josiah 

Hunt, Heirs The 

Hainel, Joseph 

Hould, Landry 

Hossack, J 

Hemming, A 



Brought Forward 

Leeds 

Qui bee 

do 

do 



Hardy, John [ Melbourne 



Jeffery, Thomas 

JerTery, Wm. H 

Johnstone, Francis 

Jolv, Le Sicur Gustave P.... 

Jones, John 

Jones, William 

Jones, H. N 

Joseph & Co 

Jordan, Widow E 



Kane, John 

Kellev, Daniel . 
Kelly^ Thaddeus 
King, Samuel .... 



Labranche, Joseph. 



Leeds 

Warwick.... 
Q.i. bee .... 
Richmond . 

do 
Arthabaska 

do 
Shipton .... 
Quebec .... 

do .... 

do .... 

do ... 
Arthabaska 
Quebec .... 

do 
Stanfold .... 

do 

Somerset 
Quebec 

do .... 
Cap Rouge 
Stanfold .... 
Quebec 

do 



do 

do 

do 

Lotbiniere 

Quebec 

Drummondville 
Quebec 

do 

do 



do 
do 
do 
do 



Kingsey 

Carried Forward. 



539 
2 
1 

4 
1 

2 
2 
4 
2 
1 

1 * 

1 
1 
1 
10 
1 

4 
1 
2 
4 
1 
2 

2 
10 
2 
1 
2 
2 

1 
5 
1 
110 
10 
1 
5 
4 
1 

1 
1 
2 
1 



752 



£ 
6737 
25 
12 
50 
12 
25 
25 
50 
25 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
125 
12 
50 
12 
25 
50 
12 
25 
12 
25 
125 
25 
12 
25 
25 

12 
62 
12 
1375 
125 
12 
62 
50 
12 

12 
12 
25 
12 

12 



9400 



272 

Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued. 



Names. 



Lackey, John 

Lafond, Moysc 

Lahaye, George 

Lampson, William 

Langevin, C. F 

Langlois, J 

Langlois, Peter, junr 

Leavcraft, J. W 

Laliiviere, Thomas 

Lagucux, Edouard 

LaFurgy, S. D * 

Lee, Thomas Conrad 

Lee, John & Co 

Lemesurier, Henry, ) 

(Director) ) 

LeMay, Anotole... 

Lemieux, F., M. P. P 

LeMoine, A 

Lepper, Paul , 

Lesperance, Alex 

Lindsay, Errol B 

Lissons, Robert 

Lillois, J. F 

Lloyd, Thos. W., (Director) 

Lambert, Pierre ., 

Lynnet, Patrick 

Lamothe, Augustin 

Leith, John 

Lachance, F 

Lemay, Gilbert 

Legare, Henry 




Brought Forward 

Grantham 

do 

do 

Quebec , 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Etchmin 

do 

Quebec 

Leeds 



Maguire, D.... 

Mahony, B 

Mackie, George, Rev. Dr.... 

Massue, Hon. Louis 

Marler, G. L 

Martineau, S. F. and M 

MacPhee, John 

Mackey, William 

MacPhee, James 

Maxwell, George 

McCaffrey, Hugh 

McCaig, Thomas *. 

McCallum, D 



Quebec 

Sfanfold 

Quebec 

do 

do 

Grantham 

Quebec 

New Liverpool 
Quebec 

do 

St. Nicholas ... 

Quebec 

Somerset 

Inverness 

Quebec 

Stanfold 

do 



Quebec 

do 

do 

do .... 

Drummondville 
Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Grantham 

Wickham 

Quebec 



Carried Forward ... 902 



No. of 

Shares 



Amount. 



752 
2 

1 
20 
4 
2 
10 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 

10 

1 
10 

1 

2 
2 
2 
2 

1 
10 
2 
1 
10 
1 
2 
2 
1 

1 
1 
5 
2 
10 
2 
2 
1 
5 
1 
4 
1 
5 



£ 
9400 
25 
12 
12 

250 
50 
25 

125 
25 
12 
25 
25 
25 
12 

125 

12 
125 
12 
25 
25 
25 
25 
12 
125 
25 
12 
125 
12 
25 
25 
12 

12 
12 
62 
25 
125 
25 
25 
12 
62 
12 
50 
12 
62 



11275 



273 

Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued. 




McDonald, Angus 

McDonald, S 

McDonnell, M 

Me Don gal!, James... 

roy, Thomas 

McHugh, Patrick 

McKeona, James 

McLean, Thomas 

McNaughton, John 

McTeer, Hugh 

Mercier, Frederick 

Mercier, I) 

Merrick, F 

ir, Robert J 

Menut, Henry 

Melrose, D. E 

Methot, Louis, Honble.... 

Methot, F. X 

Millar, George W 

.., R 

lachem, Donald 

Mountain, M. G , 

Mackie, Edmund P , 

Monti&arabert, Edward .., 

Murray, John , 

Murphy, J. M , 

Munroe, William 



MtKillop, Peter 

Mercier, D 

Muir, George William 

McDonald, Charles 

Murphy, Peter 



Nairn, John 

Nault, Augustin..., 

Noad, II. J 

Normand, Jacques, 

Nolin, Patrick 

Neil, John 



O'Brien, Patrick 

O'Connell, James .. 
O'Connell, Thomas 
Oliver, Thomas II. 



Brought Forward .. 

Portneuf. 

Drummondvillc 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

New Liverpool 

Leeds 

Somerset 

Quebec 

do 

Drummondville 

do 

Quebec 

do 

do 

Drummondville 

do 

Inverness, St. Agathe. 
Quebec 

do 

Montreal 

Quebec 

do 

Cap Rouge 

Inverness 

do 

Quebec 

Glasgow, Scotland 

Quebec 

do 



Murray Bay 

Stanfold 

Quebec 

do 

do 

Nelson, Inverness 



Quebec 
do 
do 
do 



Carried Forward, 
S 



902 

10 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
5 
2 
2 

10 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 

10 
9 

10 
1 
2 
4 
2 
8 
1 
1 
2 

10 

10 
2 

20 
2 
1 

5 
1 

10 
4 
1 
1 

2 

4 

1 

25 



£ 
11275 

125 
12 
12 
25 
12 
12 
62 
25 
25 

125 
12 
25 
12 
12 
12 
25 

125 

112 

125 
12 
25 
50 
25 

100 
12 
12 
25 

125 

125 
25 

250 
25 
12 

62 
12 

125 
50 
12 
12 

25 

50 

12 

312 



1094 13G75 



274 



Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued. 



Name. 



Residence. 



No. of 
Shares. 



Amount. 



Oliver, James G 

O'Malley, Andrew 

O'Neil, William 

O'Brien, William .. 

Paterson, Peter, ^ G. B. > 

Hall, Executor ) 

Poitras, Pierre R 

Parant, Antoine, Rev 

Paradis, Francois Xavier ... 

Paradis, Laurent L 

Parrott, Ambrose 

Pratte, Frs. Xavier 

Parent, Ant. A 

Parke, G. H 

Paterson, Yoting & Co 

Paterson, William 

Panet, Charles 

Parke, Andrew ,.., 

Patton, Duncan 

Parkin, John B 

Peebles, Philip 

Petry, William 

Peters, Simon 

Perkins, Stephen 

Peniston, Richard 

PentTand, W. G 

Pinard, Felix 

Perigard, Jean Verre., dit ... 

Pope, Thomas 

Poston, Charles 

Poston, William 

Poudrier, Gilbert Lemay ... 

Poudrier, F. L. 

Potts, E,& Co 

Prevost, Louis 

Phillippe, E. De 

Plunket, M 

Power, Richard 

Powell, William 

Price, William 

Patton, William 

Pope, Francis 

Prince, J. B 

Pelltier, Amable 



Brought Forward 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 



Montmorency 



Quebec ... 

do .., 

do .. 

do ... 

do ... 

Stanfold ... 

Quebec ,. 

do .. 

do .. 

do .. 

do ,., 

do ... 

do .., 

do .. 

do .. 

do .. 

do ... 

Shipton ... 

Quebec ... 

do .., 
Grantham 

do 

Quebec ... 

do ... 

do .., 

Stanfold ... 
Somerset 

Quebec ... 

do ... 

do .., 

do ... 

do ... 
Inverness 

Quebec ... 

T do . •" 
Warwick 

Stanfold ... 

Quebec ... 



1094 
4 
2 
1 

1 

115 

4 
2 

10 

10 
2 

10 
2 
2 

10 
4 
1 
1 
1 
4 
2 

10 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 

10 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 

10 
2 
1 
1 
1 



£ 
13675 
50 
25 
12 
12 

1437 

50 
25 

125 

125 
25 

125 
25 
25 

125 
50 
12 
12 
12 
50 
25 

125 
25 
12 
12 
25 
12 
12 
12 
12 
25 
25 

125 
12 
12 
12 
25 
12 
25 

125 
25 
12 
12 
12 



Carried Forward 1339 



16737 



275 



Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued. 



Name. 



Patterson, Hugh 

Pooler, Brothers 

Price, Thomas 

Quinn, William 

Rhodes, William, Captain ) 
(Director) . ) 

Roach, Dominiek 

Roach, Nicholas 

Robe, John 

Robert, Roberts 

Ross, Dunbar, M. P P 

Ross, G. M., Rev 

Ross, John 

Roy, William Henry 

Ro'urke, Francis 

Ross, Margaret 

Russell, Willis 

Russell, R. H., (Chief of\ 
Police) ) 

Ryan, Edward 

Rousseau, Francois 

Richard, Louis 

Ramsay, William 

Sadlier, Thomas 

Scott, Michael 

Scott, Henry S 

Sewell, Dr. James 

Sewell, John, Colonel 

Sharpies, John 

Sheppard, Wm., Honble 

Shaw, Robert 

Shaw, Richard J 

Simard, George II., (Di- ) 

rector) ) 

Sinjohn, Thomas 

Smeaton, Alexander 

Sleeper, Lewis 

Smith, Thornton 

Smith, John 

Smith, James 

Sinclair, Peter 

Steuart, D. R., (Director)... 



Residence. 



Brought Forward 

Quebec 

do 

Stanfold 

Quebec 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

New Liverpool .... 

Quebec 

Drummondville .... 
Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Somerset 

Stanfold 

Quebec 

Workham 

Cap Rouge 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

Wendover 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 

do -. 

do 

do 

Leeds 

Shipton 

Quebec 

do 



Carried Forward ... 1482 



No. of 

Shares. 



Amount. 



1339 
1 
2 
2 



10 



2 
1 

1 
5 

10 
2 
4 
4 
1 
1 

10 



5 

1 
3 

1 

1 
10 
8 
4 
2 
2 
3 
1 
2 

10 

1 
1 
1 
5 

10 
2 
2 

10 



£ 
16737 
12 
25 
25 

12 



125 

25 
12 
12 
62 

125 
25 
50 
50 
12 
12 

125 

12 

62 
12 
37 
12 

12 
125 
100 
50 
25 
25 
37 
12 
25 

125 

12 
12 
12 
62 

125 
25 
25 

125 

18525 



s. 

10 

10 

O 



10 





10 

10' 

10 









10 

10 



10 

10 
10 
10 
10 

10 





10 
10 
0' 



10 

10 

10> 

10 











276 



Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued. 



Name. 



Brought Forward 
Stuart, Andrew Quebec 



Residence. 



No. of 

Shares 



Stewart, Chas. Grey. 
Stevenson, Michael ., 
Stevenson, Matthew ., 
Stevenson, William...., 

Stavely, Edward 

Symes", George Burns 

Symes, Robert 

Sewell. William 



Taschereau, J. A 

Tait, Thomas 

Taylor, E. and J , 

Temple, Henry 

Terrien, Nicholas 

Terrien, Guiilaume .... 

Tessier, U. J 

Tetu, Lurent & Cyrus ., 

Tibbets, James 

Tiernay, Michael 

Tilstone, W. H 

Thibaudeau, E. M 

Thompson, James 

Trudelle, J. B 

Toomey, Edward 

Turner, James 

Tweeddell, Thomas .... 

Tweeddell, John 

Taschereau, J. Thomas. 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Quebec 

Melbourne. 
Quebec .... 

do .... 
Arthabaska 

do 
Quebec .... 

do .... 



Valleau, William B. 

Vaughan, David 

Vachon, J. B 

Von Extcr, J 



Wadleigh, W. W 

Wales, William 

Wainwright, Richard 

Walker, William, Hon 

Watts, R. N., M. P. P., 

(Director) 

Ware, William 

Wilson, Matthew J 

W T hitcomb, Silas , 

Wurtele, Christian , 



do 

do 

do '. 

do . 

New Liverpool 

Quebec 

Grantham 

Quebec 

do 

do 

do 



1482 
8 
5 

10 
1 

10 
2 

10 
1 
5 

3 
10 
10 
1 
1 
1 
4 
4 
1 
1 
2 
4 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
4 



Amount. 



Quebec 

do 

New Liverpool 
Quebec 



Kingsey Falls. 
Warwick .... 

Quebec 

do 



Drummondville 

Quebec 

do 

Shipton 

Quebec 



Carried Forward 



2 

1 
2 
4 

1 

1 

2 

10 

20 

2 

2 

1 

10 



£ 
1852o 
100 

62 
125 

12 
125 

25 
125 

12 

G2 

37 
125 
125 
12 
12 
12 
50 
50 
12 
12 
25 
50 
25 
12 
25 
25 
12 
25 
50 

25 
12 
25 
50 

12 
12 

25 
U5 

250 

25 

25 

12 

125 



1648 



20600 



277 



Quebec and Richmond Railway. — Continued. 



Name. 


„ . , ! No. of 
Residence. U ^ 


Amount. 




Brought Forward ... 
Qu<-'L)ec 

do 


1G48 
3 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

4 
2 

140 


£ 
2OG0O 
37 
12 
12 
25 
12 
12 

50 
25 

1750 


s. 



10 


Wolff, James F 


10 


do 


10 


Jefferv 


do 







do 


10 


Wales Nathaniel S 


Warwick 


10 


Yoiin°", David Douglas 


Quebec 





Youn ,v James R 


do 





Patcrson, Peter * 

Forsyth, James Bell 

Henderson, W. S 

Lampson, William 


" One Hundred and 
Forty Shares " are 
held by these in trust 
for parties in the 
Townships. To be 
reduced as the names 
of Subscribers are 
sent in 




Lloyd, Thomas W } 

Steuart, David R 

Scott, Michael 









Angers, F. Real J 








1803 


22537 


10 



E. P. MACKIE, 

Secretary, 



Quebec, August 14th, 1851, 



1). 

Return of the amount of Stock subscribed in the Brantford and 
Buffalo Joint Stock Railroad Company — the names of 
Shareholders — and amount paid thereon. 



Names of Shareholders. 



No. of 

Shares. 



Amount. 



Amount paid,being 
1st instalment of 
C per cent. 



P. C. Vanboocklin 

John Lovejoy 

M. H. Pruyn 

W. II. Clark 

Henry Lemon 

Sutherland Griffin 

John Kerby 

Southworth Cole 

Archibald Gilkison 

James Kerby 

Wellesley Johnstone.... 

Abraham Kerby 

Daniel M. Gilkison ... 
Andrew Higginbotham. 

Duncan McKay 

Ebenezer Roy 

Alexander Kirkland. ... 

Henry Racey 

Francis II. Leonard ... 

Walter Rubidge 

Reginald Hen wood 

John Turner 

Thomas Swan 

David Christie 

James F. Mair 

John M. Colver 

A. B. Bennett , 

Arunah Huntington .... 
Ignatius Cockshutt .... 

George S. Wilkes , 

John A. Wilkes , 

Richard R. Strowbridge. 

Thomas Botham 

James Christie 

Allan Cleghorne 

.Frederick F. Wilkes .... 



s Carried Forward 1098 



50 
75 
20 
15 
25 
12 
50 
10 
20 
20 
20 
10 
25 
11 
10 
10 
10 
5 
5 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
20 
25 
150 
150 
100 
50 
25 
20 
25 
20 
50 



£ 

250 

375 

100 

75 

125 

60 

250 

50 

100 

100 

100 

50 

125 

55 

50 

50 

50 

25 

25 

50 

50 

50 

50 

50 

50 

100 

125 

750 

750 

500 

250 

125 

100 

125 

100 

250 



s. d. 






































































5490 



£ s. d. 

15 

22 10 

6 
4 10 

7 10 
3 12 

15 

3 





6 

6 

6 
3 

7 10 
3 6 
3 
3 
3 
1 10 
1 10 
3 
3 
3 



45 
30 



3 

3 

3 

6 

7 10 
45 





15 

7 10 

6 

7 10 
6 

15 



329 8 



279 



Brantford and Buffalo Joint Stock Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Names of Shareholders. 



No. of 

Shares. 



Amount. 



Amount paid, being 
1st instalment of 
6 per cent. 



Brought Forward , 

John Comerford 

Allan Good , 

Fcancia Foster 

Abraham K. Smith , 

Joel U. Hayden 

Jonathan Hale , 

James Moore 

Henry Yaidington .... 

Peter Jones 

George Kabeock 

Henry A. Hardy 

Alfred Digby 

Thomas Grantham 

Alexander Diekie .... 
Charles C. Diekson . 

Henry Myers 

Clement G. Hanning. 

Robert R. Bpwn 

Joseph D. Clement . 
William Mc In tyre .... 

Garrett Terhune 

A. Brownson 

Willi mi Thompson . 

L. S. Wetherby 

Hezekiah Davis ...... 

Lyman Chaptn 

Edmund Christie .... 

Sylvester Day 

William Miles 

Hugh Asher 

Thomas Carhle 

John Armour 

William Scholfield .... 

Riehard Chambers 

Thomas T. Wiggins . 

Henry Penny 

E. W. Cleaveland .... 

Samuel C Davis 

Hezekiah Hyatt 

James Adams 

S. Darling 

William Wallace 



1098 

15 

5 

10 

25 

5 

5 

5 

50 

20 

40 

5 

10 

50 

5 

10 

5 

20 

10 

20 

6 

5 

40 

20 

20 

40 

25 

5 

10 

10 

10 

5 

10 

5 

5 

5 

20 

10 

20 

20 

5 

40 

10000 



£ 

5490 

75 

25 

50 

125 

25 

25 

25 

250 

100 

200 

25 

50 

250 

25 

50 

25 

100 

50 

100 

30 

25 

200 

100 

100 

200 

125 

25 

50 

50 

50 

25 

50 

25 

25 

25 

100 

50 

100 

100 

25 

200 

)0000 



s. d. 


£ 





329 





4 





1 





3 





7 





1 





1 





1 





15 





6 





12 





1 





3 





15 





1 





3 





1 





6 





3 





6 





1 





1 





12 





6 





£ 





12 





7 





1 





3 





3 





3 





1 





3 





1 





1 





1 





6 





3 





6 





6 





1 





12 





3000 



s. d. 

8 

10 

10 



10 

10 

10 

10 







10 







10 





10 







16 

10 









10 

10 





10 



10 

10 

10 

O 



10 





Carried Forward 11749 



58745 



3524 14 



280 



Brant ford and Buffalo Joint Stock Railroad Co. — Contin 



Names of Shareholders. 



rown- ~) 
L,-D. V 



Brought Forward .. 

William A. Routh 

George Hardison 

James Wads worth 

Aaron D. Patehin 

Philip C Vanbooeldin 

Barton Farr 

Thomas Boyle & Co... 

J. R. Brown 

Philip C. Vanbooeklin 

Municipality of the Town- 
ship of Brantford 
Christie, Reeve 

John H. Moore ... 

James Loughry 

James Wilkes 

John Heaton 

William Lenny 

G.W.Carlisle 

Hudson Kellog 

William Benson 

Levi Carter 

John Root 

William Dunn 

James Mclndoe 

The Municipality of the 
Township of Bertie, — 
Alex. Douglas, Reeve... 

John C. Clarke 

The Municipality of the ) 
Township of Canboro', V- 
— A. Bradshaw, Reeve. J 

Samuel Birdsall 

The Municipality of the") 
United Townships of J 
Sherbrooke and Moul- y 
ton, — L. J. Wether by, | 
Ileeve J 

Thomas Muir 

Mark Losee 

S. Amsden 

John Oldficld 

William Lines 



Carried Forward 23878 



No. of 

Shares. 



11749 

5 

5 

50 

50 

5180 

20 

40 

20 

570 

2500 

25 
15 
20 
20 

5 
10 
10 
10 

5 
10 

5 
50 

2000 

5 

400 

25 

1000 



10 
10 
40 
12 



Amount. 



£ s. d. 

58745 

25 

25 

250 

250 

25900 

100 

200 

100 

2850 



1250O 

125 

75 

100 

100 

25 

50 

50 

50 

25 

50 

25 

250 O 

10000 

25 

2000 O 

125 

5000 



10 

50 

50 

200 

60 



119390 



Amount paid, being 
1st instalment of 
6 per eent. 



12 

6 

171 



£ s. d. 

3524 14 

1 10 

1 10 

15 

15 

1554 

6 



750 O 

7 10 

4 10 

6 

6 
1 10 
3 
3 
3 
1 10 
3 
1 10 

15 O 

600 O 

1 10 

120 O 

7 10 

300 O 



12 

3 

3 

12 O 

3 12 O 



71G3 8 O 



281 



ntford and Buffalo Joint Stock Railroad Co. — Continued. 



Names of Shareholder: 



No. of 
Shares. 



Brought Forward 

William R Hurst 

Job Trip , 

Franklin P. Goold 

Robert Sproule 

'inior..-. 

pick Simpson 

John M. Tapper 

Luther Burley 

William Mathews 

A tteicl 

William Mellish 

John Russell 

Lewis Burwell 

The Town Council of the ] 
Town of Brantford, — > 
J. II. Moore, Mayor.... j 

The Municipality of the] 
Township of Wainfleet, > 
John Gray lie, Reeve ...J 

William Smith 

William McCleish 



23878 
5 

12 

10 

5 

5 

10 

5 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
5 

5000 



1000 

5 
10 

50000 



Amount. 



£ s. d. 

119390 

25 

60 

50 

25 

25 

50 

25 

50 

50 

50 

50 

50 

25 

25000 



5000 

25 

50 



150000 



Amount paid, being 
1st instalment of 
6 per cent. 



£ s. d. 

7163 8 

1 10 

3 12 

3 

1 10 

1 10 

3 

1 10 

3 



3 

3 

3 

3 

1 10 



1500 



300 

1 10 
3 



9000 



I certify that the above Return is correct. 

ARCHIBALD G1LKISON, 

Secretary B. & B. R. R. Co. 
Bbantfobd, 

9th August, 1851. 



E, 



List of Stockholders of the Champlain and St. Lawrence Rail- 
road Company. 



Names. 



No. of Shares of 

£ 50 each, 

paid in full. 



No. of Shares of 
£ 50 each, payable 

by instalments 

of ten per cent., 

annually. 



Abbott, Rev. William 

Allan, Hugh 

Armour, Robert 

At water, E 

Baker, William 

Blake, Ann 

Blenkley, William .... 

Bolton, Capt 

Brooke, John 

Boston, John 

Boulanget, Joseph .... 
Brewster, Benjamin . 
Buchanan, James.... 
Burns, William 

Cameron, J. I) 

Carter, John 

Cameron, Angus .... 

Cameron, T. C 

Campbell, II. R 

Cors •, R. and II 

Cotton, Estate C. C. . 
Conolly, Estate Wm. . 
Cringan, Margaret.... 

David, M. E 

Delislc, A.M... 

Debeaujeau, G. R. S. . 
Donegani, Joseph .... 

Finlayson, D 

Forbes, C. J 

Frothingham, J 

Carried Forward. 




912 



24S 



283 



Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad Company. — Continued. 



Names. 



Brought Forward 

(laic, I Jon. S 

Gerrard, Samuel 

Gregory, Mrs. P. P 



Ilowden, C. & C. 
Ilovle, James .... 



Joseph, J. H. 

Keith, James 



Langan, Estate Juliana 
Langao, C 

Leslie, Alexander 

Leslie, Miss G 



No. of Shares of 
£ 50 each, 

paid in full. 



912 

53 

2 

13 

23 
3 

9 

22 

1 
5 

29 
4 



No. of Shares of 
£50 each, payable 

by instalments 

of ten per cent, 

annuallv. 



Lyman, William 


15 

14 

17 

6 

11 

179 

29 

23 

11 

29 

22 

14 

16 

15 

14 

9 

4 

63 
30 

11 
5 

1 


14 


Macdonald, William 


14 


Macdonald, James 


17 


Mailer, L 


7 


MeGill, lion. P 




MoJsoOr-John 


179 


MeBoneTI, Allan 


29 


Mcintosh, William 




McTavisb, Estate J. G 




McBean, John 


6 


.McMillan, John 




McDonald, Archd 




MeKenzie. J. G 


16 


Mills, Mrs. H 


14 


Mills, Estate J. E 


15 


Mountain, J. S. S 

Mussen, Thomas 


9 
4 


Phillips, Estate, W. S 

Phillips, Charles 


63 
30 


Ramsey, Rev. J 




Robertson, Mrs 


5 


Rogers, Rev. E. J 


1 






Carried Forward 


1614 


8C9 



248 

53 

2 



23 
3 

18 



1 
5 

29 
4 



284 



Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad Company. — Continued. 



Names. 


No. of Shares of 

£ 50 each, 

paid in full. 


No. of Shares of 
£50 each, payable 

by instalments 

of ten per cent. 

annually. 


Brought Forward 


1614 

11 

9 

81 
63 
17 

29 

21 

5 

23 

22 
6 

21 

4 

47 

6 

7 

14 


809 


Rowand, John 




Robertson, Rev. D 




Russel, Miss G 


81 


Russel, Hector 


69 


Russel, Miss C 


17 


Siveright, John 






21 


Smith, J. B 


5 


Tiffin John 


3 


Tovey, Alexander 


22 


Townshend, H 


6 


Whitwell, Rev. R 


21 


Wood, Rev. S. S 

Workman, William 


4 

47 


Workman, William, (President) 

Workman, Thomas 


7 


Yale, J. M 








- 


2000 
£ 100,000 


1112 
£55,600 
Subscribed since 
the passing of 
Act 12, Vict, 
ch. 29, none 
of which is yet 
paid or due. 



Montreal, 

August 9, 1851. 



W. A. MERRY, 

Secretary. 



Cii*ari©> Siaicos and Hurou Kail Read Union Cosupiiiji 



•:o: 



wn to an order of the Standing Committee of the Legislative 
Assembly on Railroads and Telegraph Lines ; of the names 
of the Shareholders, and amount of Stock subscribed in the 
above Company, and the amount paid up. 



Subscribers' Names. 



Honourable Henry John ") 
Boulton, M.P.P S 

Jos C. Morrison, M. P. P 

Fred. C Capreol , 

George Barrow 

Hugh Scobie 

John Fisher 

B. W. Smith 

Bowes and Hall 

John Hilly ard Cameron, { 
M. P. P } 

Robert Baldwin, 

George T. Denison 

P. Yunkoughnet , 

Jonas T. Bush , 

Alexander Ogilvie & Co.. 

Gilmor and Colson 

John Arnold 

W. A. Baldwin 

Whittcmorc, Rutherford ) 
& Co J 

Jamea Browne 

Joan Ewart, jun 

Hayes, Brothers 

Shaw, Turnbull & Co 

John McMumeh 

William M. Gorrie 

Walker and Hutchinson , 

Joseph Becket & Co 



Number of Shares. 



One hundred 

One hundred 
One hundred 
One hundred 
One hundred 
One hundred 
One hundred 
One hundred 

One hundred 

One hundred 
One hundred 

Fifty 

Fifty 

Sixty 

Sixty 

Forty 

Forty 

Thirty 

Thirty... 

Thirty 

Thirty 

Thirty 

Thirty 

Thirty 

Thirty 

Thirty 



Amnt, 

of i 
Stock. ! 



One thousand "} 

six hundred and > 

seventy. J 



500 J 

500 !l 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 I 

500 | 

500 | 

500 ! 

500 ! 

250 ; 

250 
300 
300 
200 
200 

150 

150 
150 
150 
150 
150 
150 
150 
150 



8350 



Instalment 
paid in. 



12 

12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 

12 

12 
12 

6 
12 

7 
7 
5 
5 



215 



10 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 

10 

10 

5 

10 

10 

10 





15 

15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 



286 



Ontario, Simcoc and Huron Railroad Union Co. — Continued. 



Subscribers' Names. 



Number of Shares. 



Amnt. 

of 
Stock. 



Instalments 
paid in. 



Brought Forward 



G. W. Allan 

J. S. Howard 

F. T. Wilkes 

William Hall 

Thomas Dick 

R. H. Brett 

Thomas 1 la worth 

F.J. Fuller 

M. Rossin and Brothers. 

Betley and Kay 

Browne and Childs .... 

II. Fowler 

A. and S. Nordheimer ., 

Allan Cameron 

Edward Beckett 

Charles Lount , 

E. F. Whittemore 

Gooderham and Worts .. 

John Salt 

William Wakefield 

J. Lukin Robinson 

Jacques and Hay 

Robert Whitman & Co... 

Reid and Leith 

George H. Cheney 

Amos Bostwick 

William Proudtbot 

Thomas Clarkson 

E. and R. McPhail , 

J. Watson & Co , 

D. Macdonnell 

J. Joseph 

Samuel Gunn 

J. S. Playfair 

Thomas Shortis 

Joseph Rogerson 

William Grainger 

E. C. Jones 

Herbert Topping ...„,. 



Carried Forward 



One thousand 

J six hundred and 
twenty. 

Thirty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twtnty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty , 

Twenty , 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Twenty 

Fifteen 

Fifteen 

Fifteen 

Fifteen 

Fifteen , 

Fifteen , 

Fifteen 

Fifteen 

Ten 

Ten 

Ten 

Ten 

Ten 

Ten . 

Ten 



f Two thousand 
< three hundred and 



] 



£ 

8350 

150 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
75 
75 ! 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 



11750 



£ 
215 

3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
< 2 
2 
2 
2 
o 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 





15 
10 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 
5 

5 
10 

5 

5 

5 

5 



302 



d. 


















































6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

















237 



Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railroad Union Co. — Continued. 



Subscribers' Names. 


1 
Number of Shares. 


Anmt. 

of 
Stock. 

£ 

11750 

50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
30 
30 
30 
30 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 


Instalments 
paid in. 


Brought Forward 

Edward Shortis 


( Two thousand "} 

< three hundred and > 

{ fifty. j 

Ten 


£ 

302 























s. 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

15 
15 
15 
15 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 


d. 


o 


A M. Clark 


Ten 







Ten 

Ten 


o 


J T Mathews 


() 


Edward Godrich 


Ten 

Ten 


o 


J. lh'i lT 2S 


o 


Robert G. Dalton 


Ten 


o 




'Fen 


o 


A. Patrick 


Ten 


o 


Alex. Hamilton 


Ten 


o 




Ten 


o 


J. C.Collins 


Ten i 


o 


Owen & Mills 


Ten 


o 


John C. Bettridge 


Ten 


o 


John Hell i well 


Ten 


o 


H. Jackson 


Ten 


o 


Kivus 'Fully 


Ten 


o 


Patton & Co 


Ten 


o 


John B. Robinson, junior. 
Thomas Bell 


Ten 





Ten 





William Atkinson 


Six 


o 


Charles Robertson 


Six 


o 


James Henderson 


Six 


o 


Hugh Miller 


hix 


o 


Alex. Keefer 


Five 


6 


J. R. Mountjoy 


Five 


6 


R. C. McMullin 


Five 


6 




Five 


6 


Patton & Co 


Five 


6 
6 


John Ridout 


Five 


George Munro 


Five 


6 


J. Murphy & Co 


Five 


6 
6 
6 


Thomas Maclear 


Five 


John C. Bettridge 


Five 


Thomas Lawson 


Five 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


Robert Beekman 


Five 


W. B Phipps 


Five 


B. Torrance 


Five ........... 


George B. Spencer 


Five 






Carried Forward 


f Two thousand "} 
< six hundred and >' 
( forty -nine. J | 


13245 
1 


339 


12 


6 



283 



Ontario, Simcoo, and Huron Rail raid Union Co. — Con Li: 



Subscribers' Names. 


Number of Shares. 


Brought Forward 

W. J. FitzGcrald 


( Two thousand "i 
X six hundred and \ 
I forty-nine. 
Five 


George Thomas, junior.... 

S.Brough 

A. Rennie ... 


Five ; 


Five 

Five 


William M. Jamieson 




S. B. Smith 


Five 


A. Grant 


E. Bradburne 




J. Rogers Armstrong, jr... 
Cary & Brown 


Five 

Five 


W F. Meudell 


Five 


John S. Blogg 


Five 


Hiram Piper 

A. DeSaleburv 


Five 




A. Macdonald 


Three 


James Mey e rs 


Three 


Frederick Chapman 

Arthur Crampton 

11. F. Morris 




Three 

Three 


Thos. F. Carv 


Three 




Three • 


r l nomas Champion 




F. W. Coate 


Three 


James Ashfield 


John Anderson 


Two.... 


C. J. Francis 


Two , 


Robert Phillips 




John Hatten 


Two 


Is-iah Reed 


Two 


r lhomas D. Harris 






Five 

Five 


John W, Dempsey 


John Ritchey . 




John Cameron 


Ten 


His Lordship the Bishop ) 

of Toronto } 

George Herrick, M. D. ... 


Twenty 

Ten 




Five 


John Robertson 


£, Ive 

I wenty 








f Two thousand ") 
< eight hundred and > ! 
(_ sixty- two. J | 



Amnt. 

of 
Stock. 


Instalments 


made. 


s 1 


£ 


s 


d. 




339 


•12 


6 


25 





12 


6 


23 





12 


6 


25 







6 


25 





12 


6 


25 





12 


6 


25 





12 


6 


15 





7 


6 


25 





12 





25 





12 


6 


25 





12 


6 


25 





12 


6 


25 





12 


6 


25 





12 


6 


25 





12 


G 


15 





7 


6 


15 





7 


6 


15 





7 


G 


15 





7 


6 


15 





7 


6 


15 





7 


6 


15 





7 


6 


15 





7 


6 


15 





7 


G 


15 





7 


•o 


10 





5 





10 





5 





10 





5 





10 





5 | 


10 





5 


50 


1 


5 ; 


25 





12 


6 


25 





12 


G 


100 


2 


10 





50 


1 


5 





100 


2 


10 





50 


1 


5 





25 





12 i G 


100 


2 


10 | 


14310 


365 


5 


i ° 






nd Union Railroad Union Co. — Continued. 



Sub: ftgies. 


Number of Shares. 


Amnt. 

of 
Stock. 


Instalments 

paid in. 


Brought Forward 

, vVulkcr 


C Two thousand "J j 
I eight hundred and >| 
( sixty- two J 
Ten 1 


£ 
14310 

50 
500 
20 
50 
70 


£ 
365 

1 
12 

1 
1 


s. 
5 

5 

10 
10 

5 
15 


d. 





Cbas. Bcrczy 


One hundred 





R. B. Ritchards 


Four ' 





John Snarr 


Ten 





llcv. John Roai 


Fourteen ' 







i 






Three thousand Shares,' 


15000 


582 


10 






SUMMARY 



No. of Shares. 
3,000 



iu.uuo 






Subscribed in the City of Toronto by" 1 ] 

private individuals, as per List on I ,. , £ ft(i{) 
which Instalments have been paid, [ 
amounting to £382 10s. Od J 



Subscribed by the County of Simcoe,") 
payable in Debentures bearing inter 
est at the rate of six per cent, per 







annum, which Debentures are exe- I 
cuted and sealed, and placed in the f 
hands of the County Treasurer, to 
be used in accordance with agree- [ 
nient and contract J 



Subscribed by the Contractors, to be 
paid for in the execution of the work 
according to contract 



;j 



Amount agreed to be loaned by the") 
Corporation of Toronto, as per lie 
solution of the City Council, 18th 
August instant, accompanied by a 
letter from the Mayor to the M 
agcr of the Company, dated 
August, 1851 i J 



hy a )■ 
Man- 
25th | 



rat of Capital subscribed, indc 
pendent of the Government guar 
antee 



i] 



oOOOo 



150000 G 



35000 



250000 



290 

In addition to the foregoing, the following Donations have been made to 
the Company, viz. : — 

Gift of £25,000 by the Corporation of Toronto, as per Re- 
solution of the City Council, accompanied by the Mayor's 
certificate to the Company, dated 24th December, 1850, 
payable as the work progresses, in Debentures, bearing 
interest at the rate of six per cent, per annum ; together 
with a valuable site of Land in the City for a Station, and 
the Right of Way through a portion of the City. 

Gift of Andrew Mercer, Esq £ 25 O 

Gift of Mr. John Nasmith 5 

FRED. C. CAPREOL, 

Manager and Treasurer. 

Toronto, 

26th August, 1851. 



291 



(Copy.) 

A copy of the Resolutions of the Municipal Council of the City 
of Toronto, certified by Geo. Gurnett, Mayor of Toronto, to 
be correct and true. 

• RESOLUTION. 

* Resolved, — That the sum of twenty-five thousand pounds in 
" debentures "payable twenty years after date, with interest at six 
" per cent, per annum, payable half-yearly and granted in aid of 

* the " Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railroad Union Company" on 
" the conditions set forth in the second clause of the Report No. 
"21, of the Standing Committee on Finance and Assessments, 
<; and in order to extend the benefits of the said Railroad to all 

* parts of the city it be another condition of the above grant that 
" the terminus for passenger trains shall be erected on a portion 
" of the market block property, now vacant, such portion to be 

* leased to the Company at a nominal rent for ninety-nine years, 
" and that the lines of Railroad shall be carried along Palace and 
** Front Streets to the full extent of the City Water Lots. Second 
" condition in the Report referred to in the foregoing Resolution. 
u In the proposition as the work progresses, as one is to two, viz., 
** one hundred thousand pounds to be expended on the Road before 
" any advance is made by the Corporation, then debentures to be 
■ issued to the Contractors for ten thousand pounds, and that all 
" future advances be made in the same proportion to an amount 

* not exceeding the whole sum of twenty-five thousand pounds." 

Mavor's Office, 
Toronto, 24th December, 1850. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing Copy of the proceedings 
of the City Council of Toronto, in the matter to which it refers, 
is correct and true. 

(Signed,) GEO. GURNETT, 

Mayor of Toronto. 



292 

(Cop- .) 

To his Worship the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the 
City of Toronto in Common Council. 

The Special Committee to whom was referred the several 
communications of the President and Manager of the " Ontario, 
Simcoe and Huron Railroad Union Company," enclosed two 
propositions signed by John Arnold, Esquire, as Chairman of a 
meeting of a number of citizens held in this City on the 7th instant, 
suggesting the manner in which this Council should assist the 
said Company in making good the deficiency of thirty- five thousand 
pounds in the subscription allotted to this City, and asking the 
concurrence of this Council in the same in order that a work so 
immediately connected with the best interests of this City might 
at once advance to completion : — Beg leave to report : 

That upon the most attentive considerations given by your 
Committee to the propositions signed by Mr. Arnold as Chairman, 
and after frequent interviews with the manager as well as with 
one* of the contractors of the Company, Your Committee would 
recommend that in lieu of propositions (or either of them) this 
Council loan the said Company their debentures to an amount not 
exceeding thirty-five thousand pounds, payable in twenty years 
with interest on the same payable half-yearly issuable in the 
same ratio as the bonus of twenty-five thousand pounds, taking 
as security for such debentures the bonds of the said Company 
to the same amount payable in ten years with interest half-yearly 
secured on the Road to the satisfaction of this corporation upon 
the recommendation of the City Solicitor 

And further that it be a condition to this loan that the Road 
from this City to Lake Simcoe, or the Holland River, be completed 
in two years from the first of January next. 

And further that as long as the loan of thirty-five thousand 
pounds continues, the Mayor of this City for the time being (if he 
be not a Director in any other Company) be a Director in the 
above mentioned Company ;~*-if he be a Director in any other 
Company, then any Alderman in the City for the time being to 



293 

be nominated by this Council to be a Director in said Company. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

(Signed,) JOHN BEVERLY ROBINSON, Junr. 

Chairman. 

This Report was adopted by the Common Council of the City 
of Toronto, Monday, August 18th, 1851. 

(Signed,) CHARLES DALY. 



Mayor's Office, 
Toronto, August 25th, 1851. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing copy of the proceedings of 
the City Council of Toronto in the matter to which it refers is 
correct and true. 

(Signed,) JOHN G. BOWES, 

Mayor. 



Mayor's Office, 
25th August, 1851. 

Sir, — I have the honor to enclose a certified copy of the proceed- 
ings of the City Council on the application of the " Board of 
Directors of the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railroad Union 
Company" for a loan of £35,000 in aid of that work. 
1 have the honor to be, 
Your obedient servant, 
(Signed,) JOHN G. BOWES, 

Mayor, 
F. C. Capreol, Esq., 
Manager, 

Railroad Office. 



294 

G. 

Letter from the Secretary of the Montreal and Vermont Junc- 
tion Railroad Company, — in reference to the order of the 
Committee. 

Toronto, August 23rd, 1851. 
T. Patrick, Esq., 

Clerk R. R. Committee. 

Dear Sir, — I am at present unable to give the information re- 
quired in your esteemed letter, as the Montreal and "Vermont 
Junction Railway Company have been waiting for certain 
amendments now being made to the charter authorizing 
municipalities to take stock before taking up any further private 
subscriptions ; the precise amount of which it is impossible to 
give, as our stock lists are not together. The disbursements of 
the Company thus far are about five hundred pounds. The 
requirements of charter respecting survey and location of the 
line, and deposit of maps, plans and books of reference, and also 
legal notices to land owners upon the line, have been complied with, 
and it is confidently believed that within the time specified in 
the charter this valuable line of Railway will be built. 

Very respectfully, 

C. H. W. SEYMOUR, 
Secretary, M. and Vt. J. R. R. Co.